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Encyclopedia > Autism rights movement
Autism rights movement
Issues
Ethical challenges to treatment
Organizations
Aspies For Freedom
Autism Network International
Philosophy
Autistic pride · Autistic culture
Neurodiversity · Neurotypical
People
Michelle Dawson · Temple Grandin
Jerry Newport · Amanda Baggs
Jim Sinclair
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Part of a series of articles on
Discrimination
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism · Religious intolerance · Xenophobia Ethical challenges to autism treatment have been made by people who feel that autism therapies intended to be helpful are actually harmful to autistic people. ... Infinity logo as a positive representation of autism Aspies For Freedom is a group which is at the forefront of the autism rights movement. ... Autism Network International (ANI) is an advocacy organization run by and for autistic people. ... Autistic pride is about shifting ones outlook from a scientific, reductionistic, pathologizing orientation to one that sees the innate potential in all human phenotypic expressions and celebrating the diversity various neurological types express. ... It has been suggested that autistic community be merged into this article or section. ... Neurodiversity is an idea that asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference. ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a neologism used to describe people whose neurological development and state are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal in their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ... Dr. Temple Grandin, one of the more successful adults with autism. ... Jerry Newport (born August 19, 1948) is an author with Aspergers Syndrome whose life was the basis for the feature-length movie Mozart and the Whale (2005). ... Amanda Baggs is an autism rights activist. ... Jim Sinclair is an autism rights activist who is prominent in Autism Network International. ... This article is about discrimination in the social science context. ... Racism is the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... This box:      The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex... Look up ageism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms

Social
Ableism · Adultism · Biphobia · Classism · Elitism · Ephebiphobia · Gerontophobia · Heightism · Heterosexism · Homophobia · Lesbophobia · Lookism · Misandry · Misogyny · Pediaphobia · Sizeism · Transphobia Ableism is a term used to describe discrimination against people with disabilities in favor of people who are able-bodied. ... Adultism is a predisposition towards adults, which some see as biased against children, youth, and all young people who arent addressed or viewed as adults. ... Biphobia is the fear of, discrimination against, or hatred of bisexuals (although in practice it extends to pansexual people too). ... Classism (a term formed by analogy with racism) is any form of prejudice or oppression against people who are in, or who are perceived as being like those who are in, a lower social class (especially in the form of lower or higher socioeconomic status) within a class society. ... Elitism is the belief or attitude that the people who are considered to be the elite — a selected group of persons with outstanding personal abilities, wealth, specialised training or experience, or other distinctive attributes — are the people whose views on a matter are to be taken the most seriously, or... Ephebiphobia (from Greek ephebos έφηβος = teenager, underage adolescent and fobos φόβος = fear, phobia), also known as hebephobia (from Greek hebe = youth), denotes both the irrational fear of teenagers or of adolescence, and the prejudice against teenagers or underage adolescents. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This box:      Heightism is a form of discrimination based on height. ... Heterosexism is the presumption that everyone is straight or heterosexual (i. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church; a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... Lesbophobia (sometimes Lesbiphobia) is a term which describes prejudice, discrimination, harassment or abuse, either specifically targeting a lesbian person, based on their lesbian identity, or, more generally, targetting lesbians as a class. ... Lookism is discrimination against or prejudice towards others based on their appearance. ... Look up Misandry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This box:      Misogyny (IPA: ) is hatred or strong prejudice against women; an antonym of philogyny. ... Fear of children and/or infants or childhood is alternately called pedophobia or pediaphobia. ... The fat acceptance movement, also referred to as the fat liberation movement, is a grass-roots effort to change societal attitudes about fat people. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights LGBT rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights · Masculinism Children...

Against cultures:

Americans · Arabs · Armenians · Australians · Canadians · Catalans · Chinese · English · Europeans · French · Germans · Indians · Iranians · Irish · Italians · Japanese · Jews · Malay · Mexicans · Pakistanis · Poles · Portuguese · Quebecers · Roma · Romanians · Russians · Serbs · Turks Anti-Arabism is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people from Arabic origin. ... Anti-Catalanism is the collective name given to various political attitudes in Spain. ... This article or section needs a complete rewrite for the reasons listed on the talk page. ... Anti-Europeanism is opposition or hostility toward the governments, culture, or people of the countries of Europe. ... This box:      Anti-Malay racism refers to prejudice against ethnic Malays. ... Anti-Quebec sentiment is opposition or hostility toward the government, culture, or people of Quebec, that is French-Canadians, English Quebecers and people from other origins. ... Antiziganism or Anti-Romanyism is hostility, prejudice or racism directed at the Romani people, commonly called Gypsies. ... Serbs rule ...

Against beliefs:

Atheism · Bahá'í · Catholicism · Christianity · Hinduism · Judaism · Mormonism · Islam · Neopaganism · Protestantism · Many atheists have experienced discrimination, mainly from religious entities. ... The persecution of Baháís refers to the religious persecution of Baháís in various countries, especially in Iran, the nation of origin of the Baháí Faith, Irans largest religious minority and the location of one of the largest Baháí populations in the world. ... Anti-Catholicism is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Catholics or the Catholic Church. ... Anti-Christian discrimination, anti-Christian prejudice, Christianophobia or Christophobia is a negative categorical bias against Christians or the religion of Christianity. ... Anti-Hindu prejudice is a negative perception against the practice and practitioners of Hinduism. ... Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is discrimination, hostility or prejudice directed at Jews. ... An anti-Mormon political cartoon from the late nineteenth century. ... It has been suggested that Persecution of Muslims be merged into this article or section. ... Religious discrimination against adherents of various neopagan denominations. ... Anti-Protestantism is an institutional, ideological or emotional bias against Protestantism and its followers. ...

Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching · Hate speech · Hate crime · Genocide · Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war · Religious persecution · Gay bashing · The Holocaust · Armenian Genocide · Blood libel · Black Legend · Paternalism · Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... Hate speech is a controversial term for speech intended to degrade, intimidate, or incite violence or prejudicial action against a person or group of people based on their race, gender, age, ethnicity, nationality, religion, sexual orientation, gender identity, disability, language ability, moral or political views, socioeconomic class, occupation or appearance... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... The persecution of gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and transgendered individuals is the practice of attacking a person, usually physically, because they are or are perceived to be lesbian, gay or transgender. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... For other uses, see Black Legend (disambiguation). ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements

Discriminatory
Aryanism · Hate groups · Kahanism · Ku Klux Klan · Nativism · Neo-Nazism · American Nazi Party · South African National Party · Supremacism · UMNO ·
Anti-discriminatory
Abolitionism · Civil rights · LGBT rights · Women's/Universal suffrage · Feminism · Masculism Men's/Fathers rights
Children's rights · Youth rights · Disability rights · Inclusion · Autistic rights · Equalism Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Aryan race is a notion mentioned in the Old Persian inscriptions and other Persian sources from c. ... A hate group is an organized group or movement that advocates hate, hostility or violence towards a group of people or some organization upon spurious grounds, despite a wider consensus that these people are not necessarily better or worse than any others. ... Speaking: US-born Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Kach party in the Knesset. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The terms Neo-Nazism and Neo-Fascism refer to any social or political movement to revive Nazism or Fascism, respectively, and postdates the Second World War. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Sang Saka Bangsa The United Malays National Organisation, or UMNO, (Malay: Pertubuhan Kebangsaan Melayu Bersatu), is the right-Wing and the largest political party in Malaysia and a founding member of the Barisan Nasional coalition, which has ruled the country uninterruptedly since its independence. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... This list indexes the articles on LGBT rights in each country and significant non-country region (e. ... The term womens suffrage refers to an economic and political reform movement aimed at extending suffrage — the right to vote — to women. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... Feminists redirects here. ... Masculism (also referred to as masculinism) is an ideology associated with the mens movement. ... Mens Rights involves the promotion of male equality, rights, and freedoms in society. ... The Fathers rights movement is a loose network of interest groups, primarily in western countries, established to campaign for equal treatment by the courts in family law issues such as child custody after divorce, child support, and paternity determinations. ... The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... Inclusion is a term used by activist people with disabilities and other disability rights advocates for the idea that human beings should freely, openly and happily accommodate any other human being that happens to be differently-abled without question or qualification of any kind. ... Graffiti in Madrid promoting equality, reads todos somos iguales, or we are all equal. Equalism is a name often given to forms of egalitarianism (advocacy of equality) concerned with issues of gender or race. ...

Policies

Discriminatory
Race/Religion/Sex segregation · Apartheid · Redlining · Internment
Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights · Desegregation · Integration
Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota · Reservation · Reparations · Forced busing The Rex Theatre for Colored People Racial segregation is characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home[1]. Segregation... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... Segregation means separation. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Racial integration, or simply integration includes desegregation (the process of ending systematic racial segregation). ... Affirmative action refers to policies intended to promote access to education or employment aimed at a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically, minorities or women). ... Racial quotas in employment and education are numerical requirements for hiring, promoting, admitting and/or graduating members of a particular racial group. ... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration · Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws · Black codes · Apartheid laws · Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws
Anti-discriminatory
List of anti-discrimination acts
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid
Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... The Jim Crow Laws were state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965. ... The Black Codes were laws passed to restrict civil rights and civil liberties of African Americans, particularly former slaves. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defence of ketuanan Melayu. ... Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ... This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism · Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism · Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism · Androcentrism · Economic discrimination This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “Crony” redirects here. ... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism · Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity · Multiculturalism · Political correctness · Reverse discrimination · Eugenics · Racialism · Speciesism A bigot is a prejudiced person who is intolerant of opinions, lifestyles, or identities differing from his or her own. ... For with(out) prejudice in law, see Prejudice (law). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with chauvinism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diversity (business). ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The relevance of particular information in (or previously in) this article or section is disputed. ...

WikiProject Discrimination
Discrimination Portal
This box: view  talk  edit

The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [1] and autistic liberation movement [2]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. The movement is supported by some neurotypicals including parents of autistic children. The movement is controversial and has been criticized by some parents of autistic children who disagree with its anti-cure and pro-neurodivergence views. Image File history File links Portal. ... Neurodiversity is an idea that asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference. ... Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a neologism used to describe people whose neurological development and state are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal in their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding controversial issues in articles, see Wikipedia:Guidelines for controversial articles. ...


The use of the Internet has made it possible for autistics to present their perspective when they do not have the communication skills to do so offline. Some autistics, such as Jasmine O'Neill, can still write despite being mute, and present a case for societal acceptance of autism. These autistics do not desire a cure, but rather to be given opportunities to use their unique skills and perceptions in useful ways. Jasmine ONeill is a mute autistic woman who has argued a pro-neurodiversity view of autism. ...


The basis of the movement is the view that autism is not a disorder but simply a different way of being. They believe a cure for autism would destroy the original personality of the autistic person in a misguided attempt to replace them with a different (neurotypical) person. Some of the goals of the movement are to challenge the ethics and science of applied behavioral analysis (ABA) and psychiatric hospitals; to include autistic adults in autism organizations and provide services for autistic adults; and to challenge descriptions of autism that they consider to be pitiful, insulting, and/or incorrect. Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... See Applied Behavior Analysis ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ...

Contents

Anti-cure perspective

The anti-cure perspective is considered the most fundamental value of the movement. This is a view that autism is not a disorder, but a healthy variation in neurological hard-wiring. The anti-cure perspective supports the model of autism that says that autism is a fundamental part of who the autistic person is and that autism is something that cannot be separated from the person. For this reason, some anti-cure autistics such as Jim Sinclair and Michelle Dawson prefer to be referred to as "autistics" or "autistic people" instead of "people with autism" or "people who have autism", because "person with autism" implies that autism is something that can be removed from the person [3] (see person-first terminology). Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ... Person-first terminology is a linguistic technique used when discussing disabilities to avoid perceived and subconscious dehumanisation of the people involved. ...


Autistics with this perspective oppose the idea of a cure for autism because they see it as destroying the original personality of the autistic individual, forcing them to imitate neurotypical behavior (which they believe is unnatural to an autistic person), simply to make mainstream society feel less threatened by the presence of people who are different. Anti-cure autistics believe quirks and uniqueness of autistic individuals should be tolerated as the differences of any minority group should be tolerated [4]. When people talk about visions for a future where autism has been eradicated, anti-cure autistics usually see this as a wish for the end of their culture and way of being [5]. Two autistic people with this perspective are Frank Klein and Jim Sinclair. In fact, Jim has written an article titled "Don't Mourn for Us" which has been widely distributed over the Internet. It has been suggested that autistic community be merged into this article or section. ... Jim Sinclair is an autism rights activist who is prominent in Autism Network International. ...


