FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Australian republicanism
Australia

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Australia
Image File history File links Flag_of_Australia. ... John Howard MP, Prime Minister of Australia and leader of the Liberal Party Kim Beazley MP, Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the Australian Labor Party The politics of Australia take place within the framework of parliamentary democracy. ...

Federal Government // Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation and a parliamentary democracy. ...

Executive

Legislative The Queens Personal Australian Flag. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) (born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms. ... The Governor-General of Australia is the highest constitutional officer in the Commonwealth of Australia. ... Major-General Philip Michael Jeffery, AC, CVO, MC (Retd) (born 12 December 1937), 24th Governor-General of Australia, was born in Wiluna, Western Australia and was educated at state schools in Perth. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the countrys 25th and current Prime Minister. ... The Cabinet of Australia (whose members also serve in the Executive Council of Australia) is the council of senior ministers, responsible to parliament. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...

1993 - 1996 - 1998 - 2001 - 2004 - 2007 - Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of Australia. ... Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Australian Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... Australian House of Representatives chamber Entrance to the House of Representatives The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia. ... Elections in Australia gives information on elections and election results in Australia. ... A how-to-vote card from the Australian federal election of 2004, showing voters how to fill in the squares on the ballot paper if they wish to vote for the Liberal Party of Australia. ... The Australian House of Representatives is elected from 150 single-member districts called Divisions. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on March 13, 1993. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 2 March 1996. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 3 October 1998. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 10 November 2001. ... Legislative elections were held in Australia on 9 October 2004. ... The next Australian legislative election is expected to take place in 2007. ...

Judicial In law, the judiciary or judicature is the system of courts which administer justice and provide a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ...

State and territory governments High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... There are two broad levels within the hierarchy of Australian courts, the federal level and the state and territory level. ... The Australian States and Territories make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ...

Executive

Legislative The Governors of the Australian states are the representatives in the six states of Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II. The Governors perform the same constitutional and ceremonial functions at the state level as does the Governor-General of Australia at the national level. ... The Premiers of the Australian states are the heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ...

ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. -
SA - Tas. - Vic. - WA The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... The legislatures of the Australian states and territories all follow the Westminster model described in the Australian electoral system. ... Emblems: ? (please edit) Motto: For the Queen, the Law and the People Slogan or Nickname: (none) Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Administrator Chief Minister Const. ... The form of the Government of New South Wales is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then. ... Official crest of the Northern Territory The Government of the Northern Territory is a unicameral parliament (i. ... Queensland Government Logo The Government of Queensland is commonly known as the Queensland Government. ... The form of the Government of South Australia is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then. ... The form of the Government of Tasmania is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then. ... The form of the Government of Victoria is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1855, although it has been amended many times since then. ... The form of the Government of Western Australia is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1890, although it has been amended many times since then. ...

Local government Australia has two tiers of subnational government: state (or territory) government and local government. ...

Political parties Political parties in Australia lists political parties in Australia. ...

Democrats - Greens - Labor Party -
Country Liberal Party - Family First Party -
Liberal Party - National Party The Australian Democrats (in regular parlance, just the Democrats), is an Australian social liberal party formed in 1977 from the earlier Australia Party by Don Chipp, who left the Liberal Party of Australia to do so. ... The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is the national Greens party in Australia. ... The Australian Labor Party or ALP is Australias oldest political party. ... In Australian politics, the Country Liberal Party (CLP) is the Northern Territory equivalent to the Liberal and National parties - the Country part of the partys name is a relic of when the National Party was called the Country Party. ... The Family First Party is a political party in Australia. ... The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian liberal conservative political party. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ...

Foreign relations RG Casey House, Canberra, is the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the department responsible for the formulation and enaction of Australian foreign policy. ...

Republicanism

See also:
Politics Portal

Australian republicanism is a movement within Australia to replace the country's existing status as a Commonwealth realm under a constitutional monarchy with a republican form of government. This would sever the historical ties with the Monarchy. Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states of the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... The Queens Personal Australian Flag. ...


For a discussion of Australia's current constitutional arrangements, see Government of Australia, Monarchy in Australia, Governor-General of Australia, Parliament of Australia and Prime Minister of Australia. // Australia is a constitutional monarchy, a federation and a parliamentary democracy. ... The Queens Personal Australian Flag. ... Michael Jeffery, the current Governor-General of Australia The Governor-General of Australia is the representative in Australia of Australias head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, who lives in the United Kingdom. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of Australia. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ...

