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Encyclopedia > Autism spectrum

The autism spectrum, also called autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or autism spectrum conditions (ASC), with the word autistic sometimes replacing autism, is a spectrum of psychological conditions characterized by widespread abnormalities of social interactions and communication, as well as severely restricted interests and highly repetitive behavior.[1] A spectrum disorder in psychiatry is hard to define precisely but is a mental disorder having something to do with a spectrum of subtypes or closely related disorders. ...


The three main forms of ASD are autism, Asperger syndrome, and PDD-NOS. Autism forms the core of the autism spectrum disorders. Asperger syndrome is closest to autism in signs and likely causes. Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) is diagnosed when the criteria are not met for a more specific disorder. Some sources also include Rett syndrome and childhood disintegrative disorder, which share several signs with autism but may have unrelated causes.[2] Unlike autism, Asperger's has no significant delay in language development.[3] Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... Rett syndrome/ disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many[1] argue that this is a misclassification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down syndrome where one can see autistic... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... Childrens language development moves from simplicity to complexity. ...


The terminology of autism can be bewildering, with autism, Asperger's and PDD-NOS sometimes called the autistic disorders instead of ASD,[4] whereas autism itself is often called autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism. ASD, in turn, is a subset of the broader autism phenotype (BAP), which describes individuals who may not have ASD but do have autistic-like traits, such as avoiding eye contact.[5] Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... In biology, a trait or character is a feature of an organism. ...


One review estimated a prevalence of at least 1.3 per 1,000 for autism and 6.0–6.5 per 1,000 for ASD; PDD-NOS was the vast majority of ASD, Asperger's was about 0.3 per 1,000 and the atypical forms childhood disintegrative disorder and Rett syndrome were much rarer.[6] Look up Review in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... Asperger described his patients as little professors. Aspergers syndrome (AS), is a pervasive developmental disorder commonly referred to as a form of high-functioning autism. ... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... Rett syndrome/ disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many[1] argue that this is a misclassification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down syndrome where one can see autistic...

Contents

Autistic traits

Behaviorally, certain characteristics identify the autism spectrum. The type, severity and/or number of autistic traits present determines the severity of autism in the individual. These autistic traits may be beneficial for some disciplines like science, mathematics, engineering and computer programming. Some autistic individuals might show a marked proficiency in rote memorization which may help learn the foundation of these subjects; however, the exceptionally good aptitude (in these subjects) of high functioning autistic spectrum persons may be due to their ability to readily identify patterns and apply them consistently to new situations outside of established knowledge or teaching. These savant skills, although popularly considered to be a major part of autistic disorders, are evident only in a small fraction of autistic individuals, with estimates of the fraction ranging from 0.5 to 10%.[7] Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... Programming redirects here. ... An autistic savant (historically described as idiot savant) is a person with both autism and Savant Syndrome. ...


A 2007 study found that, contrary to popular belief, people on the autism spectrum are capable of reading facial expressions, social reasoning and understanding stereotypes. Eighteen children ages 10 to 14 were able to attribute a range of mental states to dynamic and static facial expressions, but not as great as their neurotypical peers. The autistic children were better at recognizing mental states when the eyes and mouth conveyed information than when these facial features were static and neutral. In a second experiment, children 11 to 15 were just as capable as their neurotypical peers at interpreting mental states whether it was the eyes in isolation or in the context of the whole face.[8]


Autistic people may be prone to commiting social faux pas due to an inability to predict the reactions of and understand the intent, needs and desires of those around them[citation needed]. This may cause neglection of social niceties, like knocking on doors before entering or returning a greeting. Similarly, they may be overly trusting or paranoid of strangers[citation needed]. Autistic children generally want to develop social relationships and are actually able to build relationships with peers through social skills training.[9] People with autism can also be taught how society works by using virtual reality simulations to learn about the complex rules of society.[10] Being on the autism spectrum does not keep these individuals from understanding social roles and stereotypes in a society, many of them can understand the role of a cashier in a super market to locking doors in a bad neighborhood.[11] Faux Pas redirects here. ...


Diagnostic criteria and techniques

When the rising prevalence of autism spectrum disorders sparked research in the late 1990s, medical opinion initially attributed the increase to improved diagnostic screening or changes in the definition of autism. In 1994, the fourth major revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) was published with updated criteria for the diagnosis of autism and autism spectrum disorders.[12] Professional medical associations, including the American Academy of Pediatrics, say that this revision was an important factor in increasing the apparent prevalence of autism and a 2005 study by Mayo Clinic researchers found increases in autistic spectrum disorder diagnoses followed the revisions in DSM criteria and changes in funding for special education programs.[13] In epidemiology, the prevalence of a disease in a statistical population is defined as the total number of cases of the disease in the population at a given time, or the total number of cases in the population, divided by the number of individuals in the population. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual published by the American Psychiatric Association The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a handbook for mental health professionals that lists different categories of mental disorder and the criteria for diagnosing them, according to the publishing organization the American Psychiatric Association. ... The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is an organization of pediatricians, physicians trained to deal with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. ... Mayo Clinic is a medical practice based in Rochester, Minnesota, USA, integrated with hospital facilities and a medical school. ...