Anti-cure autistics say they wish they had fewer difficulties in life, and that they find some aspects of autism (like sensory issues) painful, but they do not want to have to sacrifice their personalities, values, and basic identities in order to make life easier [6] [7]. Anti-cure autistics ask that society become more tolerant and accommodating instead of pushing a cure. Anti-cure autistics say they are in favor of helping make the lives of autistic people easier, but they prefer the word "education" over "treatment", and they support programs that respect the individuality of the autistic person and only try to teach them things instead of change them, and they think that autism treatments should focus on giving autistics the means to overcome the limitations posed by autism, rather than curing it.


The anti-cure perspective is related to much of the controversy of the movement. Some parents of autistic children see autism as something that gives their children great difficulty in life and therefore see autism as a disorder. Parents with this perspective (which is sometimes called the pro-cure perspective in the autism rights movement) believe that a cure for autism is in their children's best interests because they see a cure as something that will reduce suffering[8] [9] [10]. Sometimes, people with the pro-cure perspective have been disdainfully labeled "curebees."


People in the movement

Organized groups


Organized groups of the movement include: Autism Network International (ANI), which is a self-advocacy organization founded in 1992 run for and by autistic people and which hosts an annual conference called Autreat; and Aspies For Freedom, an activist group founded by Amy and Gareth Nelson in 2004 which started Autistic Pride Day and protested against the Judge Rotenberg Educational Center. Some smaller regional groups of autistic advocates have also been founded, such as the Asperger Adults of Greater Washington. Autism Network International (ANI) is an advocacy organization run by and for autistic people. ... Self-advocacy means patient empowerment in the medical use. ... Infinity logo as a positive representation of autism Aspies For Freedom is a group which is at the forefront of the autism rights movement. ... Symbol of Autistic Pride Day Autistic Pride Day is celebrated on June 18 each year. ... The Judge Rotenberg Educational Center (JRC, formerly known as the Behavior Research Institute) is a special needs school serving children and young adults with autistic-like behaviors, conduct, emotional, and/or psychiatric problems located in Canton, Massachusetts. ... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, AS, or AD) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ...


Individuals

A number of individuals have played an important role in this movement. Some of the more prominent ones include:

  • Amanda Baggs [11] has written for Autistics.org, one of the most well known anti-cure autism websites. She was featured in an article on CNN in February, 2007.[1]
  • Michelle Dawson is an autistic person and autism researcher. She has challenged the ethics and science of applied behavior analysis and what she considers to be exclusion of autistic adults in the Autism Society of Canada.
  • Jasmine O'Neill is an author who has argued for a pro-neurodiversity view.
  • Joe Mele: former member of Aspies for Freedom who held an anti-cure protest that was cited by the media.
  • Kassiane Sibley is an autism rights blogger operating under the pen name Rett Devil.
  • Jim Sinclair [12] is a co-founder of Autism Network International and author of the essay "Don't Mourn for Us," a widely distributed anti-cure essay.
  • Harvey Blume coined the term neurodiversity.
  • Donna Williams has endorsed the Aspies For Freedom organization.

The essays of some individuals in the movement, including Amanda Baggs and Jim Sinclair, have been used as reading assignments in a class at the University of Wisconsin-Madison [13]. Amanda Baggs is an autism rights activist. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ... Jasmine ONeill is a mute autistic woman who has argued a pro-neurodiversity view of autism. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Jim Sinclair is an autism rights activist who is prominent in Autism Network International. ... Autism Network International (ANI) is an advocacy organization run by and for autistic people. ... Donna Williams (born 1963) is a best-selling Australian-born author, artist, singer-songwriter, screenwriter and sculptor diagnosed with autism after a childhood in which she was initially tested multiple times for deafness and later labeled disturbed before treatment for gut, immune and sensory perceptual disorders in adulthood. ... “University of Wisconsin” redirects here. ...


Websites

Some websites play a role in the movement. Although there are a number of personal websites that express pro-neurodiversity and/or anti-cure views, some websites are more well known than others. The more well known or "prominent" websites include: Autistics. Org, founded in December 1998 and started a number of Internet campaigns; and Neurodiversity.Com is a well known website in the movement and it has replied to some of the movement's critics.


"Neurotypical" supporters

Although this movement is sometimes quoted as consisting only of autistic people, there are actually some parents involved in the movement [14]. For example, the website Neurodiversity.com is part of the autistic rights movement and is run by neurotypical parents of an autistic child. Morton Ann Gernsbacher, who is a parent of an autistic child and a professor of psychology, said that autistics need acceptance and not a cure and has expressed opposition to the view of autism as a disorder [15]. Estee Klar-Wolfond, a mother of an autistic son has founded The Autism Acceptance Project in support of autistic people TAAProjectAutistics. Org claims that parents can be the movement's strongest allies [16] [17]. In addition, some autistic people involved in the movement are also parents [18]. Neurotypical (or NT) is a neologism used to describe people whose neurological development and state are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal in their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Autism professionals Tony Attwood and Simon Baron-Cohen have sent supportive messages to the Aspies for Freedom organization [19] [20]. Tony Attwood (born 1952 in Birmingham, United Kingdom) is the author of several books on Aspergers Syndrome. ... Simon Baron-Cohen is a British professor of developmental psychopathology in the departments of psychiatry and experimental psychology at the University of Cambridge, a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and director of the Autism Research Centre at the University of Cambridge, in the United Kingdom. ...


Numbers

It might not be possible to calculate the number of people in the movement, partly because what constitutes autistic advocacy is disputed [21]. However, it is possible to measure the number of people who have participated in specific activist activities.


Internet petitions are a common form of activism in the movement, and the number of signatures received by these petitions are usually in the hundreds. The petition to defend the dignity of autistic citizens received 763 signatures [22]. Michelle Dawson's open letter to the Autism Society of Canada received 92 signatures by the time it was sent, October 22, 2003, and another 52 signatures on the web version which were signed after the original letter was sent [23]. The "Our Names are Autism Too" petition received 111 signatures from autistics, and 42 from allies [24]. is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Countries

Supporters of the movement come from around the world. Michelle Dawson is from Canada and Judy Singer is from Australia. Autism Network International hosts its annual conference, Autreat, in the United States. The main event for Autistic Pride Day for 2005 was in Brazil. Symbol of Autistic Pride Day Autistic Pride Day is celebrated on June 18 each year. ...


