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Encyclopedia > Autarky

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An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from the outside, and relies entirely on its own resources. In the economic meaning, it is also referred to as a closed economy. Image File history File links Portal. ... An ecosystem, a contraction of ecological and system, refers to the collection of biotic and abiotic components and processes that comprise and govern the behavior of some defined subset of the biosphere. ...

Contents

Origin of the term

The word "autarky" is from the Greek αὐτάρκεια, which means "self-sufficiency" (derived from αὐτο, "self," and ἀρκέω, "to suffice"). In American English it is sometimes confused with autarchy (Greek: αὐταρχία) which is also spelt as "autarky", and either means self-government or government by absolute rule. Libertarian theorist Robert LeFevre used "autarchy" and "autarchism" in the sense of self-government to describe his own political philosophy and to distinguish it from anarchism. For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ... Look up Autarchy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... Robert LeFevre (1911–1986) was a libertarian businessman and radio personality. ... It has been suggested that Origins of anarchism and History of anarchism be merged into this article or section. ...


Additional characteristics of autarkies

The tendency of autarkies to invade their neighbors in an attempt to increase their access to resources has long been known. As the 19th century economist Frédéric Bastiat put it, "If goods don't cross borders, troops will". Frédéric Bastiat Claude Frédéric Bastiat (June 30, 1801–December 24, 1850) was a French classical liberal theorist, political economist, and member of the French assembly. ...


Modern autarkies

Mercantilism was a policy followed by empires, especially in the 17th and 18th century, forbidding or limiting trade outside the empire. In the 20th century autarky as a policy goal was sought by Nazi Germany in the 1930s, by maximizing trade within its economic bloc and minimizing trade outside it. A painting of a French seaport from 1638, at the height of mercantilism. ...


Today, complete economic autarkies (or autarchies) are rare. An example of a current autarky is North Korea, based on the government ideology of Juche (self-reliance). However, even North Korea has a small amount of trade with the People's Republic of China and Japan. Bhutan, seeking to preserve an economic and cultural system centered around the dzong, has until recently maintained an effective economic embargo against the outside world, and has been described as an autarky. With the introduction of roads and electricity, however, the kingdom is being forced into trade relations as its citizens seek modern manufactured goods. Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Self-Reliance is an essay by Ralph Waldo Emerson. ... Dzong architecture is a distinctive type of fortress architecture found in the former and present Buddhist kingdoms of the Himalayas, most notably Bhutan. ...


Historical autarkies

  • Japan was partially an autarky during the era known as the "Edo period", prior to its opening to the west in the 1850s, as part of its policy of sakoku. There was a moderate amount of trade with China and Korea; trade with all other countries was confined to a single port on the island of Dejima.
  • India had a policy of near-autarky that began after its establishment as an independent state, around 1950, and ended in 1991. [2]
  • China as well was close to an autarky from around 1950 to 1978, as a result of policies established by Mao Zedong. [3]
  • Albania became a near-autarky in 1976, when Communist Party leader Enver Hoxha instituted a policy of what he termed "self-reliance". [4] Outside trade increased after Hoxha's death in 1985, though it remained severely restricted until 1991. [5]

  Results from FactBites:
 
Autarky - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (513 words)
An autarky is an economy that limits trade with the outside world, or an ecosystem not affected by influences from its outside, and relies entirely on its own resources.
In the 20th century autarky as a policy goal was sought by Nazi Germany in the 1930s, by maximizing trade within its economic bloc and minimizing trade outside it.
Japan was partially an autarky during the era known as the "Edo period", prior to its opening to the west in the 1850s, as part of its policy of sakoku.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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