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Encyclopedia > Autism therapies

There is a broad array of autism therapies, but the efficacy of each varies dramatically from person to person. Progress toward development of medical and behavior modification remedies, for the more debilitating affects of autism, has been hindered significantly by widespread disagreements over such things as the nature and causes of autistic spectrum disorders, and by a relative paucity of efficacious therapies thus far recognized by medical authorities. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Biomedical intervention for autism consists of a wide range of therapeutic approaches for treating - and some say curing - autism in children, adolescents, and possibly adults. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ... For the Pet Shop Boys album of the same name see Behaviour Behavior or behaviour (see spelling differences) refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ... Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays of social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play, with onset prior to age 3 years, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ... The autistic spectrum (sometimes referred to as the autism spectrum) is a developmental and behavioral syndrome that results from certain combinations of traits. ...


With advances in psychosocial and pharmacological interventions, the behavioral and cognitive functioning of individuals affected by autistic disorders might improve. Intensive, sustained special education programs and behavior therapy early in life might increase the ability of children with autism to acquire language and learning skills. In adults with autism, some studies have found beneficial effects of the antidepressant medications clomipramine and fluoxetine, and the newer antipsychotic medications such as Risperdal and, more traditionally, the much older drug haloperidol, possibly due to the preponderance of co-morbid disorders in those with autism significantly adding to behavioural and functional challenges more than the autism itself. Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... Cognitive The scientific study of how people obtain, retrieve, store and manipulate information. ... A boy with autism and his mother Autism refers to a spectrum of disorders, and lies somewhere under the umbrella of a greater encompassing spectrum, that of pervasive developmental disorders that involve the functioning of the brain. ... Special education, also known as special ed or additional support needs, is instruction that is modified or particularized catering to students who have singular needs or disabilities, for example, because of mental illness or mental retardation. ... Cognitive therapy or cognitive behavior therapy is a kind of psychotherapy used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, phobias, and other forms of mental disorder. ... An antidepressant, in the most common usage, is a medication used to alleviate clinical depression or dysthymia (mild depression), including in the context of bipolar disorder. ... Clomipramine (brand-name Anafranil®) is a tricyclic antidepressant. ... Prozac redirects here. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Risperidone (Belivon®, Rispen®, Risperdal®) is an atypical antipsychotic medication. ... Haloperidol (sold as Aloperidin®, Bioperidolo®, Brotopon®, Dozic®, Einalon S®, Eukystol®, Haldol®, Halosten®, Keselan®, Linton®, Peluces®, Serenace®, Serenase®, Sigaperidol®) is a conventional butyrophenone antipsychotic drug. ...


In many cases, several medications will be tried unsuccessfully, and palliative drug treatments may lose much of their effectiveness for mitigating symptoms later in life. Distinguishing between beneficial, palliative and detrimental treatments is not always straightforward. Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ... Palliative care is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of the symptoms of a disease or slows its progress rather than providing a cure. ...

Contents

Behavioral and sensory integration interventions

Applied Behavior Analysis

A treatment and education of children with autism came through the application of the principles and techniques of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA). O. Ivar Lovaas's name is widely associated with ABA-based treatment, as he was one of the first psychologists to demonstrate that children with autism could learn language, play, social, self-help, and academic skills. The ABA method is highly disputed by many autistics, and is regarded useless by many others. Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a systematic process of studying and modifying observable behavior through a manipulation of the environment. ... Ole Ivar Lovaas is a clinical psychologist considered one of the fathers of Applied Behavior Analysis therapy for autism. ... A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ...

ABA'-based approaches—often referred to as Discrete Trial, Intensive Behavior Intervention, and ABA—are some of the best known and most widely used in the field, and focus on the development of attention, imitation, receptive and expressive language, play, social, and pre-academic, and self-help skills. Using a one-to-one therapist-child ratio and the "antecedent-behavior-consequence" (ABC) model, interventions based on this work involve trials or tasks. Each consists of (a) an antecedent, which is a directive or request for the child to perform an action; (b) a behavior, or response from the child, which may be categorized as successful performance, noncompliance, or no response; and (c) a consequence, defined as the reaction from the therapist, which ranges from strong positive reinforcement to a strong negative response, "No!"(Autism Society of America, 2001)[1].

Lovaas' ABA methods are widely regarded as the first scientifically validated therapy for autism. Early intervention, generally before school-age, seems to be critical to achieving optimal outcomes. The New York State Department of Health worked with a multi-disciplinary panel of autism experts to publish Clinical Practice Guidelines for young children diagnosed with autism. The panel reviewed research on a variety of treatment methodologies and cited ABA as a critical element in any intervention program for young children with autism. That same year, in the Surgeon General of the United States’ first report on mental health, intensive ABA based treatment was cited as an effective intervention for children with autism. The Autism Society of America, founded in 1965 by Bernard Rimland, Ph. ... Surgeon General can have several different meanings. ...