Contents


Arguments for change

Representing Australia

The main argument made by supporters of an Australian republic is that it is inappropriate for someone in a distant country to be their head of state. They argue that a "foreigner" whose main job is as the head of state of the United Kingdom, and spends his or her life there, cannot represent Australia, not to itself, nor to the rest of the world. As Frank Cassidy, a member of the Australian Republican Movement put it in a speech on the issue: The Australian Republican Movement was founded in July 1991. ...

In short, we want a resident for President.

Monarchists, such as those represented by Australians for Constitutional Monarchy and the Australian Monarchist League, respond that the Queen of Australia maintains close ties with Australia, and claim that she is not a citizen of a foreign nation. They further assert that the Governor-General, who acts as Head of State, does an able job of representing Australia domestically and to other nations. Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM) was founded in June 1992 to defend the Australian Constitution, the role of the Crown in it, and to preserve the role of the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General, as Australias constitutional head of state. ... The Australian Monarchist League was founded in 1943 to support the role of the Crown in the Australias constitutional system. ...


Multiculturalism

Republicans argue that Australia has changed culturally and demographically, from being "British to our bootstraps", as prime minister Sir Robert Menzies once put it, to being increasingly multicultural. For Australians of Italian or Chinese origin, they argue, the idea of a Monarch of Australia who is also the Monarch of Britain is an anomaly, while even for some of those of British origin, it is an anachronism. Aborigines and Australians of Irish origin, they argue, see it as a symbol of British imperialism. Sir Robert Gordon Menzies KT AK CH QC FRS, (20 December 1894 – 14 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving a total of eighteen and a half years in office from 1939 to 1941 and from 1949 to 1966. ... Multiculturalism is a public policy approach for managing cultural diversity in a multiethnic society, officially stressing mutual respect and tolerance for cultural differences within a countrys borders. ... Australian Aborigines are the main indigenous people of Australia. ... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ...


Monarchists argue that immigrants who left unstable republics and have arrived in Australia since 1945 have welcomed the social and political stability that they found in Australia under a constitutional monarchy. 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


Social values

It has been argued that several characteristics of the monarchy are in conflict with modern Australian values. The hereditary nature of the monarchy is said to conflict with Australian egalitarianism and dislike of inherited privilege. The laws of succession are held by some to be sexist and the links between the monarchy and the Church of England inconsistent with Australia's secular character. To back up such claims, reference is made to Australian anti-discrimination laws which prohibit arrangements under which males have precedence over females, or under which becoming or marrying a Catholic invalidates any legal rights. Egalitarianism is any moral or political theory that emphasizes the supposed equality of morally-significant beings. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all differentiations based on sex. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Secularity is the state of being free from religious or spiritual qualities. ...


Monarchists claim that the succession of an apolitical head of state provides a far more stable constitutional system compared to one involving appointing or electing a president who is likely to have a political agenda. Also, laws surrounding the line of succession, those that stipulate the eldest male is first in line, etc., can be altered without removing the Australian monarchy.


Proposals for change

A typical proposal for an Australian republic provides for the Queen and Governor General to be replaced by a president. There is much debate on the appointment process that would be used and what role such an office would have.


From its foundation until the 1999 referendum, the Australian Republican Movement (ARM) supported the bi-partisan appointment model, which would result in a President elected by the Parliament of Australia, with the powers currently held by the Queen and the Governor-General. It was argued that the requirement of a two-thirds majority in a vote of both houses of parliament would result in a bi-partisanship appointment, preventing a party politician from becoming president. The 1999 Australian republic referendum was a two question referendum held on 6 November 1999. ... The Australian Republican Movement was founded in July 1991. ... The Bi-partisan appointment republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of Australia. ...


Many republicans did not support this model, preferring the President to be directly elected. Of these republicans, there are some who continue to advocate minimal change or codification of the President's powers. Others support extensive constitutional reform and the President having greater discretion in using his or her powers than the Governor-General. A direct election republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform. ...