History

Shortly after Autism Network International was founded in 1993, the world wide web began to emerge and autistic people started to make websites that expressed their views of autism. As time went on, more and more such websites started. Autistics. Org was founded in 1998 and started Internet campaigns in 2000. Autism Network International (ANI) is an advocacy organization run by and for autistic people. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML...


2004 was the year of Michelle Dawson's ethical challenges to ABA and of the founding of Aspies for Freedom. On December 20, 2004, Amy Harmon published an article in the New York Times titled "How about not curing us? Some autistics are pleading" which covered the anti-cure perspective. [25] is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Issues

The movement has a number of issues and goals that range from challenging the way autistic people are treated by others to challenging the way autism is portrayed. Not all supporters of the movement have the same opinions about the issues and there is controversy about the issues from within the movement.


Ethical challenges to autism treatment

Some people in the movement believe that programs intended to help autistic people actually harm them. In particular, applied behavioral analysis (ABA), mental institutions, and drug therapy have been challenged. In 2004, Michelle Dawson challenged ABA in the Auton v. British Columbia case in the Supreme Court of Canada. Ethical challenges to autism treatment have been made by people who feel that autism therapies intended to be helpful are actually harmful to autistic people. ... See Applied Behavior Analysis ... A psychiatric hospital (also called a mental hospital or asylum) is a hospital specializing in the treatment of persons with mental illness. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ... Auton (Guardian ad litem of) v. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ...


Opposition to eliminating autism

Some people have the goal of eliminating autism completely, and want there to be a future with no autism. Since those in the autism rights movement see autism as a natural human variation and not a disorder, they are opposed to attempts to eliminate autism. Laura A. Tisoncik of Autistics. Org has referred to the idea of autism prevention as "genocide" [26]. Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ...


In particular, there is opposition to prenatal genetic testing of autism in unborn fetuses, which some believe might be possible in the future if autism is genetic (see Heritability of autism). On February 23, 2005 Dr. Joseph Buxbaum of the Autism Genome Project at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine said there might be a prenatal test for autism in 10 years. The genetics of autism have proven to be extremely complex, however, to the relief of some autistic self-advocates. In any case, the Autistic Genocide Clock was started in response to this, which counts down to 10 years after Buxbaum made this announcement [27]. “Unborn child” redirects here. ... The heritability of autism is debated by psychology researchers, parents of children diagnosed with autism, and members of the autistic community. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The public has started to debate the ethics involved in the possible elimination of a genotype that has liabilities and advantages, which may be seen as tampering with nature and natural selection in particular. MSNBC has an article titled "Would you have allowed Bill Gates to be born?" which deals with this issue. For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... MSNBC, a combination of MSN and NBC, is a 24-hour cable news channel in the United States and Canada, and a news website. ...


Opposition to an alleged insulting view of autism

According to those in the autism rights movement, some people have an "insulting view" of autism. This "insulting view", to those in the movement, would be either comparing autism to a national tragedy or fatal disease, and sometimes claims that autism itself is a death sentence (autism cannot directly end a person's life, but the lack of fear of physical danger that sometimes results from it may cause autistics to do risky things). Therein, one of the goals of the movement is to expose and challenge those claims they find offensive. One such challenge was in 2003 when Michelle Dawson has protested the statement "autism is worse than cancer in many ways because the person with autism has a normal lifespan" [28]. However, even some "pro-cure" advocates believe some of these statements go too far.


Dr. Boyd Haley, chairman of the chemistry department at the University of Kentucky, recently termed autism "mad child disease" in speaking about children whose autism was allegedly caused by mercury poisoning. This term offended some autistics as well as some parents of autistic children. The "petition to defend the dignity of autistic citizens" was started by Neurodiversity.com in protest. In the same vein, autistic rights activists also reject terming the reported increase in the autistic population as an epidemic since the word epidemic implies autism is a disease. Boyd E. Haley, PhD (b. ... For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... The University of Kentucky, also referred to as UK, is a public, co-educational university located in Lexington, Kentucky. ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery Standard atomic weight 200. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during...


One 2006 study by the Harvard School of Public Health addressed the cost to society of caring for individuals with autism. The study "broke down the total costs of autism into two components: direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include direct medical costs, such as physician and outpatient services, prescription medication, and behavioral therapies (estimated to cost, on average, more than $29,000 per person per year) and direct non-medical costs, such as special education, camps, and child care (estimated to annually cost more than $38,000 for those with lower levels of disability and more than $43,000 for those with higher levels)"[29]. Autistic rights activists, however, take offense to comparing the cost of autistics in society to those without autism. They believe that this gives the impression that autistics are a burden on tax payers and a waste of money. Autistics. Org compared such arguments to those used in support of the American eugenics movement [30]. Also, some autistic activists believe these campaigns fail to account for what they see as valuable contributions the autistic phenotype has made towards the advancement of the human race. The activists argue that if autism were eradicated, it would cost a great deal more to have to do without the findings and inventions of people who may have been autistic,[2] such as Albert Einstein[3] and Isaac Newton,[3] for example. Harvard School of Public Health The Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) is Harvard Universitys School of Public Health. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


Some autistic people are offended by the puzzle piece ribbon symbol used by pro-cure organizations, and have responded with their own images and slogans. For example, Autistics. Org has responded to it by selling a button that reads, "I am not a puzzle, I am a person." In addition, Oddizms has created a rainbow moebius ring with the statement: "Many autism spectrum adults object to being objectified by the puzzle ribbon ... They want a different symbol and here is my offering" [31].


Adult issues

Adult inclusion


Some in the autistic rights movement believe the status quo of autism issues focuses too much on children and parents, and tends to exclude autistic adults. They point to various autism organizations like Autism Society of America that have a child as a logo and they feel parents have more power than autistic adults in autism organizations. Michelle Dawson believes that the Autism Society of Canada excludes autistic adults [32]. Autistic people oppose this because they feel autistics, not non-autistic parents, should be the primary focus of autism organizations. They also believe there are more services for autistic children and their parents than for autistic adults, and some advocates of adult inclusion believe that some services and resources for autistic children are actually more for the parents (such as Respite). This article is about the English rock band. ... The Autism Society of America, founded in 1965 by Bernard Rimland, Ph. ...