ABA techniques based on B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior claim to have succeeded in helping nonverbal children start to talk, typically going from zero words to several dozen. By allowing children to express their needs, even rudimentary speech can alleviate frustration and tantrums. Burrhus Frederic Skinner Burrhus Frederic B. F. Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Verbal Behavior (1957) is a book written by B.F. Skinner in which the author presents his ideas on language. ... A tantrum is an emotional outburst wherein higher brain functions are unable to stop the emotional expression of the lower (emotional and physical) brain functions. ...


The scientific validity of Lovaas's methods has been questioned by many professionals, by parents, and by those diagnosed as autistics themselves. Lovaas's initial studies looked promising, but there are no double-blind studies that compare the Lovaas approach against a control group not receiving ABA. Sallows and Graupner's 2005 study, which compared groups treated by professionals vs. parents, replicated the results of Lovaas, but found little difference in outcome between the groups. This study represents the most comprehensive and rigorous replication to date, and their findings nearly mirror Lovaas's. Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on living, conscious, human subjects. ...


Some people have made ethical challenges to autism treatment by pointing out that early ABA was based around the use of aversives and saying that these aversives can be confusing and/or painful.[2]. Aversives are not used in today's ABA therapy programs. Ethical challenges to autism treatment have been made by people who feel that autism therapies intended to be helpful are actually harmful to autistic people. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


ABA has come into widespread use in the 1990s, and the demand is outstripping the supply of committed and experienced service providers. As a result, parents of children need to be extra vigilant in choosing appropriate treatments for their children; this is especially so with regard to choosing providers, who may be inexperienced, use questionable methods or even deceive parents about their competency with ABA or any other program. Such problems have led to horror stories from some parents. [3] [4]


Computer use

Studies have suggested that computer use can help to calm children on the autistic spectrum, while stimulating their ability to communicate.[5] Autistic children may prefer interaction with a computer interface because they can actively control it, and therefore communication through this medium may be less threatening than face-to-face conversation. The autistic spectrum (sometimes referred to as the autism spectrum) is a developmental and behavioral syndrome that results from certain combinations of traits. ...


Non-profit group Autism and Computing[6], have proposed that monotropism, or very focused attention with a limited scope, is a primary feature in autistic spectrum disorders. It has been suggested that this attentional difficulty can be alleviated by the use of computers because the medium helps the user to combine different focuses of attention successfully, therefore helping the user in other areas as well. However, there is currently little evidence that the benefits of computer use do extend to other mediums. Monotropism and polytropism are different strategies in distributing attention in the brain. ...


Multisensory stimulation

Controlled multisensory stimulation, or snoezelen, is a therapeutic regime for people with severe mental disabilities involving exposure to soothing and/or stimulating light, color, scents and music in carefully controlled environments. Such sensory integration therapies have been used in the therapy of patients with autism diagnoses since the 1970s. They were developed in the Netherlands and are particularly popular in Germany. Also in Italy applications of snoezelen are proving effective in geriatric hospital departments (see Parma General Hospital [7]). Children with a handicap in a room designed for snoezelen at Het Balanske, Tielt-Winge, Belgium. ... Olfaction, the sense of smell, is the detection of chemicals dissolved in air (or, by animals that breathe water, in water). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ...


Neurofeedback

Neurofeedback may alleviate some of autism symptoms, according to a pilot study on eight children.[8] The therapy involves the placement of electrodes on the scalp and the training of individuals to control their own brain waves. After ten weeks of therapy, five of the children performed better on tasks involving imitation. Individuals with autism are thought to have mu wave dysfunction, associated with mirror neurons. These brain cells play a critical role in mimicking the behaviors of others and in development of the capacity for empathy and understanding of others. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic exploration of the electrical activity of the brain by the application of electrodes to the scalp. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Locations of mirror neurons A mirror neuron is a neuron which fires both when an animal performs an action and when the animal observes the same action performed by another (especially conspecific) animal. ... Brain cells incude mostly neurons and glial cells. ... For the fictional character, see Empath (comics). ...


Cranio Sacral Therapy

A form of Osteopathy used to relieve uneven soft-tissue pressure around the base of the scull in order to balance the flow of Cerebral Spinal Fluid to the brain. Cerebral Spinal Fluid feeds nutrition to the brain and assists in removal of toxins from the brain in the excretion process. Hence improving the flow and balance of the supply of this fluid to the brain is asserted to assist in information processing and other autism-associated challenges.