An alternative, 'minimalist', approach to change provides for the replacement of the Queen alone and retaining the Governor-General. The most notable model of this type is the McGarvie Model while Copernican Models replace the Queen with a directly-elected figurehead. If this were to happen, it would be a first, as all other former Commonwealth Realms have created presidencies upon becoming republics. The McGarvie Model is a proposition for change to the Australian Constitution to remove references to the monarchy and establish a republic. ... Copernican paradigm is an analysis of Australian constitutional structures in order to develop models establishing Australia as a republic with a directly-elected Head of State. ... A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the 16 sovereign states that recognize Queen Elizabeth II as their Queen and head of state. ...


Australians for Constitutional Monarchy and the Australian Monarchist League, who reject republicanism, argue that no model is better than the present system and argue that the risk and difficulty of changing the constitution is best demonstrated by inability of republicans to back a definitive design. Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM) was founded in June 1992 to defend the Australian Constitution, the role of the Crown in it, and to preserve the role of the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General, as Australias constitutional head of state. ... The Australian Monarchist League was founded in 1943 to support the role of the Crown in the Australias constitutional system. ...


Party political positions

Liberal-National Coalition

The Liberal party has both republicans and supporters of the status quo in its ranks. The National party has few republicans and is against change as official policy. The Liberal Party of Australia is an Australian liberal conservative political party. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ...


Under Prime Minister Howard, the government initiated a process to settle the republican debate, involving a constitutional convention and a referendum. Howard, who supports the status quo, says the matter was resolved by the failure of the referendum. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the countrys 25th and current Prime Minister. ... A Process Model is a proposal to assist parliament make decisions concerning constitutional reform. ...


Treasurer Peter Costello, who is tipped to replace Howard, does support republicanism but has not hinted if he would initiate a new process. Peter Costello Peter Howard Costello (born 14 August 1957), Australian politician, has been Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party since 1994, and Treasurer in the Australian government since 1996. ...


Australian Labor Party

The Opposition Labor is pro-republic as a matter of policy and had pledged a series of plebiscites to restart the republican process. Labor spokesperson, Nicola Roxon says reform will "always fail if we seek to inflict a certain option on the public without their involvement. This time round, the people must shape the debate" [1] A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... A Process Model is a proposal to assist parliament make decisions concerning constitutional reform. ...


Minor Parties

The Australian Democrats and the Australian Greens all support a move towards a republic. The Family First party does not have an official stance on the creation of an Australian Republic. The Australian Democrats (in regular parlance, just the Democrats), is an Australian social liberal party formed in 1977 from the earlier Australia Party by Don Chipp, who left the Liberal Party of Australia to do so. ... The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is the national Greens party in Australia. ... The Family First Party is a political party in Australia. ...


History

Whitlam era

The election of a Labor Government in 1972 marked the end of a period where Australians saw themselves principally as part of the Commonwealth of Nations. Prime Minister Gough Whitlam instituted a number of reforms, including removing reference to the United Kingdom in Queen Elizabeth's Australian title on 19 October 1973, when she signed her assent to the Royal Style and Titles Act, and creating a domestic system of conferring civil and military honours. It was also during this time that Australia's preferred economic status with Britain was dropped in favour of Britain joining the European Economic Community. The Commonwealth of Nations, usually known as The Commonwealth, is an association of 53 independent sovereign states, almost all of which are former territories of the British Empire. ... Edward Gough Whitlam AC QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (pronounced Goff), Australian politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia, was the only Australian Prime Minister to be dismissed by the Governor-General. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) (born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen independent nations known as the Commonwealth Realms. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1973 (MCMLXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Australian honours system until 1975 was part of the British honours system. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The Whitlam Government ended in 1975 with a dramatic constitutional crisis in which the Queen's representative, the Governor General, dismissed Whitlam and his entire ministry, appointing Opposition Leader Malcolm Fraser in his place. This particular incident raised questions about the value of maintaining a supposedly "symbolic" office that still possessed many key, and potentially dangerous, political powers. It is notable however, that the monarch herself was not consulted in the decision to use the reserve powers. The Australian constitutional crisis of 1975 is generally regarded as the most significant domestic political and constitutional crisis in Australias history. ... The Governor-General of Australia is the highest constitutional officer in the Commonwealth of Australia. ... John Malcolm Fraser AC, CH (born 21 May 1930), Australian politician and 22nd Prime Minister of Australia, came to power in the circumstances of the dismissal of the Whitlam government. ...