Accuracy of information about autistic adults


Autistic rights activists believe many people considered autism experts publish inaccurate information about what happens to autistic children when they become adults. They claim that while many autistic adults in the autism rights movement have significant difficulties in life, some of the pessimistic predictions that had been given to them when they were children did not come true. Because they consider these inaccurate predictions to be false, autistic rights activists believe what they consider to be pessimistic statements from autism experts of today are also false.


Adult diagnosis


Autistic adults claim that the definition afforded in an autism diagnosis is designed for children and not for adults, which makes the parameters unworkable and difficult in maintaining/obtaining a proper diagnosis. Because people change as they grow to adulthood, they may no longer fit the official model of an autistic individual. In addition, autism diagnosis may be taken less seriously when it is made in for an adult rather than for a child, the idea being that if a person were really autistic, it would have been noticed in childhood. Some autistic adults respond to this by citing the relative ignorance about autism on the part of professionals and the general public, even ten years ago, compared to what is known in the present, and that autistic children were often misdiagnosed as learning-disabled, lazy, or as having a thought disorder. Even in the 1980s, professionals specializing in autism contributed to a peer-reviewed journal called the Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia. A deep analysis of these types of journals can show a misaligned or continually changing view of autism from non-autistics, which is often based on simpler understanding by non-autisics, and not a clear understanding for autistics. In psychiatry, thought disorder or formal thought disorder is a term used to describe a pattern of disordered language use that is presumed to reflect disordered thinking. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


A common reason for autistic adults to seek a diagnosis is to obtain services and/or accommodation for difficulties associated with autism. Some, however, only seek a diagnosis for the sake of a personal identity as a confirmation of why they feel "different" in a neurotypical society, or out of simple curiosity. Sometimes autistic adults find a self-diagnosis to be sufficient for this purpose (though some prefer an "official" diagnosis for credible confirmation). Those who have diagnosed themselves as autistic would not necessarily be seen as autistic by doctors and may instead be suffering from Medical Textbook Syndrome (reading about a condition and thinking they have it), or they may have some truly insightful views as people who can be categorized within the lesser known parts of the autistic spectrum.


Services and accommodation


The autism rights movement desires more services and accommodations for autistic adults. They also desire autistic adults to have equal opportunity in employment and in education.


Misconceptions of autistic traits

Some autistic rights activists believe some characteristics described as being autistic traits are actually misconceptions[4] and desire to educate the population about what they believe are the real reasons these alleged misconceptions occur. The website Getting the Truth Out argues that there are misconceptions of autistic traits. The website also opposes the way autism is allegedly perceived by society. from http://www. ...


As of 2006, some people have begun to subscribe to Simon Baron-Cohen's theory that autistic people lack a "theory of other minds"; that is, autistic people are unaware that other people do not necessarily think or know the same things that they do. However, Baron-Cohen's theory has not been proven to be true of all autistics. Some autistics have suggested that they are only perceived to lack a theory of mind because autistic people do not necessarily communicate with others in the same ways people who are not autistic do. This would prevent others' knowing whether autistics have a theory of mind or not. Some autistics who have difficulty with sensory input might be less likely to be able to interpret other people's thoughts and knowledge through observation. Some autistics have observed that non-autistics are insensitive to their perspectives, and write parodies based on this, addressing non-autism as a mental disorder characterized by lack of "theory of other minds".[5][6] Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Theory of other minds refers to a concept where a person is able to understand that other people dont necessarily have the same knowledge, feelings, and experiences. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ...


It is reported that 75% to 85% of autistic people are mentally retarded[citation needed]. It is believed that some autistics are incorrectly diagnosed with mental retardation because of lack of an ability to communicate what they know, and due to fundamental flaws in intelligence testing. According to the original definition by Aaron Rosanoff, it is also a factor that it might be possible to be strongly autistic, physically normal, and highly intelligent, thus escaping diagnosis as children, and consequently not appearing in current statistics. Gifted children sometimes have autistic traits, which may suggest an association.[citation needed] Mental retardation is a term for a pattern of persistently slow learning of basic motor and language skills (milestones) during childhood, and a significantly below-normal global intellectual capacity as an adult. ... IQ tests are regularly used during the process of an autism diagnosis. ... [* (The following is just a brief recent compendium of Rosanoffs segments acording to his theory personality, as extracted from a current temperament and aptitude test {as the original is now dificult to obtain}): N: Conventional/Self-controlled/Self-directed M: Active/Alert/Outgoing/Sociable H: Materialistic/Shrewd/Hard-headed/Entrepreneurial... Intellectual giftedness is an intellectual ability significantly higher than average. ...


Although some people believe autistic people have no emotions and no sense of humor (despite the existence of comedians with the condition), some autistic people reject this and report that they do experience a range of emotions, and indeed have a tremendous sense of humour, but just one that a neurotypical cannot relate to -- just as the autistic cannot relate to the neurotypical's humour. This again comes down to a majority perception of 'the norm', when there may not be one. Autistics with Asperger's Syndrome may actually be more emotionally sensitive than a neurotypical, but because of different expressions of emotion, they often come across as rude, abrupt and emotionless. The perception that autistics are emotionless may come from the fact that autistics may be more likely to keep their emotions to themselves -- for example, not laughing when they find something funny. Autistics may also have different emotional reactions from what people without autism may expect. Noting a different reaction than they were expecting may prompt people without autism to perceive a general lack of emotion in autistic people. Autistics may also be amused by things that non-autistics would not find funny, such as absurd, Monty Python-type humor such as eating roads or flowers growing on a telephone. For other uses, see Emotion (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Humour (disambiguation). ... Monty Python, or The Pythons, is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


Functioning labels

The autistic rights movement has contributed to controversies about functioning labels and the distinction between autism and Asperger's in the autism spectrum. In particular, some autistic rights activists are concerned with the functioning labels and the autism/Asperger's distinction making it more difficult to get services for difficulties associated with autism, and they believe the terms such as 'high-functioning' and 'low-functioning' are used as an excuse for their opponents to ignore the viewpoints they do not like. Some autistic individuals, in contrast, are supportive of low, high functioning labels and the distinction between autism and Asperger's, and believe it is important in helping individuals get proper consul and treatment.


