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Encyclopedia > Authorization for Use of Military Force

The Authorization for Use of Military Force (Public law 107-40) was a joint resolution passed by the United States Congress on September 18, 2001, authorizing the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the attacks on September 11, 2001. The authorization granted the President the authority to use all "necessary and appropriate force" against those whom he determined "planned, authorized, committed, or aided" the September 11th attacks, or who harbored said persons or groups. The AMUF was signed by President George W. Bush on September 18, 2001. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A joint resolution is a legislative measure of the United States of America, designated as S.J.Res (for the Senate version) and H.J.Res (for the House version), which requires the approval of both chambers of the United States Congress. ... Seal of the Congress. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American businessman and politician, was elected in 2000 as the 43rd President of the United States of America, re-elected in 2004, and is currently serving his second term in that office. ...


The AMUF has been cited by the President and his administration as authority for him to engage in electronic surveillance against possible terrorists without obtaining authorization of the special Court created by the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978. Surveillance is close monitoring of behaviour. ... The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) of 1978 prescribes procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of foreign intelligence information between or among foreign powers. FISA is codified in 50 U.S.C. §§1801-1811, 1821-29, 1841-46, and 1861-62. ...

Contents


Text of the AMUF

Introduction

Begun and held at the City of Washington on Wednesday, the third day of January, two thousand and one, a Joint Resolution:

To authorize the use of United States Armed Forces against those responsible for the recent attacks launched against the United States.
Whereas, on September 11, 2001, acts of treacherous violence were committed against the United States and its citizens; and
Whereas, such acts render it both necessary and appropriate that the United States exercise its rights to self-defense and to protect United States citizens both at home and abroad; and
Whereas, in light of the threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States posed by these grave acts of violence; and
Whereas, such acts continue to pose an unusual and extraordinary threat to the national security and foreign policy of the United States; and
Whereas, the President has authority under the Constitution to take action to deter and prevent acts of international terrorism against the United States: Now, therefore, be it
Resolved by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,

Section 1 - Short Title

This joint resolution may be cited as the 'Authorization for Use of Military Force'.


Section 2 - Authorization For Use of United States Armed Forces

(a) IN GENERAL- That the President is authorized to use all necessary and appropriate force against those nations, organizations, or persons he determines planned, authorized, committed, or aided the terrorist attacks that occurred on September 11, 2001, or harbored such organizations or persons, in order to prevent any future acts of international terrorism against the United States by such nations, organizations or persons. A terrorist is one who promotes widespread feelings of overwhelming imminent danger in order to change the mindset of the general populous, usually for political purposes. ...


(b) War Powers Resolution Requirements-

(1) SPECIFIC STATUTORY AUTHORIZATION- Consistent with section 8(a)(1) of the War Powers Resolution, the Congress declares that this section is intended to constitute specific statutory authorization within the meaning of section 5(b) of the War Powers Resolution.
(2) APPLICABILITY OF OTHER REQUIREMENTS- Nothing in this resolution supercedes any requirement of the War Powers Resolution.

Speaker of the House of Representatives. The War Powers Resolution (Public Law 93-148) limits the power of the President of the United States to wage war without the approval of the Congress. ... Dennis Hastert of Illinois, the current Speaker of the House (since January 6, 1999) The Speaker of the House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. ...


Vice President of the United States and President of the Senate. The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government. ... Dick Cheney 46th and current Vice President (2001- ) The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is a heartbeat from the presidency. ...


Congressional votes

House of Representatives

On September 14, 2001 this bill passed in the House without objection. The totals in the House of Representatives were: 420 Ayes, 1 Nay and 10 Not Voting. Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is, along with the United States Senate, one of the two houses of the Congress of the United States. ...


Senate

On September 14, 2001 this bill passed in the Senate by roll call vote. The totals in the Senate were: 98 Ayes, 0 Nays, 2 Present/Not Voting (Senators Larry Craig - R and Jesse Helms - R). Seal of the Senate The Senate of the United States of America is one of the two chambers of the Congress of the United States, the other being the House of Representatives. ... Larry Edwin Craig (born July 20, 1945) is the senior United States Senator from Idaho. ... Jesse Helms Jesse Alexander Helms, Jr. ...


AMUF as partial justification for eavesdropping on American citizens

For additional discussion on the eavesdropping of Americans issue, see the NSA warrantless surveillance controversy. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Authorization for Use of Military Force
  • War Powers Clause, United States Constitution Art. 1, Sect. 8, Clause 11, which vests in the Congress the exclusive power to declare war.

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Wikisource – The Free Library – is a Wikimedia project to build a free, wiki library of source texts, along with translations into any language and other supporting materials. ... Sometimes referred to as the War Powers Clause, the United States Constitution, Article One, Section 8, Clause 11, vests in the Congress the exclusive power to declare war. ... President George W. Bush signing the USA PATRIOT ACT in the White Houses East Room on October 26, 2001. ... The USA PATRIOT Act was passed by the United States Congress in 2001 as a response to the September 11, 2001 attacks. ... The Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution of 2002 (Public law 107-243, 116 Stat. ...

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