The Australia Act and other reforms

In 1986, the Australia Act was enacted with the United Kingdom to eliminate the remaining, mainly theoretical, ties between the legislature and judiciary of the two countries. It was later determined by the High Court in Sue v Hill that this legislation established Britain and Australia as independent nations sharing a common sovereign. The Australia Act of 1986 (No. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ...


At broadly the same time, references to the monarchy were being removed from various institutions. For example, in 1993, references to the Queen were removed from the Oath of Citizenship sworn by naturalised Australians, who would now swear allegiance to the country and its people 'whose democratic beliefs I share and whose laws I shall obey'. The state of Queensland deleted all references to the monarchy from its legislation, with new laws being enacted by its Parliament, not the Queen, and 'binding on the State of Queensland', not the Crown. Barristers in New South Wales were no longer appointed 'Queen's Counsel' (QC), but 'Senior Counsel' (SC), as in republics like Ireland and South Africa. Institutions in Australia could no longer apply to have 'Royal' in their title, and British citizens residing in Australia could no longer enroll to vote in state or federal elections. 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... An Oath of Citizenship is an oath taken by immigrants that officially naturalizes immigrants into citizens. ... Emblems: Faunal - Koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); Floral - Cooktown orchid (Dendrobium bigibbum); Bird - Brolga (Grus rubicunda); Aquatic - Barrier Reef Anemonefish (Amphiprion akindynos); Gem - Sapphire; Colour - Maroon Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Slogan or Nickname: Sunshine State, Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Governor Premier Const. ... Emblems: Floral - Waratah (Telopea Speciosissima); Bird - Kookaburra (Dacelo Gigas); Animal - Platypus (Ornithorhynchus Anatinus); Fish - Blue Groper (Achoerodus Viridis) Motto: Orta Recens Quam Pura Nites (Newly Risen, How Brightly You Shine) Slogan or Nickname: First State, Premier State Other Australian states and territories Capital Sydney Government Governor Premier Const. ...


Many monarchists condemned these as being moves to a republic 'by stealth'.


Keating Government proposals

The Australian Labor Party first made republicanism its official policy in 1991, with then Prime Minister Bob Hawke describing a republic as inevitable. His successor Paul Keating actively pursued the republican agenda and established the Republic Advisory Committee to produce an options paper on issues relating to the possible transition to a republic to take effect on the centenary of federation: January 1, 2001. The Committee produced its report in 1993, and argued that a "a republic is achievable without threatening Australia’s cherished democratic institutions." The Australian Labor Party or ALP is Australias oldest political party. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Robert James Lee Hawke AC (born 9 December 1929) is a former Australian trade union leader turned politician who became the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia. ... Paul John Keating (born 18 January 1944), Australian politician and 24th Prime Minister of Australia, came to prominence first as the reforming Treasurer in the Hawke government, then as the Prime Minister who pulled off an upset victory in the unwinnable election of 1993. ... The Republic Advisory Committee was a committee established by the then Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating in May 1993 to examine the constitutional and legal issues that would arise were Australia to become a republic. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...


In response to the report, the Prime Minister proposed a referendum on the establishment of a republic, replacing the Governor-General with a President, and removing references to the Queen. The President was to be nominated by the Prime Minister and appointed by a two-thirds majority in a joint sitting of the Senate and House of Representatives. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Australian Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... Australian House of Representatives chamber Entrance to the House of Representatives The Australian House of Representatives is one of the two houses (chambers) of the Parliament of Australia. ...


1998 Constitutional Convention

Main Article: Constitutional Convention (Australia) In Australian history, the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings. ...


With change in government in 1996, Prime Minister John Howard proceeded with an alternative policy of holding a constitutional convention. This was held over two weeks in February 1998 at Old Parliament House. Half of the 152 delegates were elected and half were appointed by Federal and state governments. Convention delegates were asked whether or not Australia should become a republic and which model for a republic is preferred. John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the countrys 25th and current Prime Minister. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag Parliament House is the name given to two purpose-built buildings in Canberra, the capital of Australia, where the Parliament of Australia has met since 1927. ...


At the Convention, a republic gained majority support (89 votes to 52 with 11 abstentions), but the issue of what model for a republic should be put to the people at a referendum produced deep divisions among republicans. Four republican models were debated: two involving direct election of the head of state; one involving appointment by the Prime Minister (the McGarvie Model); and one involving appointment by a two-thirds majority of Parliament (the bi-partisan appointment model). The 1999 Australian republic referendum was a two question referendum held on 6 November 1999. ... A direct election republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The McGarvie Model is a proposition for change to the Australian Constitution to remove references to the monarchy and establish a republic. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag The Parliament of Australia is the legislative branch of Australia. ... The Bi-partisan appointment republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform. ...