Non-coercive approaches

The autism rights movement has been criticized for promoting 'doing nothing' about autism. While clearly anti-cure, autistic advocates have pointed out that not forcing children to be something they are not is not equivalent to 'letting them do whatever they want', or not educating them at all. Given how much autistic individuals appear to be prone to stress, anxiety, nervousness and self-doubt, a number of non-coercive approaches have been proposed. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [2] and autistic liberation movement [3]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... In medical terms, stress is a physical or psychological stimulus that can produce mental or physiological reactions that may lead to illness. ... Anxiety is an pleasant complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to act by employing threat of harm (usually physical force, sometimes other forms of harm). ...


The Son-Rise program falls into this category, but it has a number of detractors. For one, there is no scientific evidence to validate it, and it is promoted in a way that seems to give a lot of unsubstantiated hope to parents. For example, proponents of the Son-Rise program claim that children will 'decide' to become non-autistic after parents accept them for who they are and engage them in play. The program was started by the parents of Raun Kaufman, who is claimed to have gone from being autistic to totally non-autistic. There are questions as to whether it is true that Raun Kaufman was autistic as a child, and also about the claim that "there is no trace" of his autism now. Overall, the goals of the Son-Rise program (i.e., removing the autism completely) are questioned, as well as the use of locked doors in order to keep children in the play area. Son-Rise is an autism treatment program developed by Barry Neil Kaufman and his wife Samahria Lyte Kaufman. ...


Economist Thomas Sowell, author of The Einstein Syndrome, is a major opponent of any form of 'early intervention' for children with certain characteristics (whom he considers wrongly labeled autistic), i.e. those who appear to be intelligent, are able to understand spoken language, and have several engineers or musicians as close family members. His observations are based on experiences with his own son (a late talker) and various anecdotal accounts. Sowell has been criticized for providing false hope, and there are cases he himself documents in his book of parents who followed his advice only to later find out that their children were not simply late talkers. Thomas Sowell Thomas Sowell (born 30 June 1930), is an American economist, political writer, and commentator. ...


An approach for dealing with autism which involves reducing stressful situations, and not trying to force the autistic child to change into someone he is not, is proposed in The Self-Help Guide for Special Kids and Their Parents by Joan Matthews and James Williams. James Williams is an autistic child who, with his mother's help, recounts much of his experiences through examples of possible problems encountered by parents of autistic children. The approach recommends, for example, not forcing the child into a mainstreamed schooling situation too early; trying to understand the problems caused by hypersensitivity and adapting to them; allowing the child to cope with stress by stimming; helping the child develop left-brain thinking; and so on. This approach is close to something that would be acceptable to autistic advocates. Matthews and Williams believe that certain symptoms that are regarded as autistic are actually normal human responses to stress, and that programs that attempt to reduce these symptoms may make the autism worse by taking away the individual's ability to react in a normal fashion to discomfort. Matthews firmly believes in the importance of establishing a primary bond between an autistic child and his parent, and from that bond, social interest and learning can eventually occur. She feels that ABA and other behavioral interventions can possibly turn the parent and child into adversaries, or create a master-servant relationship in which the parent commands and the child learns to obey unthinkingly. This, she believes, makes intimacy much more difficult later in life, and can lead to the gullibility and passivity that autistic people are often noted for. Matthews allowed Williams to remain out of school after the fifth grade, and now eighteen, he has gone on to become a sought-after speaker at autism conferences and support groups. However, his outcome has the danger of giving false hope to parents. What worked well for Williams may not work equally well for everyone. James Williams is the name of several notable people: James Williams (1740-1780), U.S. Revolution, Colonel from South Carolina James Williams (1825-1899), U.S. Congressman from Delaware James Williams (1951-2004), Jazz Pianist This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... Stimming is a behavior observed in people who have Aspergers syndrome or autism. ...


Relationship Development Intervention

Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a treatment program developed by Dr. Steven E. Gutstein. Whereas ABA aims to teach appropriate replacement behaviors, self-help skills, verbal behavior, academic skills, fine motor, gross motor, and social skills, directly, RDI focuses primarily on building the "dynamic intelligence" that underlies the acquisition of social skills demonstrated in neurotypical children. It also focuses on the building blocks of motivation by developing episodic memory (seen as impaired in autism) and filling it with the child's own personal stories of competence and mastery. RDI emphasizes declarative (as opposed to imperative) communication, and aims for an appropriate balance of verbal and nonverbal communication. Relationship Development Intervention (RDI) is a trademarked proprietary treatment program for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a term used to describe a person whose neurological development and state are typical, conforming to what most people would perceive as normal. ... Episodic memory, or autobiographical memory, a sub-category of declarative memory, is the recollection of events. ...


