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Encyclopedia > Authority

In politics, authority (Latin auctoritas, used in Roman law as opposed to potestas and imperium) is often used interchangeably with the term "power". However, their meanings differ: while "power" refers to the ability to achieve certain ends, "authority" refers to the legitimacy, justification and right to exercise that power. For example, whilst a mob has the power to punish a criminal, such as through lynching, only the courts have the authority to order capital punishment. Look up authority in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Potestas is a Latin word meaning power or faculty. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... The word legitimacy comes from the Latin word legitimare and it has two uses: Legitimacy (political science) is variously defined, but refers in general to the peoples acceptance of a law, ruling, or a regime itself as valid. ... A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... Lynching is a form of violence, usually execution, conceived of by its perpetrators as extrajudicial punishment for offenders or as a terrorist method of enforcing social domination. ... A trial at the Old Bailey in London as drawn by Thomas Rowlandson and Augustus Pugin for Ackermanns Microcosm of London (1808-11). ...


Since the emergence of social sciences, authority has been a subject of research in a variety of empirical settings; the family (parental authority), small groups (informal authority of leadership), intermediate organizations such as schools, churches, armies, industries and bureaucracies (organizational and bureaucratic authority) and society-wide or inclusive organizations ranging from the most primitive tribal society to the modern nation-state and intermediate organization (political authority). The social sciences are groups of academic disciplines that study the human aspects of the world. ...


The jurisdiction of political authority, the location of sovereignty, the balancing of freedom and authority, the requirements of political obligations have been core questions for political philosophers from Plato and Aristotle to the present. PLATO was one of the first generalized Computer assisted instruction systems, originally built by the University of Illinois (U of I) and later taken over by Control Data Corporation (CDC), who provided the machines it ran on. ... Aristotle (Greek: Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ...

"The phenomena called authority is at once more ancient and more fundamental than the phenomena called state; the natural ascendancy of some men over others is the principle of all human organizations and all human advances."

Contents

Bertrand de Jouvenel (October 31, 1903, Paris -- March 1, 1987, Paris) was a French philosopher, political economist, and futurist. ...

Religious perceptions of authority

Most religions around the world, whether Hinduism, Islam, or Christianity have always considered God as the supreme authority. All the religious scriptures have considered God to have authority and wisdom, which is far superior than any human being. The source or reason behind this authority usually involves tremendous power and compassion along with primacy in the physical and spiritual realms. That which is divine is usually thought of as the creator and therefore superior to ordinary creatures. Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Many religions and spiritual movements hold certain written texts (or series of spoken legends not traditionally written down) to be sacred. ... For the 1986 American crime film, see Wisdom (film). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Divinity, as presented in the religious scriptures, makes claim to the final authority for all truth and reality, and provides rules and directions for the use of creation. The question of authority in such a system is "what does God want from me and how do I know this?" The source for answers to these types of questions in a divine authority consideration is variable in the human experience. Absolutism is often the result of receipt of what has been considered a divinely authored experience. The common experience of man is a religious history. Methods of understanding the connection to divinity are multiple, all seem to require some measure of faith in divinity and contemplation of perhaps multiple methods of communication. Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with create. ... The term absolutism can mean: A belief in absolute truth moral absolutism, the belief that there is some absolute standard of right and wrong political absolutism, a political system where one person holds absolute power, also called apolytarchy from Gr. ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... Contemplation comes from the latin root for temple, and means to enter an open or consecrated place. ...


For example, in the modern era; the act of observing the communion or the Lord's supper comes from a combination of direct divine command, approved apostolic example recorded in scripture, and necessary inference. Jesus directly states to his disciples that they are to partake of this examination (found in the Gospels and rehearsed in the First Epistle to the Corinthians); there is an example of an apostle and others participating in this act of worship and obedience in the Book of Acts, where the day of the observance is mentioned; as with all Bible references, the reader must infer or understand how the direction from God to be applicable to today. For other uses, see Eucharist (disambiguation). ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... The Acts of the Apostles (Greek Praxeis Apostolon) is a book of the Bible, which now stands fifth in the New Testament. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ...