The bi-partisan appointment model was eventually successful at the Convention, and put to referendum the following year. The Convention also made recommendations about a preamble to the Constitution, and a proposed preamble was also put to referendum. The 1999 Australian republic referendum was a two question referendum held on 6 November 1999. ... Look up Preamble in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


According to critics, the two-week timeline and quasi-democratic composition of the convention is evidence of an attempt by John Howard to frustrate the republican cause. Although he admits to being an "unashamed royalist", the claim is one he adamantly rejects.


The 1999 Republican referendum

Main article: 1999 Australian republic referendum The 1999 Australian republic referendum was a two question referendum held on 6 November 1999. ...


The 1999 Australian republic referendum was a two question referendum held in 1999. The first question asked whether Australia should become a republic with a President appointed by Parliament, a model which had previously been decided at a Constitutional Convention in February 1998. The second question, generally deemed to be far less important politically, asked whether Australia should alter the constitution to insert a preamble. Neither of the amendments passed, with the 'no' side scoring about 55% of the vote. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people of that state or country. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, universities, and countries. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in orange and red—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, and the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... In Australian history, the term Constitutional Convention refers to four distinct gatherings. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Constitution Alteration (Preamble) 1999 proposed the addition of a preamble to the Australian constitution, recognising Indigenous Australians as the traditional land owners before European settlement. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ...


Under the referendum proposal, the Governor General and Queen would be replaced by one office, the President of the Commonwealth of Australia. The President could be appointed by the Australian Parliament to a fixed term. The existing powers of the Governor General were to be transferred to the President by reference, meaning that they would continue to be unwritten.


Supporters of the republican model claimed that, contrary to monarchist views, the stability of Australia's liberal democracy would not be imperilled and would in fact be enhanced by such a change, because the Prime Minister, whilst retaining the ability to sack the (effective) head of State, could not alone choose their replacement and would thus have no incentive to do so. Additionally, wider involvement in the choice would ensure that the backgrounds of the appointees would be more thoroughly scrutinized. The Bi-partisan appointment republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


The referendum was held on 6 November 1999, after a national advertising campaign and the distribution of 12.9 million Yes/No case pamphlets. The question on a republic was defeated. It was not carried in a single state and attracted 45 per cent of the total national vote. The preamble referendum question was also defeated, with a Yes vote of only 39 per cent. November 6 is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 55 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Many opinions were put forward for the defeat, some relating to perceived difficulties with the model, others relating to the lack of public engagement. Many republic supporters voted against the referendum because they disliked the model provided, preferring a directly-elected president. Referenda, particularly on questions of constitutional change, are notoriously difficult to pass in Australia.


The 2004 Senate Inquiry

On 26 June 2003, the Senate referred an Inquiry into an Australian Republic to the Senate Legal and Constitutional References Committee. During 2004, the committee reviewed 730 submissions and conducted hearings in all state capitals. The Committee tabled its report called Road to a Republic on 31st August 2004. Australian Senate chamber Entrance to the Senate The Australian Senate is the upper of the two houses of the Parliament of Australia. ... In law, a hearing is a proceeding before a court or other decisionmaking body or officer. ...


The report examined the contest between minimalist and direct-election models and gave attention to hybrid models such as the Electoral College Model, the Constitutional Council Model and models having both an elected President and a Governor-General. A direct election republican model is a proposal for Australian constitutional reform. ...


The bi-partisan recommendations of committee supported educational initiatives and holding a series of plebiscites to allow the public to choose which model they preferred, prior to a final draft and referendum. A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


Current status

Republicans expect that a plebiscite process and eventually a referendum will take place when either the Labor Party returns to power or when a pro-republican Liberal obtains the Prime Ministership. In the meantime, both the Australian Republican Movement and opponent monarchist groups, such as Australians for Constitutional Monarchy remain active. A January 2006 Newspoll survey shows that 46% favour or partly favour Australia becoming a republic, with 34% opposed and 20% uncommitted. [2] The Australian Republican Movement was founded in July 1991. ... Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (ACM) was founded in June 1992 to defend the Australian Constitution, the role of the Crown in it, and to preserve the role of the Queen of Australia, represented by the Governor-General, as Australias constitutional head of state. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Opinion polls are surveys of opinion using sampling. ...