Dr. Gutstein claims that 70% of his patients improved their ADOS score within 18 months and that a similar proportion are able to enter school without a shadow teacher or other personal assistant. To date no peer-reviewed published research exists. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Son-Rise

Main article: Son-Rise

The Son-Rise program was developed by Samahria & Barry Neil Kaufman, who founded the Option Institute to promulgate their more general philosophy upon which the Son-Rise program is partially based, and to provide training in this treatment approach. It is a home-based program with emphasis on eye contact, accepting the child without judgment, and engaging the child in a noncoercive way. The Association for Science in Autism Treatment (ASAT)[9] maintains a description of the Son-Rise Program.[10] Son-Rise is an autism treatment program developed by Barry Neil Kaufman and his wife Samahria Lyte Kaufman. ... The Option Institute was founded in [1983] by Barry Neil Kaufman and his wife Samahria Lyte Kaufman. ... Socrates (central bare-chested figure) about to drink hemlock as mandated by the court. ...


Criticism about the Son-Rise program revolves around the fact that there are no scientific studies that validate its claims. Critics have also pointed out that it may provide "false hope" to desperate parents.


The Institutes for The Achievement of Human Potential

The Institutes for The Achievement of Human Potential[11], established in 1955, is a nonprofit organization dedicated to improving the health and development of children who have some form of brain injury, including children diagnosed with autism. The IAHP claims that many children show improvement with a home program consisting of a healthy diet, clean air, and respiratory programs, without the need for medication. The IAHP publishes the results of its treatment for over 1700 children on its website. A non-profit organization (often called non-profit org or simply non-profit or not-for-profit) can be seen as an organization that doesnt have a goal to make a profit. ...


Biomedical interventions

Many parents and medical professionals have reported improvements in the behavior of autistic children enrolled in special diets, detoxification therapies, and a range of treatments, collectively known as biomedical intervention for autism. In 1995, The Autism Research Institute brought together a group of about 30 physicians and scientists to share information and ideas toward defeating autism as quickly as possible. This became known as Defeat Autism Now!, which comprises a network of doctors whose goal is to educate parents and clinicians about biomedically-based research, appropriate testing and safe and effective interventions for autism. Biomedical intervention for autism consists of a wide range of therapeutic approaches for treating - and some say curing - autism in children, adolescents, and possibly adults. ... The Autism Research Institute (ARI), established in 1967 by Bernard Rimland, is a San Diego, California, based nonprofit that funds research and provides information on autism and related autistic spectrum disorders. ...


Some of these claims are contested by other specialist doctors, who fear that the failure of conventional medicine to address parental concerns, and the meager resources committed to scientific research, has led to autism becoming a magnet for quacks and charlatans. Look up Quackery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Quack, which redirects here, may also refer to the vocal noise made by a duck. ... The Charlatans could refer to two bands The Charlatans, a United States band The Charlatans, a British band, sometimes known in the US as Charlatans UK This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The premise for biomedical intervention is that certain neurological disorders including autism are caused by environmental shocks that compromise the gastrointestinal, immunological and neurological systems. Based on this premise, what is often diagnosed as autism or PDD is seen as a physiological syndrome that can and should be treated as a physiological disorder. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ...


This point of view is consistent with wider evidence that diet and nutrition can affect behavior generally, but there is no medical literature evidencing claims that autism can be fully cured. Many of the most prominent researchers and advocates of biomedical therapies in autism have autistic children of their own and have been driven by their own experience of seeing their own children improve to devote their time to helping others. These include Dr. Bernard Rimland, who is seen by many as the godfather of biological interventions in autism. Bernard Rimland, Ph. ...


There is plenty of anecdotal evidence to support biomedical intervention - most parents who try one or several therapies report some progress, and there are many anecdotal stories of children who have undergone these programs and become seemingly completely neurotypical, able to return to mainstream education, and/or made dramatic improvements in health and well-being. However, this evidence may be confounded by the dramatic improvements often seen in autistic children as they grow up, with or without such interventions. There are calls for more research including double-blind studies to test the relative efficacy of the different treatment approaches, and the light they might shed on the nature of autism. Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on living, conscious, human subjects. ...


As an example, the use of high doses of vitamin B6 with or without magnesium is gaining popularity among parents. Some studies do validate its effectiveness; including some double-blind ones.[12] However, there appear to be some significant risks associated with high doses of vitamin B6, including peripheral neuropathy. Some people argue that vitamin B6 only helps children in the following groups: Pyridoxine Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ... Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on living, conscious, human subjects. ... Pyridoxine Vitamin B-6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Peripheral neuropathy is the medical term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. ...

