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Encyclopedia > Australian War Memorial
Australian War Memorial
Australia

For Australian military dead of all wars
Unveiled 1941, and in stages since then
Location -35°16′49.76, 149°8′56.56 near Canberra, ACT
Designed by Emil Sodersteen and John Crust

The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. The memorial includes an extensive national military museum. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x741, 219 KB)Australian War Memorial seen from the immediate south. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator none Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2006)  - Product ($m)  $19,167 (6th)  - Product per capita  $57,303/person (1st) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  333,667 (7th)  - Density  137. ... This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. ...


The Memorial is located in Australia's capital, Canberra. It is the northern terminus of the city's ceremonial land axis, which stretches from Parliament House on Capital Hill along a line passing through the summit of the cone-shaped Mt Ainslie to the northeast. No continuous roadway links the two points, but there is a clear line of sight from the front balcony of Parliament House to the War Memorial, and from the front steps of the War Memorial back to Parliament House. For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag mast. ... Capital Hill (postcode: 2600) is the location of Parliament House, Canberra, at the south apex of the land axis of the Parliamentary Triangle. ... Mount Ainslie Locality Map Mount Ainslie or Mount Ainslie-Majura is a part of Canberra Nature Park. ...


The Australian War Memorial consists of four major elements: Anzac Parade, a commemorative area, a memorial building, and a sculpture garden. The commemorative area and building are currently open daily until 5pm, except on Christmas Day. The Parade and sculpture garden are open continuously. 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ...

Contents

History of the national memorial

Anzac Day Dawn Service at AWM, 25 April 2005, 90th anniversary
Anzac Day Dawn Service at AWM, 25 April 2005, 90th anniversary

Charles Bean, Australia's official World War I historian, first conceived a museum memorial to Australian soldiers while observing the 1916 battles in France. The Australian War Records Section was established in 1917 to ensure preservation of records relating to the war being fought at the time. Records and relics were exhibited first in Melbourne and later Sydney. Download high resolution version (1024x768, 43 KB) Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 25 April 2005 - ANZAC Dawn Service - 90th anniversary of ANZAC Day. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 43 KB) Australian War Memorial, Canberra, 25 April 2005 - ANZAC Dawn Service - 90th anniversary of ANZAC Day. ... ANZAC Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who in the Battle of Gallipoli landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. ANZAC Day is also a public holiday in the... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... portrait by George Lambert, 1924. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ...


An architectural competition in 1927 did not produce a winning entry. However, two entrants were encouraged to represent a joint design. A limited budget and the effects of the Depression confined the scope of the project. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ...


The building was completed in 1941, after the outbreak of World War II. Additions since the 1940s have allowed the remembrance of Australia's participation in other more recent conflicts.


Directors of the AWM have included:

  • August 1919 - May 1920 — Henry Gullett
  • 1920-1952 — Major John Linton Treloar, OBE (1894-1952)
  • 1952-1966 — Major J.J. McGrath, OBE ( -1998)
  • September 1966- — W.R. Lancaster (formerly Assistant Director of the War Memorial)
  • 13 January 1975- — N.J. Flanagan
  • 1996-present — Major General Steve Gower, AO

Henry Baynton Somer Jo Gullett (born 16th December 1914 - died 24th August 1999) was a member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1946 till 1955 and the son of former Cabinet Minister Sir Henry Gullett. ...

Remembrance Driveway

The Remembrance Park behind the War Memorial is the Canberra terminus of the Remembrance Driveway, a system of arboreal parks, landmarks and road-side stops between Sydney and Canberra commemorating the 24 World War II and Vietnam War Victoria Cross recipients. Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (Malta and South Africa), Veterans Day (United States), and Armistice Day (France, New Zealand, and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the day internationally) is a... The Remembrance Driveway in Australia is a system of arboreal parks, plantations, and road-side rest areas -- a living memorial dedicated to those who served in the Australian Defence Forces in World War II, the Korean War, Malayan Emergency and the Vietnam War, and who continue to serve around the... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...

The Australian War Memorial at the base of Mount Ainslie
The Australian War Memorial at the base of Mount Ainslie

Download high resolution version (1584x586, 161 KB)Mount Ainslie, Canberra photo taken by John Conway and released under the GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1584x586, 161 KB)Mount Ainslie, Canberra photo taken by John Conway and released under the GFDL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Mount Ainslie Locality Map Mount Ainslie or Mount Ainslie-Majura is a part of Canberra Nature Park. ...