Some have countered the idea of holding plebiscites. Monarchist David Flint described this process as "inviting a vote of no confidence in one of the most successful constitutions in the world" [3]. Minimalist republican Greg Craven states "a multi-option plebiscite inevitably will produce a direct election model, precisely for the reason that such a process favours models with shallow surface appeal and multiple flaws. Equally inevitably, such a model would be doomed at referendum." [4] Professor David Flint AM is a prominent Australian legal academic, best known for his controversial tenure as head of the Australian Broadcasting Authority and as one of Australias most prominent and enthusiastic monarchists, in opposition to Australian republicanism. ... Professor Gregory Craven B.A, LL.B., LL.M.; Barrister and Solicitor (Vic and WA) lectures in constitutional Law at Curtin University of Technology. ...


During the Queen's visit to Australia for the 2006 Commonwealth Games, Prime Minister John Howard claimed that the status of Australia's constitutional monarchy is unlikely to change at least while Queen Elizabeth II is still on the throne. Asked if Australia would ever have a King Charles, the Prime Minister refused to predict what would happen after the Queen's reign ended, stating only that it was a matter for the Australian people to decide [5]. Many republicans have seen this as a shift away from John Howard's staunch support for constitutional monarchy. Monarchist Health Minister Tony Abbott cautioned against reading too much into Mr Howard's comments, saying "There's never any guarantee about anything but the prime minister is a staunch supporter of our existing constitutional arrangements." Mr Abbott noted that a large number of republicans attended the Queen's dinner at Parliament House, with a large crowd both inside and outside the building. [6] Elizabeth II in an official portrait as Queen of Canada (on the occasion of her Golden Jubilee in 2002, wearing the Sovereigns badges of the Order of Canada and the Order of Military Merit) Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary) (born 21 April 1926), styled HM The... The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Australia between March 15 and March 26. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the countrys 25th and current Prime Minister. ... Hon Tony Abbott Anthony John Tony Abbott (born 4 November 1957), Australian politician, is the Minister for Health and Ageing and Leader of the House in the Australian federal government. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag Parliament House is the name given to two purpose-built buildings in Canberra, the capital of Australia, where the Parliament of Australia has met since 1927. ...


See also

Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Emergence of the Commonwealth of Australia Main article: Australian federation After European settlement in 1788, Australia was politically organized as a number of separate British colonies, eventually six in all. ... A Process Model is a proposal to assist parliament make decisions concerning constitutional reform. ...

External links

  • The Australian Republican Movement homepage
  • The Republican Party of Australia homepage
  • Senate Inquiry into an Australian Republic
  • Souters' Guide to Australian Republican Issues
  • The Australian Monarchist League (Opposed to republicanism)
  • Australians for Constitutional Monarchy (Opposed to republicanism)
  • The Honorary President Model (an example of a republic with a directly-elected Head of State)
  • Copernican.info - An introduction to the new Copernican Models
  • South Sea Republic A community website for the promotion of an Australian Republic doctrine and Republican form of government.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Australian republicanism - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2381 words)
Australian republicanism is a movement within Australia to replace the country's existing status as a Commonwealth realm under a constitutional monarchy with a republican form of government.
Australians for Constitutional Monarchy and the Australian Monarchist League, who reject republicanism, argue that no model is better than the present system and argue that the risk and difficulty of changing the constitution is best demonstrated by inability of republicans to back a definitive design.
Four republican models were debated: two involving direct election of the head of state; one involving appointment by the Prime Minister (the McGarvie Model); and one involving appointment by a two-thirds majority of Parliament (the bi-partisan appointment model).
Australian Republican Movement - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (196 words)
It was founded as a non-partisan group advocating the constitutional change to a republic, following the Australian Labor Party's adoption of republicanism as its policy.
Although opinion polls showed that most Australians favoured becoming a republic, divisions emerged in the Movement between those who favoured indirect election of the President by Parliament, and those who favoured direct election by the people.
This led to Australian voters rejecting at a referendum in 1999 a constitutional amendment to a specific form of republic described by some as the "minimalist" model because it involved the least change to the constitution of the various republican models proposed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m