  • Those with nutritional deficiencies, which can benefit from multivitamins in general; autistic children are notoriously fussy eaters.
  • Those with vitamin B6 deficiency (related to seizures.)

A multivitamin is any preparation containing more than a single vitamin. ... This article is about the medical condition. ...

Detoxification

Based on the speculation that heavy metal poisoning may trigger the symptoms of autism, particularly in small subsets of individuals who cannot excrete toxins effectively, some parents have turned to alternative medicine practitioners who provide detoxification treatments, via chelation therapy, as a treatment method. However, evidence to support this practice has been anecdotal and not rigorous. Furthermore, there is strong epidemiological evidence that refutes links between environmental triggers, in particular thimerosal containing vaccines, and the onset of autistic symptoms. This is not to say that mercury and thimerosal cannot cause autism, just that there is no data to support the connection[13] A heavy metal is any of a number of higher atomic weight elements, which has the properties of a metallic substance at room temperature. ... It has been suggested that Complementary and Alternative Medicine be merged into this article or section. ... Detox, short for detoxification, in general is the removal of toxic substances from the body. ... Chelation therapy is a process involving the use of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. ... An anecdote is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. ... Epidemiology is the scientific study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ...


The death of a five year old boy in August 2005 has been linked to this practice [14]; however, the isolated case has been attributed to the accidental administration of an incorrect agent [15]. In this instance, the death was due to the administration of disodium EDTA instead of calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA is a popular acronym for the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. ...


Drug therapy

The benefits of drugs is widely disputed. While anti-seizure medication is indicated for some children with seizures, many parents are opposed to using psychopharmacology to treat their children. They point out that whilst a subset have been found to have co-morbid mood, anxiety and compulsive disorders, autistic people are not necessarily psychotic, particularly anxious, depressed or bipolar. Many autistic people themselves are against the overprescription of neuroleptic drugs in autistic people to control behavior whilst some of those with co-morbid disorders have been relieved to have medication to manage these and some psychiatrists are just now beginning to explore minimal doses of medication for this group. Those against the use of Neuroleptic abuse of people with autism have formed an organization called Autistic People Against Neuroleptic Abuse to counter this phenomenon. The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ...


Gluten-free, casein-free diet

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Main article: Gluten-free, casein-free diet

In the 1990's, Dr. Kalle Reichelt MD, PhD, Institute of Pediatric Research at the University of Oslo reported that several laboratories found increases in urinary peptides in children with autism, including casomorphines and gluten exorphins. [16]. According to Dr. Reichelt and others, significant improvements have been seen in the symptoms of some patients with autism who had been put on a diet that omits casein nd gluten. The diet became known as the gluten-free, casein-free diet. Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Many parents of children with autism have reported that a gluten-free casein-free diet helps their children. ... The University of Oslo (in Norwegian Universitetet i Oslo, in Latin Universitas Osloensis) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... Casomorphin is a peptide sequence that is derived from a protein found in milk called casein, and which some people consider to be addictive to humans and cause an opiate effect. ... The Gluten exorphines are a group of opioid peptides which are formed during digestion of the gluten protein. ... Many parents of children with autism have reported that a gluten-free casein-free diet helps their children. ...


The possible link between digestive disorders and autism has also been raised by Dr. Andrew Wakefield, a United Kingdom gastroenterologist who has described the disputed condition as autistic enterocolitis. Andrew Wakefield (born 1956 in the United Kingdom) is a Canadian trained surgeon, best known as the lead author of a controversial 1998 research study, published in the Lancet, which reported bowel symptoms in a selected sample of twelve children with autistic spectrum disorders and other disabilities, and alleged a... Autistic enterocolitis is a controversial condition first reported by British gastroenterologist Dr. Andrew Wakefield to describe a number of common clinical symptoms and signs which he contends is distinctive to autism. ...


Low Salicylate diet

Researchers such as Rosemary Waring (Birmingham University) found a significant proportion of people with autism were Salicylate Intolerant, meaning they were unable to properly metabolise Salicylates ; a natural plant toxin common in most stone fruits, berries, citrus fruits (with the exception of lemon), some vegetables and very high in honey, yeast extracts and almonds. This was found associated with deficiencies in an enzyme, Phenolsulphurtransferase, the lack of which lead to suppressed immunity and detoxification functions in Salicylate intolerant children. Waring's work was taken up by other researchers including Sandra Johnson-Desorgher whose daughter made dramatic recovery using a pigment-restricted diet that became known as Sara's Diet. She later formed World Community Autism Program together with her husband, Max Desorgher. Rosemary Waring, a reader in human toxicology at the School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham, was the first researcher to produce scientific evidence suggestive of abnormal sulphur metabolism affecting people with autistic spectrum disorders. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ... Salicylic acid is a colorless, crystalline organic carboxylic acid. ...