Anzac Parade

Looking along Anzac Parade to the War Memorial at the foot of Mount Ainslie
Looking along Anzac Parade to the War Memorial at the foot of Mount Ainslie

Anzac Parade is a short, broad boulevard named in honour of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps. It stretches from near the north shore of Lake Burley Griffin to the foot of the Memorial proper, along the line of sight from Parliament House. It separates the residential suburbs of Campbell and Reid, and is fairly heavily trafficked as a route between northeastern Canberra (Dickson etc) and Kings Avenue Bridge. Image File history File links Anzac Parade, looking northeast to the domed Australian War Memorial and Mount Ainslie beyond. ... Image File history File links Anzac Parade, looking northeast to the domed Australian War Memorial and Mount Ainslie beyond. ... ANZAC Parade has many of the major national memorials in Canberra, the national capital of Australia. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli against the Turks. ... Sunset over Lake Burley Griffin, viewed from the Commonwealth Bridge Lake Burley Griffin is a lake in the centre of Canberra, Australias federal capital city. ... Campbell (postcode: 2612) is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ... Reid (postcode: 2612) is a suburb of Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ... Dickson (postcode: 2602) is a suburb in the Inner North of Canberra, Australia. ...


Along each side of the Parade is a row of monuments commemorating specific military campaigns or services, such as the Vietnam War and Australia's wartime nurses. The monuments are mostly sculptures in a variety of styles ranging from naturalistic to Modern. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso At the Moulin Rouge: Two Women Waltzing by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, 1892 The Scream by Edvard Munch, 1893 I and the Village by Marc Chagall, 1911 Fountain by Marcel Duchamp, 1917 Campbells Soup Cans 1962 Synthetic polymer paint on thirty-two...


The foot of the Parade, near the lake, is paired by monumental sculptures in the form of gigantic basket handles, donated to the Memorial by New Zealand. The two monuments are dedicated to Australia and New Zealand, respectively, and are inspired by the Māori proverb Mau tena kiwai o te kete, maku tenei, "Each of us at a handle of the basket", signifying the long tradition of cooperation between the two countries. This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ...


The symbolic association of the two nations is carried forward in the vegetation decorating Anzac Parade. Long beds of New Zealand Hebe shrubs line the middle of the avenue, and behind the two rows of monuments are narrow bands of Australian eucalyptus trees. Behind the trees are narrow residential streets paralleling the Parade and separating it from the residential neighborhoods. In the high summer, cicadas in the eucalyptus trees can be heard from several blocks away. Species See text. ... This article is about the plant genus. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The commemorative area

Towards the entrance of the Hall of Memory, from within.
Detail of the dome from inside the Hall of Memory.
Memorial Courtyard

The Memorial proper is sited on a broad pie slice-shaped lawn at the northern end of Anzac Parade. The commemorative area is situated in the open centre of the memorial building, (including the cloisters to each side and the Hall of Memory under the building's central dome) and the sculpture garden is on the lawn to the west. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 329 KB)Towards the entrance of the domed area, Australian War Memorial, taken by myself. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 329 KB)Towards the entrance of the domed area, Australian War Memorial, taken by myself. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 317 KB)Interior of dome, Australian War Memorial, taken by myself. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 317 KB)Interior of dome, Australian War Memorial, taken by myself. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 318 KB)Courtyard, Australian War Memorial, taken by myself. ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 318 KB)Courtyard, Australian War Memorial, taken by myself. ...


The heart of the commemorative area is the Hall of Memory, a tall domed chapel with a small floor plan in the form of an octagon. The walls are lined with tiny mosaic tiles from the floor to the dome. Inside lies Australia's Tomb of the Unknown Soldier and other monuments. Floor plan (floorplan, floor-plan) in its original meaning is an architecture term, a diagram of a room, a building, or a level (floor) of a building as if seen from the above (i. ... This article is about a decorative art. ... The Landsoldaten (foot soldier) statue in Fredericia, Denmark Throughout history, many soldiers have died in numerous wars without their remains being identified. ...


Three of the walls, facing east, west, and south, feature stained glass designs representing qualities of soldiers. At the four walls facing northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest are mosaic images of three soldiers, with the southwest featuring an image of a service woman (in the image to the right). Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ...


In front of the Hall of Memory is a narrow courtyard with a memorial pool surrounding an eternal flame and flanked by sidewalks and shrubbery, including plantings of rosemary for remembrance. Above the courtyard to either side are long cloisters containing the Roll of Honour, a series of bronze plaques naming the 102,000 Australian servicemen and women killed in conflict. The plaques include names dating back to the British Sudanese Expedition, the Second Boer War, and the Boxer Rebellion. The entire long wall of the western gallery is covered with the names of the thousands who died in World War I. The eastern gallery is covered with the names of those who died in World War II and more recent conflicts. For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire France United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50,000-100... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The roll shows the names only, not rank or other awards, as "all men are equal in death". Visiting relatives and friends insert poppies in the cracks between the bronze plaques, beside the names of their loved ones that they wish to honour; many continue to be inserted by the names of those who died in World War I, and a few even appear by the names of those who died in the 19th-century campaigns. This article is about the plant. ...