Status as a social minority group

Amy Nelson of Aspies For Freedom wrote a proposal on November 16, 2004 that the Autistic community are a social minority group and therefore should be considered as such by the United Nations. This would give certain protection against the forcible use of cures and therapies, either now or in the future (though it should be noted that 'forcible' cures are not necessarily being suggested; instead, a cure is sought for people who want it[citation needed]). They say that if the fact that people on the autistic spectrum are different in their own right was accepted worldwide, instead of their being regarded as simply a faulty version of "normal" people, it would provide greater freedom to the whole community. Without the stigma or pressure to communicate in the same way as neurotypicals, autistics would be enabled to form social bonds in ways that best suit them. It is sometimes the case that typing or signing is easier than talking for autistics, and there is a fairly large autistic community on the Internet, many of whom are socially isolated locally. The statement from Amy Nelson on recognition for minority status is at [33]. is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Autistic communities are groups of people who have been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum, or who have self-identified as autistic, along with family members and other supporters. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a neologism used to describe people whose neurological development and state are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal in their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ...


The Nelson proposal that the Autistic community be classified as a minority group by the United Nations has divided the autistic community politically. Some autistics believe it is self-defeating to receive special status when they are capable of achieving things for themselves as successfully as people without autism. Some autistics also recognize that governmentally-declared minority groups are seen with disdain and opposition by those outside their group, and thus subject to more negativity than those who are not declared a minority by the power of government.


Activist methods and activities

Activist campaigns

In the early 2000s, activist campaigns started, mostly over the Internet. Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • In April 2000, Autistics.org hosted an online counter-rally called "Hear Our Voices" to protest an autism rally in Washington, D.C. called "Hear Their Silence" that they disagreed with. [34] [35]
  • In 2004, a Autistic Adults Picture Project was started in response to similar projects started by parents that only include pictures of children.
  • In September 2004, the "Our Names are Autism Too" is a campaign that protested an article titled "My Name is Autism" that presented a view autistic activists found insulting.
  • In October 2004, the Signatures of Intolerance campaign was started over controversy surrounding ABA in Canada.
  • In October 2004, AFF conducted the first ever protest against a walk for a cure. This walk was for NAAR.
  • In 2004, the Petition to Defend the Dignity of Autistic Citizens was started to protest the use of insults to describe autism (such as "mad child disease").
  • In 2004 Aspies for Freedom started a campaign against the use of electric shock devices
  • After Katherine McCarron, a three year old autistic child, died on May 13, 2006, some autistic rights activists started online memorials on websites and blogs to mourn her death.
  • In 2006 The Autistic Social Action Committee started a campaign against Rice Krispies support of Autism Speaks. This promotional campaign has since been removed from Kellogg's website.
  • In July 2006 the Autism Speaks: Don't Speak For Me campaign was launched.
  • In January 2007 a petition to the NIH was launched. The petition admonishes the NIH to reorient its goals in relation to autism research.
  • In February 2007 a petition for UK citizens to Downing street was launched by Aspies For Freedom, expressing the need for minority group status.

Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Katherine McCarron (2003-May 13, 2006) was an autistic girl who is noted for being suffocated with a plastic bag by her mother, Dr. Karen McCarron. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Rice Krispies box Rice Krispies (called Rice Bubbles in Australia) is a brand of breakfast cereal that has been produced by Kelloggs since 1928. ... Autism Speaks was founded in February, 2005 by Bob Wright and his wife Suzanne, to help find a cure for autism, a year after their grandson, Christian, was given the diagnosis. ... NIH can refer to: National Institutes of Health Norwegian School of Sports Sciences: (Norges idrettshøgskole - NIH) Not Invented Here This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Controversy

Criticism

The movement has been criticized by autism professionals and parents of autistic children who believe the goals of the movement will not help autistic children. There are some critics of the movement who still support some of the movement's goals despite opposing other goals.


Critics of the movement argue that the autistic spectrum people in the movement are high functioning and/or Asperger's and that they have the ability to communicate. Lenny Schafer, for example, argues that those in the movement are Asperger autistics, as opposed to Kanner autistics. He says that if they would change every use of autism to read Asperger syndrome the movement might "make sense".[36] They argue that low functioning autistic people have much less ability to communicate, but that the movement's activists clearly have the ability to write eloquently, and they believe that those who have less ability to communicate are likely to want or need very different things from those who can communicate more readily. Bobby Newman said in an issue of the Schafer Autism Report that he believes that those without basic skills of self-care would not want those who are capable of communication to speak on their behalf. (Part of the difficulty autistic activists have with such statements is that they seem to contain faulty logic; many autistics who need help with self-care are nonetheless capable of communication. [37]) This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, AS, or AD) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ... Lenny Schafer is the adoptive parent of an autistic child. ... Dr Leo Kanner MD Leo Kanner (June 13, 1894 - April 4, 1981) was an Austrian-American physician known for his work related to autism. ... Autism is a brain development disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction and communication, and restricted and repetitive behavior, all exhibited before a child is three years old. ...


The website Autism: A Debilitating Disease, Not a Culture argues that the movement's goals of understanding autistic people and changing the world to accommodate them is not enough because understanding will not end difficulties such as self-injury in autistic people and will not teach them to communicate [38]. The website also argues that only the opinions of autism professionals are valid, and not the opinion of autistic activists, because they argue that it is those who are experts in a field who can study a disorder, not those who have the disorder.


Some critics of the movement believe Michelle Dawson played an important role in Auton v. British Columbia and is responsible for Canadian children not receiving applied behavioral analysis, which is considered an important therapy by the people who make this criticism. These critics believe ABA has been scientifically proven to be effective and gives autistic children the best chance of success in adulthood. Some critics also fear that the movement will prevent other autistic children from receiving treatment. Kit Weintraub has responded to Michelle Dawson's claims that ABA is harmful by saying that it is harmful to deny medically necessary and appropriate treatment to autistic children who need it. Weintraub said she does not want ideology to triumph over the welfare of autistic children.[39] However, it is generally understood among the medical profession that whilst some symptoms of autism can be treated with drugs (e.g. aggression), autism itself cannot be treated with drugs. Auton (Guardian ad litem of) v. ...


Some critics feel that because a lack of empathy is considered an autistic trait,[7] the autistic traits of the activists of the movement cause them to lack empathy towards parents. Autistic advocates counter that the behavior of the pro-cure movement shows a striking lack of empathy for autistics.