The low Salicylate diet is commonly known of in ADHD/ADD circles as the Feingold Diet and includes eliminating artificial colorings, flavourings, preservatives and nitrates. Salicylate intolerance has been particularly linked to attentional problems and hyperactivity but more recently to mood and anxiety disturbances. The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Hyperactivity can be described as a state in which a person is abnormally easily excitable and exuberant. ... Mood may refer to: chese Grammatical mood Emotional mood This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Anxiety is an pleasant complex combination of emotions that includes fear, apprehension and worry, and is often accompanied by physical sensations such as palpitations, nausea, chest pain and/or shortness of breath. ...


Gold salts

Gold salts have recently come into focus as a potential treatment for autism. Boyd Haley, a University of Kentucky professor and leading proponent of the mercury-autism hypothesis (see also Thimerosal controversy), has suggested that gold salts may reverse conditions attributed to mercury administration in the form of thimerosal that was used as a preservative in vaccinations until recently (however, it is important to note that thimerosal has not yet been outlawed in all 50 states). Currently, Dr. Mady Hornig of Columbia University is testing gold salts on mice specially bred to be susceptible to thimerosal. Dan Olmsted[17] reported a 1947 case of a 12 year old patient, the first person ever diagnosed with autism, who was treated for arthritis using gold salts at the Campbell Clinic in Memphis, Tennessee. According to the patient's brother, the "extreme nervousness" and excitability that had afflicted him cleared up as well as the arthritis. However, Haley cautions "[p]lease note that I am not recommending using gold salts to treat autistics, but it would certainly be worth a project if carefully monitored by a physician in a good clinic". Gold salts are primarily used in medicine, to reduce inflammation and to slow disease progression in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and for some industrial purposes. ... Boyd E. Haley, PhD (b. ... The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... The number of reported cases of autism has increased dramatically over the past decade. ... // Thimerosal controversy In recent years, it has been suggested that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to or cause neurodevelopmental disorders in children (most notably autism, but also other disorders on the PDD spectrum, such as ADHD). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mady Hornig, MD, is a psychiatrist and an associate professor of epidemiology at Columbia Universitys Mailman School of Public Health, where she is Director of Translational Research in the Center for Immunopathogenesis and Infectious Diseases, where her research involves neuroepidemiology and the epidemiology of autism. ... Columbia University is a private university whose main campus lies in the Morningside Heights neighborhood of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City. ... Dan Olmsted is an investigative reporter and senior editor for United Press International (UPI), and the author of the Age of Autism report series. ... Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation; plural: arthritides) is a group of conditions where there is damage caused to the joints of the body. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The River City, The Bluff City, M-Town Location Location in Shelby County and the state of Tennessee Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Tennessee Shelby County Mayor W. W. Herenton (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 294. ...


Occupational, auditory, visual therapy

Tinted Lenses

Tinted Lenses were popularised by autistic author Donna Williams in her book Like Colour To The Blind and went on to become widely used by people with autism for the visual perceptual disorder of Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome. Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome is asserted to underpin reading challenges and asserted to result in a visual fragmentation effect in which it is difficult to see a whole face or process objects or a room visually as a whole. Donna Williams is also the name of one of the creators of Neopets. ... Like Colour To The Blind (1998) is the third in a series of four autobiographical works by author, artist, songwriter and screenwriter, Donna Williams. ... Scotopic sensitivity syndrome, also known as Meares-Irlen syndrome or Irlen syndrome, is a broadly defined visual perceptual disorder affecting primarily reading and writing based activities. ...


Developmental neurologists have noted that autistic children tend to be hyposensitive and/or hypersensitive to one or several sensory impressions, and that their gross and fine motor skills are usually impaired to varying degrees. These are symptoms consistent with Sensory Integration Dysfunction. Sensory Integration Dysfunction is a neurological disorder causing difficulties with processing information from the five classic senses (vision, auditory, touch, olfaction, and taste), the sense of movement (vestibular system), and/or the positional sense (proprioception)[1]. Sensory information is sensed normally, but perceived abnormally. ...


Pediatric occupational therapy has proven successful in helping autistic children deal more effectively with sensory impressions, use their senses more productively, and become more aware of their bodies. It has been suggested that Occupational therapist be merged into this article or section. ...