A small exhibit in the museum indicates that the famous Breaker Morant of the Boer War does not appear in the Roll of Honour, not because he was dishonoured, but rather because he was not actually a member of the Australian armed forces. Harry Breaker Harbord Morant For the film of the same name, see Breaker Morant (film) Harry Breaker Harbord Morant (1864– 27 February 1902) was an Anglo-Australian drover, horseman, poet, and soldier whose renowned skill with horses earned him the nickname The Breaker. Articulate, intelligent, and well-educated, he was...


When the Memorial closes each day, there is a ceremony at which visitors can gather at the entrance, hear a very brief explanation from a host, and listen as a recording of the "Last Post" is played. On significant days, a piper or a bugler descends from the gallery, playing the Last Post. Last Post is a bugle call used at military funerals and ceremonies commemorating those who have fallen in war. ... A piper playing the Great Highland Bagpipe. ... Military bugle in Bâ™­ A French marine bugler at a ceremony in Kuwait City celebrating the success of Operation Desert Storm in 1991 Bugler redirects here. ...


The commemorative area is the main place in Canberra where Anzac Day and Remembrance Day services are held. These services are normally attended by Federal parliament representatives and embassy officials, most notably those from New Zealand. ANZAC Day is commemorated by Australia and New Zealand on 25 April every year to remember members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who in the Battle of Gallipoli landed at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. ANZAC Day is also a public holiday in the... Wreaths of artificial poppies used as a symbol of remembrance Remembrance Day (Australia, Canada, United Kingdom), also known as Poppy Day (Malta and South Africa), Veterans Day (United States), and Armistice Day (France, New Zealand, and many other Commonwealth countries; and the original name of the day internationally) is a...


The Memorial building

Menin Gate at midnight by Will Longstaff (1927).
Menin Gate at midnight by Will Longstaff (1927).

The Memorial is a two-storey building with a floor plan in the shape of a cross. The building is of Byzantine architecture style with strong styling elements of Art Deco throughout. In 2001, a new, broad annex called ANZAC Hall was added to the north of the original building. In order to preserve the view of the original building from Anzac Parade, ANZAC Hall was designed to be recessed into the grounds below, and hidden behind a wall. Image File history File links Menin_Gate_at_midnight_(Will_Longstaff). ... Image File history File links Menin_Gate_at_midnight_(Will_Longstaff). ... Menin Gate at Midnight, 1927 Captain William Frederick Longstaff (1879-1953) was a Australian painter and war artist best known for his works commemorating those who died in the First World War. ... Byzantine architecture is the architecture of the Byzantine Empire. ... Asheville City Hall. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


The upper level is dedicated primarily to World War I (the entire west wing) and World War II (the entire east wing). In the World War I area there is extensive material pertaining to the Gallipoli campaign. Between the wings lies Aircraft Hall, which contains a number of complete aircraft, mostly from the World War II era. Combatants British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal  Ottoman Empire Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15 divisions (final) Casualties 252,000[2] 195...

The list of fallen servicemen during WWII held at the Australian War Memorial
The list of fallen servicemen during WWII held at the Australian War Memorial

Also between the wings lies the Hall of Valour, a display of most of the Victoria Crosses ever awarded to Australian soldiers. The display of 60 medals is the largest publicly held collection of Victoria Crosses in the world [1]. There is an individual display for the holder of each Cross shown there, with a photograph, an excerpt from the citation that accompanied the award, and usually additional medals awarded to the same soldier. The relatives of Australian VC holders often donate or lend the Crosses to the Memorial for safekeeping and greater public awareness of their honoured kin. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x1024, 165 KB)The WW2 cloister at the Australian War Memorial, showing poppies inserted between the plaques bearing names. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (630x1024, 165 KB)The WW2 cloister at the Australian War Memorial, showing poppies inserted between the plaques bearing names. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...