An increased awareness of autistic spectrum disorders by parents and pediatricians may have also led to increased reporting of Autism due to 'case substitution', which occurs when children with other disorders are identified as autistic.[14] This misdiagnosis may occur for several reasons including an increase in government funding for care of children diagnosed as autistic, but not for children with a similar degree of disability and need. If this is occurring, it means that children who in the past would probably have been diagnosed as having a learning disability or a psychiatric disorder, or not diagnosed at all, are recorded as cases of autistic spectrum disorder.[15]


Dr. Fred Volkmar, a Yale University autism researcher, has said that "diagnostic substitution" was prompted by better services for autism.[16]


Many autism therapies have arisen to treat the core symptoms of autism. Simpson (2005) identified four scientifically-based treatments for learners with Autism Spectrum Disorders, including Applied Behavior Analysis, Discrete Trial Training, Pivotal Response Therapy, and Strain & Hoyson's "Learning Experiences: An Alternative Program for Preschoolers and Parents."[17] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Biomedical intervention for autism. ... Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) is a systematic process of studying and modifying observable behavior through a manipulation of the environment. ...


References

  1. ^ World Health Organization (2006). "F84. Pervasive developmental disorders", International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th ed. (ICD-10). Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
  2. ^ Lord C, Cook EH, Leventhal BL, Amaral DG (2000). "Autism spectrum disorders". Neuron 28 (2): 355–63. doi:10.1016/S0896-6273(00)00115-X . PMID 11144346. 
  3. ^ American Psychiatric Association (2000). "Diagnostic criteria for 299.80 Asperger's Disorder (AD)", Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed., text revision (DSM-IV-TR). ISBN 0890420254. 
  4. ^ Freitag CM (2007). "The genetics of autistic disorders and its clinical relevance: a review of the literature". Mol Psychiatry 12 (1): 2–22. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001896. PMID 17033636. 
  5. ^ Piven J, Palmer P, Jacobi D, Childress D, Arndt S (1997). "Broader autism phenotype: evidence from a family history study of multiple-incidence autism families" (PDF). Am J Psychiatry 154 (2): 185–90. PMID 9016266. 
  6. ^ Fombonne E (2005). "Epidemiology of autistic disorder and other pervasive developmental disorders". J Clin Psychiatry 66 (Suppl 10): 3–8. PMID 16401144. 
  7. ^ Treffert DA (2006). Savant syndrome: an extraordinary condition—a synopsis: past, present, future. Wisconsin Medical Society. Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  8. ^ Back E, Ropar D, Mithcell, P (March/April 2007). "Do the Eyes Have It? Inferring Mental States From Animated Faces in Autism". Child Development 78 (2): 397–411. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01005.x. Retrieved on 2008-02-16. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (2007-03-27). 
  9. ^ Indiana University (2006-07-13). "New book offers social skills solutions for children with autism spectrum disorders". Press release. Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
  10. ^ "Virtual Reality Teaches Autistic Children Street Crossing, Study Suggests" . Retrieved on 2008-02-16. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (2008-01-29). 
  11. ^ Hirschfeld L, Bartmess E, White S, Frith U (2007). "Can autistic children predict behavior by social stereotypes?". Curr Biol. 17 (12): R451–2. PMID 17580071. Retrieved on 2008-02-16. Lay summary – ScienceDaily (2007-06-19). 
  12. ^ Tidmarsh L, Volkmar FR (2003). "Diagnosis and epidemiology of autism spectrum disorders". Can J Psychiatry 48 (8): 517–25. PMID 14574827. 
  13. ^ Barbaresi WJ, Katusic SK, Colligan RC, Weaver AL, Jacobsen SJ (2005). "The incidence of autism in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1976-1997: results from a population-based study". Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 159 (1): 37–44. doi:10.1001/archpedi.159.1.37. PMID 15630056. 
  14. ^ Shattuck PT (2006). "The contribution of diagnostic substitution to the growing administrative prevalence of autism in US special education". Pediatrics 117 (4): 1028–37. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1516. PMID 16585296. Lay summary (2006-04-03). 
  15. ^ Pettus A (2008). "A spectrum of disorders". Harv Mag 110 (3): 27–31, 89–91. 
  16. ^ "Uncovering autism's mysteries: Is there more autism? Or just a new definition?", Associated Press, 2003-03-02. Retrieved on 2007-12-30. "'Autism is kind of a fashionable diagnosis,' Volkmar said. 'Everybody's interested in getting better services.'" 
  17. ^ Simpson R.L. (2005). "Evidence-based practicies and students with autism spectrum disorders". Focus on Autism and other Developmental Disabilities 20 (3): 140-149. 