Auditory therapies include the Tomatis and Berard schools and focus on training the child to use his/her sense of hearing more effectively. Visual therapy, pioneered by Melvin Kaplan and others, employs prism lenses that distort the child's vision, forcing him/her to use his/her focal vision more productively. Berard (Bérard) is a surname, and may refer to: Al Berard, Cajun musician André Bérard, Canadian businessman and President, CEO, and Chairman of the National Bank of Canada Berard of Carbio, Franciscan monk Bryan Berard, American ice hockey player Joseph Frédéric Bérard, French physician and... Melvin (Mel) Kaplan is a renowned American oboist, concert manager, and teacher at the Juilliard School for 25 years. ... See: Prism (geometry) Prism (optics) Prism (band) PRISM is an abbreviation for Probabilistic Symbolic Model Checker PRISM was an aborted RISC processor effort at DEC, see DEC PRISM This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Other Therapy

The Ayurvedic herb bacopa has been used in several cases of autism with promising effect. Bacopa is used medicinally in India for memory enhancement, epilepsy, insomnia, and as a mild sedative. This herb commonly grows in marsh areas throughout India. Some studies have shown that Bacopa has antioxidant effects specific to the cerebral tissue.[citation needed] Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a more than 2,000 year old comprehensive system of medicine based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... The Bacopa is a genus of aquatic plants. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Insomnia (disambiguation). ... A sedative is a substance which depresses the central nervous system (CNS), resulting in calmness, relaxation, reduction of anxiety, sleepiness, slowed breathing, slurred speech, staggering gait, poor judgment, and slow, uncertain reflexes. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Holistic Healing

Evidence exists which may explain why the individual therapies listed above do not necessarily work for all sufferers of autism. A more comprehensive approach may be required, in which the genetics of each individual autism sufferer is studied and understood, followed by a personalized therapy schedule which may include diet restrictions, heavy metal detoxification, vitamin supplementation, etc. Often referred to as Holistic Healing, an example of this approach can be seen by going to www.autismanswer.com.


Probiotic diets

Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast. The use of probiotic diets for children with autism has been reported to have improved the concentration and behavior of the study subjects so much that medical trials collapsed because parents refused to accept placebos. According to the researchers, the effectiveness of the treatment caused some of the parents involved in a blind trial to realize that their children were not taking a placebo. The parents then refused to switch to the placebo as scheduled, resulting in the collapse of the trial. As a result, it was difficult for researchers to draw firm conclusions. Further research is being planned.[18] Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the most common microbes used. ... A prescribed dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota Basidiomycotina (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are unicellular, eukaryotic microorganisms classified in the kingdom Fungi. ... Probiotics are dietary supplements containing potentially beneficial bacteria or yeast, with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as the most common microbes used. ... // A placebo is a medicine or preparation which has no inherent pertinent pharmacologic activity but which is effective only by virtue of the factor of suggestion attendant upon its administration. ... // A placebo is a medicine or preparation which has no inherent pertinent pharmacologic activity but which is effective only by virtue of the factor of suggestion attendant upon its administration. ...


Non-medical views

Autism is not a disorder

There is a view that autism is not a disorder, but a normal, healthy variation in neurological hard-wiring, and therefore does not need to be cured. This "anti-cure perspective" supports the model of autism that claims that autism is a fundamental part of who the autistic person is and that autism is something that cannot be separated from the person. A cure is seen as destroying the original personality of the individual and is perceived similar to attempts to "cure" homosexuality, therefore this perspective considers the disease classification insulting. In line with this belief an autistic culture has begun to develop similar to deaf culture. This view is usually held by autistic people themselves (Autism rights movement), and is mostly criticized by parents of autistic children. It has been suggested that autistic community be merged into this article or section. ... Deaf community and Deaf culture are two phrases used to refer to persons who are culturally Deaf as opposed to those who are deaf from the medical/audiological/pathological perspective. ... The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [2] and autistic liberation movement [3]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ...


There is no one condition called autism

This view was put forward by autistic author Donna Williams in her 9th book in the autism field, The Jumbled Jigsaw based on her work as an autism consultant working with over 600 people on the spectrum over 8 years. Here she presented a holistic model called Autism as a fruit salad model and demonstrated how the severity of someone's autism could be linked to their degree of co-morbid communication, sensory-perceptual, gut/immune, neurological integration, mood, anxiety and compulsive disorders a person inherited or developed coupled with cognitive and learning style differences and unusual personality trait collections. She suggested these challenges came about via different combinations of pathways including genetic inheritance, toxic exposure and clashing socio/sensory environments. She suggested that treatment and management, therefore, depended on mapping out which collection of co-morbid challenges were underpinning the autistic presentation for different individuals and addressing each with the most appropriate approaches to each individual underlying issue to maximise each person's potential. She also acknowledged that within this framework, individuals would exist for whom their greatest challenge would be cultural clashes between themselves and the neurotypical world. Donna Williams is also the name of one of the creators of Neopets. ... In medicine and in psychiatry, comorbidity refers to: The presence of one or more disorders (or diseases) in addition to a primary disease or disorder. ... Definition The term learning styles refers to the preferred way(s) in which individuals interact with, take in, and process new stimuli or information across the three domains of learning identifed in the taxonomy of education objectives: cognitive (knowledge), psychomotor (skills) and affective (attitude). ...