Weber on authority

The word authority derives from the Latin word "auctoritas", used in Roman law as opposed to potestas. According to Giorgio Agamben (2005), "auctoritas has nothing to do with magistrates or the people's potestas or imperium. The Senator… is not a magistrate". Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... Potestas is a Latin word meaning power or faculty. ... Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... A magistrate is a judicial officer. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ...


In Weberian sociology, authority comprises a particular type of power. The dominant usage comes from functionalism, defining authority as power which is recognized as legitimate and justified by both the powerful and the powerless. Weber divided authority into three types: For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge) is an academic and applied discipline that studies society and human social interaction. ... Much of the recent sociological debate on power revolves around the issue of the constraining and/or enabling nature of power. ... This article is about functionalism in sociology. ...


The first type discussed by Weber is the Traditional authority which according to him derives from long-established customs, habits and social structures. When power passes from one generation to another then it is known as traditional authority. The right of hereditary monarchs to rule furnishes an obvious example. There are several examples in this regard. The Tudors in England, and the ruling families of Mewar in Rajasthan (India) are some examples of traditional authority. Traditional authority (also known as traditional domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to tradition or custom. ... For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... The Tudor dynasty or House of Tudor (Welsh Twdwr) is a series of five monarchs of Welsh origin who ruled England from 1485 until 1603. ... , Rājasthān (DevanāgarÄ«: राजस्थान, IPA: )   is the largest state of the Republic of India in terms of area. ...


The second type of authority is Rational-legal authority. It is that form of authority which depends for its legitimacy on formal rules and established laws of the state, which are usually written down, and are often very complex. The power of the rational legal authority is mentioned in the constitution. Modern societies depend on legal-rational authority. Government officials are the best example of this form of authority which is prevalent all over the world. Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy. ... Legitimacy in political science, is the popular acceptance of a governing regime or law as an authority. ...


The third form of authority is Charismatic authority. Here, the charisma of the individual or the leader plays an important role. Charismatic authority is that authority which is derived from "the gift of grace," or, when the leader claims that his authority is derived from a "higher power" (e.g. God or natural law or rights) or "inspiration" that is superior to both the validity of traditional and rational-legal authority, and followers accept this and are willing to follow this higher or inspired authority in the place of the authority that they have hitherto been following. Some of the most prominent examples of charismatic authority can be politicians or leaders who come from a movie or entertainment background. These people become successful because they use their grace and charm to get more votes during elections. Examples in this regard can be NT Rama Rao, a matinee idol who went on to become one of the most powerful Chief Ministers of Andhra Pradesh. History has witnessed several social movements or revolution against a system of traditional or legal-rational authority, which are usually started by Charismatic authority. What distinguishes authority from coercion, force, and power on the one hand and leadership, persuasion and influence on the other hand is legitimacy. Superiors feel that they have a right to issue commands; subordinates perceive an obligation to obey. Social scientists agree that authority is but one of several resources available to incumbents in formal positions. For example, a Head of State is dependent upon a similar nesting of authority. His legitimacy must be acknowledged not just by citizens but by those who control other valued resources: his immediate staff, his cabinet, military leaders and in the long run administration and political apparatus of the entire society. Jesus is considered by historians such as Weber to be an example of a charismatic religious leader; The sociologist Max Weber defined charismatic authority as resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual person, and of the normative patterns or order revealed or ordained... “Andhra” redirects here. ... Social movements are broader political associations focussed on specific issues. ... For other uses, see Revolution (disambiguation). ... Coercion is the practice of compelling a person to involuntarily behave in a certain way (whether through action or inaction) by use of threats, intimidation or some other form of pressure or force. ... its made by jaypeeng magandang google wikepedia For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Persuasion (disambiguation). ... Influence Science and Practice (ISBN 0321188950) is a Psychology book examining the key ways people can be influenced by Compliance Professionals. The books authors is Robert B. Cialdini, Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. ...