Responses from the movement

The autism rights movement has responded to its critics.


The owners of Autistics. Org say that they receive e-mails from parents of autistic children in which parents claim their own children are different and have more difficulties than them. The people at Autistics. Org argue that when the parents describe their children's difficulties, they are describing the children to have difficulties that range from very similar to their own difficulties that they had as children, to very similar to their current difficulties as adults. Autistics. Org also says that their claims that they: don't want a cure, see autism as a part of who they are, and don't want attempts at help that may actually be harmful are wrongly perceived by their critics as not wanting help with anything and living under entirely positive circumstances [40]. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Activists in the movement have responded to criticisms that say they are high functioning or Asperger's by saying that some of them have been called low functioning as children by professionals, some of them can write but have no oral speech, and that some of them have periods of time where any form of communication is impossible. They also say it is not true that all autistic advocates are diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome and that some of the most outspoken ones are autistic. When critics claim that the people in the movement are Asperger's and not autistic, the people in the autism rights movement see this as an attempt to diagnose them via the Internet [41].


A. M. Baggs says that when the critics assume that intelligent and articulate autistic people do not have difficulties like self-injurious behavior and difficulty with self-care, they affect the opinions of policy makers and make it more difficult for intelligent and articulate autistic people to get services. Baggs cites examples of autistic people who were denied services because they have IQs above 70 [42]. Some people are also irritated by the perception created by Rain Man that all autistics have savant abilities, although the reality is that the psychiatrist in the film said that Dustin Hoffman's character Raymond Babbitt was very high functioning, unlike many other autistics, who are unable to speak. A countercriticism of this Rain Man defence is that the film was clearly made at a time when understanding of autism was less developed, and is not reflective of the reality. Raymond Babbitt is not considered high-functioning by people in the autism rights movement, who point out that Albert Einstein may have met the diagnostic criteria for high-functioning autism. Rain Man is a 1988 film which tells the story of a selfish yuppie who discovers that his father has left all of his estate to the autistic brother he never knew he had. ...


In an article titled History of ANI, Jim Sinclair, who has also been target of similar criticism from very early on, goes into detail about "the politics of opposition to self-advocacy". He notes, for example, that a common tactic is denying that "the persons mounting the challenge are really members of the group to which they claim membership". Sinclair illustrates the point with an analogy regarding Frederick Douglass, a nineteenth-century African American who became a well-known abolitionist writer and speaker. Douglass was after some time suspected of being an impostor because he was well spoken and educated, so he did not fit the stereotype of black slaves. Douglass also differs from majority black opinion, in that he supported the idea that blacks should be left to sink or swim just like everybody else. Frederick Douglass, ca. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This English poster depicting the horrific conditions on slave ships was influential in mobilizing public opinion against slavery. ... For the term used in computing, see stereotype (UML). ...


A.M. Baggs who has been published in the Autism Information Library responded to Bobby Newman's argument by saying that she was once in the situation Newman describes and would have wanted activists to stop her from receiving treatment she felt was harmful [43].


Autistics. Org has responded to Kit Weintraub's wish to remove her son's autistic symptoms so that he will make friends by saying that when someone is bullied or ostracized for a quality, it is because of people who are intolerant and not the fault of people who are different [44].


Some claim that autistic activists cannot claim expertise in autism.[attribution needed] Furthermore, some people consider autistic advocates such as Michelle Dawson to be, in fact, experts in autism and some autistic people have degrees in psychology.[attribution needed] Some argue that given the perseverative traits of many autistics, it is possible that some of them have acquired expert-level knowledge in the area.[attribution needed] Expertise is the property of a person (that is, expert) or of a system which delivers a desired result such as pertinent information or skill. ... Michelle Dawson is an autistic, autism researcher and autism rights activist who is most well known for writing a paper challenging the ethical and scientific foundations of Applied Behavioral Analysis(ABA)-based autism interventions and challenging ABA in the Supreme Court of Canada. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Phil Schwarz has responded to claims that the autistic advocates are higher functioning than autistic children by saying it is not always reasonable to compare the abilities of an autistic child with those of an autistic adult [45].


Some autistic authors such as A.M. Baggs have claimed that this is not always the case that anti-cure autistics have mild difficulties [46]. A common complaint is that anti-cure advocates are clearly able to articulate complex opinions in writing, which is seen by some parents as inconsistent with a diagnosis of autism. Autism rights movement members wonder why such parents rule out the possibility that their children will be able to do the same later in life. Autistics who oppose a cure say they may experience extreme difficulties on a daily basis, and that they oppose being cured despite these difficulties because they believe autism is a fundamental part of who they are.


Further responses of the movement can be summarized as follows:

  • The critics' position is tautological: They claim autistic persons cannot communicate and therefore don't have a voice. If they learn to communicate, they are no longer autistic by definition, and therefore are not allowed to speak on behalf of autistics.
  • The prognosis of autism is notoriously unpredictable. Autistic activists ask why parents should assume that their 3 or 4 year old child will behave the same way at age 30. They have also argued there are no indications that the recent increase in reported cases of autism is anything more than mass hysteria, and that all the "miracle cures" (which are not scientifically validated) are all but mass delusion.
  • Being able to communicate well in writing is not inconsistent with a diagnosis of autism.
  • Autism does not disappear the moment a person learns to communicate. Successfully teaching to communicate is not the same as "curing" autism.
  • Autism rights advocates believe parents should take into account the self-esteem of their autistic children. Activists ask, is it better to teach these children that they have a neurological disease requiring intensive behavioral training to correct, or that they have unique and special neurology they should cherish and accept for what it is?
  • Some of the critics' own children have apparently learned to communicate already, so their position is confusing because they argue that the writing abilities of autistic activists is evidence that they are fundamentally higher functioning than the children of the critics.

Within the study of logic, a tautology is a statement containing more than one sub-statement, that is true regardless of the truth values of its parts. ... The reported incidence of autism varies considerably among countries and is complicated by varying criteria for diagnosing autism, different standards for reporting public health problems, and other possible variations. ... Mass hysteria, also called collective hysteria or collective obsessional behavior, is the sociopsychological phenomenon of the manifestation of the same or similar hysterical symptoms by more than one person. ... A mass hallucination is a phenomenon in which a large group of people, usually in physical proximity to each other, all experience the same hallucination simultaneously. ...