Research

There are approximately twelve research studies published each week on therapies for individuals with autism. A recent review article (Bodfish 2004) suggests that there are three major barriers in the transfer of this information from the laboratory to the child. They are:

  • treatment providers do not routinely turn to treatments that have been validated scientifically
  • a large minority of patients (acutally parents of patients) resist therapies that have been scientifically validated
  • even scientifically validated therapies are not universally effective for all individuals with autism

Derrick Lonsdale lead a successful study on the treatment of autism spectrum children with thiamine.[1] This work is controversial linking diet with autism. Derrick Lonsdale Derrick Lonsdale (born 1924) M.D., Fellow of the American College of Nutrition (FACN), Fellow of the American College for Advancement in Medicine (FACAM)[1] is a pediatrican and researcher into the benefits of certain nutrients in preventing disease and and psychotic behavior. ... Autism is classified as a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests in delays of social interaction, language as used in social communication, or symbolic or imaginative play, with onset prior to age 3 years, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. ...


The study, Lonsdale D and Shamberger R J (2000) "A clinical study of secretin in autism and pervasive developmental delay." Journal of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine, Vol 10 (4), pp 271-280, has been cited by the National Autistic Society.[2] The National Autistic Society (NAS) is the United Kingdoms most prominent autism-related charity. ...


References

Footnotes

  1.   Autism Society of America ABA study. Retrieved on July 30, 2005.
  2.   ABA and autistics controversy. Retrieved on July 30, 2005.
  3.   IAHP Online. Retrieved on February 14, 2006.
  4.   ASAT Online. Retrieved on September 13, 2006.
  5.   ASAT Online - Son-Rise. Retrieved on September 13, 2006.
  6.   Autism and Computers Department of Education study. Retrieved on July 30, 2005.
  7.   Autism and Computing. Retrieved on July 30, 2005.
  8.   Gluten and Casien-free diet with other treatments. Retrieved on July 30, 2005.
  9.   The Age of Autism: Gold standards. Retrieved on February, 2006.
  • Bodfish, J.W., Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 2004, 10:318-326

July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... July 30 is the 211th day (212th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 154 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS), is a pervasive developmental disorder commonly referred to as a form of high-functioning autism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Derrick Lonsdale Derrick Lonsdale (born 1924) M.D., Fellow of the American College of Nutrition (FACN), Fellow of the American College for Advancement in Medicine (FACAM)[1] is a pediatrican and researcher into the benefits of certain nutrients in preventing disease and and psychotic behavior. ... Dr. Cheri Florance is the mother of an autistic son; she wrote The Maverick Mind about her experience of helping her son develop his skills in order to overcome some of his difficulties. ...

External links

  • Healing Thresholds - daily summaries of scientific research on autism therapies
  • Autism Network for Dietary Intervention
  • MonstersAndCritics.com
  • Neurodiversity.com - 'Unchelated Autistics "Just Lost"???' (December 30, 2005)
  • ScienceDaily.com - 'The Age of Autism: Gold salts to be tested', Dan Olmsted, United Press International (UPI) (August 29, 2005)
  • UPI.com - 'The Age of Autism: Gold standards', Dan Olmsted, UPI (December 30, 2005)
  • Washington.edu - 'About gold treatment: What is it? Gold treatment includes different forms of gold salts used to treat arthritis', University of Washington (December 30, 2004)
  • Autism Treatment Search Engine - A community powered autism therapies search engine
  • The Brain Engineering Laboratories HomePage
Pervasive developmental disorders / Autistic spectrum
Diagnoses
Autism | Asperger syndrome | Autistic enterocolitis | Childhood disintegrative disorder | Conditions comorbid to autism | Fragile X syndrome
Rett syndrome | PDD-NOS | Sensory Integration Dysfunction | Multiple-complex Developmental Disorder
Controversy
Andrew Wakefield | Incidence | An epidemic? | Autism rights movement | Biomedical intervention | Causes | Chelation
Generation Rescue | Heritability | Neurodiversity | Refrigerator mother | Therapies
See also: List of autism-related topics

 
 

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