On 24 July 2006 Kerry Stokes anonymously purchased the 60th medal at auction for a world record price of A$1,000,000 and asked that it be displayed in the Victoria Cross Gallery. This medal was awarded to Captain Alfred Shout for hand-to-hand combat at the Lone Pine trenches in Gallipoli Turkey. The Victoria Cross Gallery now has all 9 VCs awarded to Australians at Gallipoli. is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kerry Stokes AO is the chairman of Seven Network, one of the largest broadcasting corporations in Australia, and a recipient of the Order of Australia recognising his contributions to Australian business. ... A.J. Shout at Quinns Post, Gallipoli, 7 June 1915. ...


The lower level contains a theatre, a research area, displays for the colonial and post-World War II conflicts, and an area for temporary special exhibitions.


ANZAC Hall is a large annex to the upper level of the memorial, used for the display of large military hardware. Notable displays include a complete and particularly historic Lancaster bomber known as G for George, a Japanese midget submarine sunk during a raid on Sydney Harbour in 1942, rare German aircraft such as the Me 262 and Me 163, and a Mark IV tank of the familiar World War I design. The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). ... G for George is an Avro Lancaster Mk. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ... Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge located on Port Jackson Port Jackson is the natural harbour of Sydney, Australia, also known as Sydney Harbour and is the largest natural harbour in the world. ... ... The Messerschmitt Me 163 Komet was the only operational rocket fighter aircraft. ... A Mark I tank (moving left to right). ...


The building is large and the collections are extensive; a full day will suffice for only the most cursory examination of its contents.


A gift shop and two coffee shops are on site, one overlooking ANZAC Hall, called "The Landing Place", and the other some distance away from the main building, called "The Outpost".


The sculpture garden

Kangaroos standing before naval gun turret. The domed structure in the background is the Hall of Memory.
Kangaroos standing before naval gun turret. The domed structure in the background is the Hall of Memory.

The sculpture garden on the west lawn of the Memorial contains a variety of outdoor monuments. The sidewalk through the garden is embedded with bronze plaques commemorating various branches of service, specific units, and historical events. There are also a number of sculptures, including a gigantic figure of a World War I-era Australian soldier which was originally located in the Hall of Memory, before the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier was placed there. There is a gun turret from HMAS Brisbane, a gun barrel from the battlecruiser HMAS Australia and the barrel of a huge railroad gun captured from the Germans during World War I. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1776x1862, 1158 KB) Summary Dusk at the Australian War Memorial, and during dry times kangaroos make their way in from the surrounding bushland to feed on the well-watered green lawns of the Memorial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1776x1862, 1158 KB) Summary Dusk at the Australian War Memorial, and during dry times kangaroos make their way in from the surrounding bushland to feed on the well-watered green lawns of the Memorial. ... See HMAS Brisbane for other ships of this name. ... HMAS Australia was an Indefatigable class battlecruiser laid down by John Brown and Company of Clydebank at Glasgow in Scotland on 26 June 1910, launched on 25 October 1911 by Lady Reid, wife of Sir George Reid, the Australian High Commissioner in London and former Prime Minister. ...


This area is used for special displays during annual Memorial Open Days, and summertime band concerts are held on the nearby lawn.


See also

The Canadian Tomb of the Unknown Soldier is located at the National War Memorial in Confederation Square, Ottawa. ... The National War Memorial Canadas National War Memorial is located in Confederation Square in Ottawa, the nations capital. ... Vimy Memorial face The Canadian National Vimy Memorial is one of Canadas most important overseas war memorials to those Canadians who gave their lives in the First World War. ...

Gallery

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Australian War Memorial
  • The official Australian War Memorial Web site
  • The New Zealand Memorial on Anzac Parade
  • Maps and aerial photos Coordinates: -35.280489° 149.149044°

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Australian War Memorial and Anzac Parade: Factsheet (1129 words)
The majestic Australian War Memorial (AWM) and Anzac Parade are at the heart of the nation's tribute to the courage and sacrifice of generations of the men and women who have helped defend our nation.
The AWM was originally planned to commemorate only the First World War, yet it soon became apparent that the new war raging overseas was comparable in scale and affect.
The unknown Australian soldier was buried in a Tasmanian flwood coffin with a slouch hat and a sprig of wattle, and soil from the Pozieres battlefield was scattered in his tomb.
Australian War Memorial - definition of Australian War Memorial in Encyclopedia (1236 words)
The Australian War Memorial is Australia's national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organizations who have died in the wars of the modern state of Australia.
In front of the Hall of Memory is a narrow courtyard with a memorial pool surrounding an eternal flame and flanked by sidewalks and shrubbery.
The Remembrance Park behind the War Memorial is the Canberra terminus of the Remembrance Driveway, a system of arboreal parks, landmarks and road-side stops between Sydney and Canberra commemorating the 24 Victoria Cross World War II and Vietnam War Victoria Cross winners.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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