Early origins and continuation of the debate

The debate is ongoing and critics have responded to the autism rights movement's responses to their original criticisms, and the autism rights movement in turn has responded to those.


The autism rights movement and its debates were collaborated online due much in part to usenet's alt.support.autism group. [47] which had autistics and people without autism on various sides of rights, cure and treatment issues. Due to the lack of moderation and what they perceive to be the abuse of several autistics on that forum by possible cranks, many have taken up blogging in more moderated communities like Yahoo Groups, and several communities on Livejournal, in particular asperger and other blogging and community sites. It should be noted however that the original usenet group has continued to thrive. Much of the current thought has evolved over time by discussions in these communities and groups. Over time, some internet meme has also resulted because of the autism rights movement, much of which is tongue in cheek criticism of the self-diagnosis issue. Usenet (USEr NETwork) is a global, decentralized, distributed Internet discussion system that evolved from a general purpose UUCP architecture of the same name. ... A person who holds strong, unorthodox opinions is sometimes called a crank. ... The Hampster Dance is one of the first widely distributed Internet Memes and illustrates the characteristic silliness of the genre. ...


Some of the debate continues offline as well. Autistics and people without autism of all ages participating in the autism rights movement may also be expressly excluded from their local autism organizations. Many have, however formed well-connected offline chapters to address the lack of this inclusion by some cure-oriented autism communities. Some groups, however, have been making efforts to include such families, groups and individuals in the movement to increase the level of communication and create mutual understanding.


Some of the most critical pro-cure advocates are non-autistic relatives of autistics, e.g. those represented by FAAAS, Families of Adults with Asperger Syndrome. [48] Many such organizations have characterized those in the anti-cure movement as being mostly an adult with Asperger Syndrome phenomenon and object to the anti-cure message as a result of their own personal perspectives of living with autistic adults.


Disagreements within the movement

Within the movement there are disagreements. Some autistics would prefer autism to be seen as a disability rather than a disease, meaning that it would have a status similar to blindness or deafness. Within this context, autism rights would fit within the broader movement of disability rights and autistic culture would be analogous to deaf culture. The concern is that calling for autism to be viewed as simply a way of being or as a non-disabled minority group (much like gay and lesbian persons) risks minimising recognition of the needs some autistics have for aid and assistance. Look up disability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the medical term. ... This article is about the visual condition. ... This article discusses the way the word deaf is used and how deafness is perceived by hearing and Deaf communities. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... This article describes aspects of Deaf cultures. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ...


The movement has been criticized for its own failure to incorporate diversity, include certain subgroups within the autistic community and that some in the movement are insulting to neurotypical individuals.[8] Autistic communities are groups of people who have been diagnosed as being on the autism spectrum, or who have self-identified as autistic, along with family members and other supporters. ... Neurotypical (or NT) is a neologism used to describe people whose neurological development and state are consistent with what most people would perceive as normal in their ability to process linguistic information and social cues. ...


See also

  • Autism
  • Autism rights
  • Articles related to pro-cure movements
  • Other movements and causes
  • Autism lists

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... There is considerable disagreement over the exact nature of autism, however it is generally considered to be a neurodevelopmental condition which manifests itself in markedly abnormal social interaction, communication ability, patterns of interests, and patterns of behavior. ... IQ tests are regularly used during the process of an autism diagnosis. ... It has been suggested that autistic community be merged into this article or section. ... Neurodiversity is an idea that asserts that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference. ...   Wrong Planet (sometimes referred to by its URL, WrongPlanet. ... The Autism Research Institute (ARI), established in 1967 by Bernard Rimland, is a San Diego, California, based nonprofit that funds research and provides information on autism and related autistic spectrum disorders. ... Cure Autism Now, or CAN, is an American organization dedicated to finding a cure for autism by accelerating the pace of biomedical research in autism through fundraising for research projects, education and outreach. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Biomedical intervention for autism. ... Beginning in the 1960s, a movement called anti-psychiatry claimed that psychiatric patients are not ill but are individuals that do not share the same consensus reality as most people in society. ... This article describes aspects of Deaf cultures. ... The disability rights movement aims to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... A banner ad for MindFreedom International MindFreedom International is a coalition of over 100 grassroots groups and thousands of individual members in 14 nations committed to winning and protecting the human rights of people labeled with psychiatric disorders. ... A number of people considered ill and needing treatment by specific psychiatrists or psychiatric doctrine in general do not perceive benefit from the services offered or forced upon them. ... This is a list of autism-related topics. ... This is a list of noteworthy people known to have a condition on the autistic spectrum. ... Fictional characters described by the authors as having conditions on the autistic spectrum. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Living with autism in a world made for others. A. Chris Gajilan. posted 7:28 a.m. EST, February 22, 2007. www.cnn.com/2007/HEALTH/02/21/autism.amanda/index.html, retrieved 23 February 2007
  2. ^ ^  Harmon, Amy. ""How About Not Curing Us? Some Autistics are Pleading?"", New York Times, December 20, 2004. 
  3. ^ a b http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/2988647.stm accessed: 30 October 2006
  4. ^ What is NT?. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  5. ^ The Sal and Anne Test: Implications, and Theory of Mind. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  6. ^ NT Theory of Mind. Retrieved on 2007-06-29.
  7. ^ Simon Baron-Cohen, for instance, highlights the fact in his book The Essential Difference that there are some jobs, where an excess of empathy would compromise one's capacity to do one's job e.g. armed forces officer
  8. ^ Autistic pride. Retrieved on 2007-07-05. (wayback machine version)

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Self-advocacy sites

    • Autistics.org - Resources by and for persons on the autistic spectrum
    • Autism National Committee Promotes the right to self-determination
    • Autistic People against Neuroleptic Abuse An advocacy group that warns against neuroleptic medications
    • ASAN - The Autistic Self-Advocacy Network is a non-profit organization run by autistics, those with other unique neurological types, and neurotypical family members, professionals, educators, and friends.

The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ...

Pro-neurodiversity parent sites

    • Celebrating Autistic Parents
    • Research, information, advocacy for those with Autism and other disorders The Autistic Spectrum

Advocacy sites

  • AutisticSociety.org - Autistic Society
  • Auties.org - Self employment and advocacy site for people on the spectrum

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