WHO redirects here. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) is a detailed description of known diseases and injuries. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David G. Amaral, Ph. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Due to the epidemic of medical errors, readers are cautioned to be aware that the American Psychiatric Association isnt immune to this. ... The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, published by the American Psychiatric Association, is the handbook used most often in diagnosing mental disorders in the United States and other countries. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Eric Fombonne, MD, FRCP, (b. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ... National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (NICHCY) operates as the nations centralized information resource on disabilities and special education for children and youth ages birth through 21 years. ... The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) is part of the federal government of the United States and the largest research organization in the world specializing in mental illness. ... There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders and Aspergers Syndrome. ... The heritability of autism is debated by psychology researchers, parents of children diagnosed with autism, and members of the autistic community. ... Autism (also called autistic disorder, infantile autism, Kanners syndrome or Kanner syndrome) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that manifests itself before the age of three years. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Biomedical intervention for autism. ... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD), also known as Hellers syndrome and disintegrative psychosis, is a rare condition characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function, and motor skills. ... Fragile X syndrome is a syndrome of X-linked mental retardation. ... Multiple-complex Developmental Disorder (McDD) represents a distinct group within the autistic spectrum based on symptomatology. ... PDD not otherwise specified or PDD-NOS is a pervasive developmental disorder. ... Rett syndrome/ disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is classified as a pervasive developmental disorder by the DSM-IV. Many[1] argue that this is a misclassification just as it would be to include such disorders as fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, or Down syndrome where one can see autistic... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... There is considerable disagreement over the exact nature of autism, however it is generally considered to be a neurodevelopmental condition which manifests itself in markedly abnormal social interaction, communication ability, patterns of interests, and patterns of behavior. ... This box:      The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [1] and autistic liberation movement [2]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... Autistic enterocolitis is a controversial term first used by British gastroenterologist Andrew Wakefield to describe a number of common clinical symptoms and signs which he contends are distinctive to autism. ... Chelation therapy is the administration of chelating agents to remove heavy metals from the body. ... The MMR vaccine controversy is over the safety of the MMR vaccine. ... Neurodiversity is an idea that asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference. ... The term refrigerator mother was coined in the 1940s as a label for mothers of autistic children. ... Following US government action to evaluate levels of environmental toxins, including mercury, it has been claimed, particularly in the context of lawsuits, that thimerosal in childhood vaccines could contribute to, or cause, a range of neurodevelopmental disorders in children, most notably autism and related Pervasive Developmental Disorders (PDDs), or other... This is a list of autism-related topics. ... Fictional characters described by the authors as having conditions on the autistic spectrum. ... Further reading on the topic of Asperger syndrome: [Attwood, Tony]; foreword by Lorna Wing (1998). ... This is a list of noteworthy people known to have a condition on the autism spectrum. ... A number of famous people have been speculated by reputable sources to have had autistic disorder or Asperger syndrome. ... Infinity logo as a positive representation of autism Aspies For Freedom is a group which is at the forefront of the autism rights movement. ... The Autism Society of America, founded in 1965 by Bernard Rimland, Ph. ... Autism Speaks was founded in February, 2005 by Bob Wright and his wife Suzanne, to help find a cure for autism, a year after their grandson, Christian, was given the diagnosis. ... Generation Rescue is a nonprofit organization which was founded by parents united by their belief that many childhood neurological disorders, such as autism, Aspergers syndrome, ADHD, speech delay, sensory integration disorder and other developmental delays, are the effects of a primary diagnosis of mercury poisoning and related complications. ... The National Autism Association (NAA) is a non-profit advocacy organization founded to educate and empower families affected by autism and other neurological disorders. ... The National Autistic Society (NAS) is the United Kingdoms most prominent autism-related charity. ... The Coalition for Safe Minds (Sensible Action For Ending Mercury-Induced Neurological Disorders) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to investigating the risks of exposure to mercury from medical products. ...   Wrong Planet (sometimes referred to by its URL, WrongPlanet. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Exploring the Autism Spectrum: Guide to Autism Spectrum Disorders (2643 words)
Autism is a spectrum disorder, meaning that there is a wide degree of variation in the way it affects people.
Asperger’s syndrome is the mildest of the autism spectrum disorders.
Autism Information Center: Symptoms – Describes the symptoms of autism and the autism spectrum disorders, including deficits in social skills, communication, and repetitive behaviors and routines.
Autistic spectrum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (531 words)
The autistic spectrum (sometimes referred to as the autism spectrum) is a developmental and behavioral syndrome that results from certain combinations of traits.
At the severe end of the spectrum is low-functioning autism which has profound impairments in many areas, to Asperger's syndrome and high-functioning autism, to "normal" behaviour and perhaps hypersocialization on the high end of the spectrum.
Diagnoses of ADHD together with autism spectrum disorder are becoming increasingly common in children.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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