FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Australian bat lyssavirus
Australian bat lyssavirus
Virus classification
Group: Group V ((-)ssRNA)
Order: Mononegavirales
Family: Rhabdoviridae
Genus: Lyssavirus
Species: Australian bat lyssavirus

Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV) is a zoonotic virus closely related to rabies virus. It was identified in May 1996 in a black flying fox (Pteropus alecto) caught in Queensland, Australia during a national surveillance program for the recently identified Hendra virus. ABLV is the fifth member of the lyssavirus genus (which includes rabies virus) and the only one present in Australia. Viruses can be classified in several ways, such as by their geometry, by whether they have envelopes, by the identity of the host organism they can infect, by mode of transmission, or by the type of disease they cause. ... An RNA virus is a virus that either uses RNA as its genetic material, or whose genetic material passes through an RNA intermediate during replication. ... Families Paramyxoviridae Rhabdoviridae Filoviridae Bornaviridae The Mononegavirales are an order of viruses comprising species that have a non-segmented, negative sense RNA genome. ... Genera Vesiculovirus Lyssavirus Ephemerovirus Cytorhabdovirus Nucleorhabdovirus Novirhabdovirus Rhabdoviruses are viruses belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, which is in the order Mononegavirales. ... Lyssavirus (from a Greek word meaning frenzy) is a genus of virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. ... Zoonosis is any infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals, both wild and domestic, to humans. ... Three types of viruses: a bacterial virus, otherwise called a bacteriophage (left center); an animal virus (top right); and a retrovirus (bottom right). ... A flying fox can be: One of several species of megabat. ... Motto: Audax at Fidelis (Bold but Faithful) Nickname: Sunshine State/Smart State Other Australian states and territories Capital Brisbane Government Governor Premier Const. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus, EBV) and Nipah virus. ... Lyssavirus (from a Greek word meaning frenzy) is a genus of virus belonging to the family Rhabdoviridae, in the order Mononegavirales. ...


ABLV is distributed throughout Australia in a variety of bat species which are believed to be the primary reservoir for the virus. Two strains of the virus exist, one occurring in insectivorous bats and the other in fruit bats.


ABLV has caused two human deaths. The first occurred in November 1996 when an animal carer was scratched by a yellow-bellied sheathtailed bat. Onset of a rabies-like illness occurred 4-5 weeks following the incident, with death twenty days later. ABLV was identified from brain tissue by PCR and immunohistochemistry. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Immunohistochemistry is the process of detection of antigens in tissue using antibodies. ...


In August 1996, a woman in Queensland was bitten on the finger by a flying fox while attempting to remove it from a child it had landed on. Six months later, following heightened public attention from the first ABLV death, she consulted a GP regarding testing for the virus. Post exposure treatment was advised but declined. After a 27 month incubation a rabies-like illness developed. The condition worsened after hospital admission and she died 19 days after the onset of illness. This length of incubation is unusual with typical incubation periods for classical rabies of less than 90 days.


Rabies vaccine and immunoglobulin are effective in prophylactic and therapeutic protection from ABLV infection. Since the emergence of the virus, rabies vaccine is administered to individuals with a heightened risk of exposure and vaccine and immunoglobulin are provided for post exposure treatment. A bottle and a syringe containing the influenza vaccine. ... Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein complex used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...


ABLV is one of four zoonotic viruses discovered in Pteropid bats since 1994, the others being Hendra virus, Nipah virus and Menangle virus. Of these, ABLV is the only virus known to be transmissible to humans directly from bats without an intermediate host. Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus, EBV) and Nipah virus. ... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendra virus (originally Equine morbillivirus, EBV) and Nipah virus. ... Menangle virus is a virus that infects pigs, humans and bats. ...


References

Samaratunga, H, Searle, JW, Hudson, N. (1998). Non-rabies Lyssavirus human encephalitis from fruit bats: Australian bat Lyssavirus (pteropid Lyssavirus) infection. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 24(4), 331–335.


Hanna, JN, Carney, IK, Smith, GA, Tannenburg, AEG, Deverill, JE, Botha, JA, Serafin, IL, Harrower, BJ, Fitzpatrick, PF, Searle, JW. (2000). Australian bat lyssavirus infection: a second human case, with a long incubation period. Medical Journal of Australia 172, 597–599.


  Results from FactBites:
 
CDC - Public Health Surveillance for Australian Bat Lyssavirus in Queensland, Australia, 2000–2001 (1878 words)
Bats involved in incidents involving public health were tested for ABLV infection by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) on brain impression smears by using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal (Fujirebio Diagnostics, Malvern, PA) or polyclonal (Biorad, Hercules, CA) antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein.
Bats submitted for testing had either bitten or scratched a person, or testing was considered to be in the interests of public health.
Experimental rabies infection and oral vaccination in vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m