Authority and the state

(this is completely personal opinion; read at your own discretion!) The jurisdiction of political authority is widely discussed in the U.S.; Even the current Iraq war is in question. However, do not let authority and power Confuse the issue. If a dictator is murdering thousands of people, a country such as the U.S., England, Spain, or any other country who is willing to take action to stop mass killing (Murder) (Breaking one of the ten commandments in the Bible) this type of action falls under authority not power. This is because murdering is wrong, and taking the authority to do something about it is done by justified authority.


Every state has a number of institutions which exercise authority based on longstanding practices. In India, the British created the institution of the Civil Service, which is still going strong even after 150 years. The Armed Forces of India is another institution which is subordinate to the government but is a very old and prominent institution. Apart from this, every state sets up agencies which are competent in dealing with one particular matter. All this is set up within its charter. One example can be that of a port authority like the port of London authority. They are usually created by special legislation and are run by a board of directors. Several agencies and institutions are also created along the same lines and they exercise autonomy in certain matters. They are also usually required to be self-supporting through property taxes or other forms of collection or fees for services. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey is a bi-state agency (operated pursuant to an interstate compact) that runs most of the regional transportation infrastructure including the bridges, tunnels, airports and seaports within the New York-New Jersey Port District. ... In relation to a company, a director is an officer (that is, someone who works for the company) charged with the conduct and management of its affairs. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ...


The use of authority by contemporary social scientists is not dispute free. According to Laswell and Kaplan, authority is formal power. But Friedrich rejected their definition and defined authority as the quality of a communication which is capable of reasoned elaboration. Laswell and Kaplan believed that power is a form of influence whereas Friedrich maintained that influence is a kind of power, indirect and unstructured. According to him, it seems of unlimited value to pursue a definition of authority as a special case of power or influence. Social Scientists are by no means agreed on how the concept should be used. According to Michels, in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences, authority is the capacity, innate or acquired for exercising ascendancy over a group. But Bierstedt argues that authority is not a capacity, it is a relationship. It is sanctioned power, institutionalised power.


See Special-purpose district and Public Authority. Generally a special-purpose district, also known as a special district, is a type of district differing from general-purpose districts like municipalities, counties, etc. ... A Public Authority is a public corporation, chartered by a State. ...


See also

Auctoritas is the Latin origin of English authority. According to Benveniste [citation?], auctor (which also gives us English author) is derived from Latin augeó (to augment): The auctor is is qui auget, the one who augments the act or the juridical situation of another. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... Anti-authoritarianism is the belief that communities should have the right to govern themselves and not be ruled by an outside force. ... An appeal to authority or argument by authority is a type of argument in logic, consisting on basing the truth value of an assertion on the authority, knowledge or position of the person asserting it. ...

References

Giorgio Agamben (born 1942) is an Italian philosopher who teaches at the Università IUAV di Venezia. ... Hannah Arendt (October 14, 1906 – December 4, 1975) was a German Jewish political theorist. ... Józef Maria Bocheński (born 30 August 1902 in Czuszów, Poland - 1995) was a Polish dominican, logician and philosopher. ... Karl Popper Sir Karl Raimund Popper (July 28, 1902 - September 17, 1994), was an Austrian-born, British philosopher of science. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP) is a freely-accessible online encyclopedia of philosophy maintained by Stanford University. ...

External links

  • Authority: senses, synonyms and related words (Titiland dictionary)
  • Qualitionary - Legal Definitions - Authority
  • Authority - article by Peter Morville

  Results from FactBites:
 
Authority (1041 words)
In the good old days, not so long ago, in the context of the written word, authority was a term used primarily by librarians as a criteria of evaluation.
People obey authority out of respect, while they obey power out of fear…Authority need not be consistent or rational, it only needs to be accepted as a source of permission or truth.
The real upheaval lies just ahead, as a generation of school kids (and their teachers and librarians) struggle to reconcile traditional notions of education and objectivity and authority with the constructivist web of social facts and collective intelligence where folksonomies flourish and the truth is a virus of many colors.
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