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Encyclopedia > Australian English

Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia.[1] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...



Australian English began diverging from British English shortly after the foundation of the Australian penal colony of New South Wales (NSW) in 1788. British convicts sent there, including the Cockneys of London, came mostly from large English cities; and they were joined by free settlers, military personnel, and administrators, who often brought their families. British English (BrE, BE, en-GB) is the broad term used to distinguish the forms of the English language used in the United Kingdom from forms used elsewhere in the Anglophone world. ... A penis colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm. ... “NSW” redirects here. ... 1788 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Cockneys are, in the present-day sense of the word, white working-class inhabitants of London. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

In 1827, Peter Cunningham, in his book Two Years in New South Wales, reported that native-born white Australians of the time — known as "currency lads and lasses"[2] — spoke with a distinctive accent and vocabulary, with a strong Cockney influence. The deportation of convicts to Australia ended in 1868, but immigration of free settlers from Britain, Ireland and elsewhere continued. Peter Cunningham (1816 - 1869) was a Scottish writer, son of Allan Cunningham. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...

The first of the Australian goldrushes, in the 1850s, began a much larger wave of immigration, which would significantly influence the language. During the 1850s, when Great Britain and Ireland were under economic hardship, about two per cent of their combined population emigrated to the Colony of NSW and the Colony of Victoria .[3] // Cassilis Mine, circa 1900 The Australian gold rushes started in 1851 when prospector Edward Hargraves proclaimed his gold nuggets near Bathurst, New South Wales, at a site Hargraves called Ophir. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... “VIC” redirects here. ...

Among the changes wrought by the goldrushes was "Americanisation" of the language — the introduction of words, spellings, terms, and usages from North American English. The words imported included some later considered to be typically Australian, such as dirt and digger.[4] Bonzer, which was once a common Australian slang word meaning "great", "superb" or "beautiful", is thought to have been a corruption of the American mining term bonanza,[5] which means a rich vein of gold or silver and is itself a loanword from Spanish. The influx of American military personnel in World War II brought further American influence; though most words were short-lived;[6] and only okay, you guys, and gee have persisted.[7] North American English is a collective term used for the varieties of the English language that are spoken in the United States and Canada. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Since the 1950s, American influence has mostly arrived via pop culture, the mass media—books, magazines, television programs, and computer software—and the world wide web. Some words, such as freeway and truck, have even naturalised so completely that few Australians recognise their origin.[8] Popular press redirects here; note that the University of Wisconsin Press publishes under the imprint The Popular Press. Mass media is a term used to denote a section of the media specifically envisioned and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Computer program. ... WWWs historical logo designed by Robert Cailliau The World Wide Web (commonly shortened to the Web) is a system of interlinked, hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. ...

Some American and British English variants exist side-by-side, as TV and telly (an abbreviation of television). British words predominate, however: as mobile or mobile phone instead of cell or cellphone, and lift instead of elevator. In many cases—telly versus TV and SMS versus text, freeway and motorway, for instance—regional, social and ethnic variation within Australia typically defines word usage.[9] SMS may refer to: Short message service, a form of text messaging on cell phones Sega Master System – an 8-bit video game console from the 1980s Seiner Majestät Schiff, His Majestys Ship in the German Kaiserliche Marine and the Austro-Hungarian Navy SMS (comics), a British comic...

Australian English is most similar to New Zealand English, each having a shared history and geographical promiximity. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Irish influences

There is some influence from Hiberno-English, but perhaps not as much as might be expected given that many Australians are of Irish descent. One such influence is the pronunciation of the name of the letter "H" as "haitch" /hæɪtʃ/, which can sometimes be heard amongst speakers of "Broad Australian English", rather than the unaspirated "aitch" /æɪtʃ/ more common among English speakers worldwide. This is also true of the Scouse accent in Liverpool where many Irish people settled at the same time as emigrating to Australia, and the United States. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This article is about the accent. ... For other uses, see Liverpool (disambiguation). ...

Other Irish influences include the non-standard plural of "you" as "youse" /jʉːz/, sometimes used informally in Australia (but considered bad English), and the expression "good on you" or "good onya". Of these the former is common in parts of North America and in working class South African English; the latter is encountered in New Zealand English and British English.


Australian vowels
Australian vowels
Australian dipthongs

Australian English is a non-rhotic dialect. It is most similar to New Zealand English and bears some resemblance to dialects from the South-East of England, particularly those of Cockney and Received Pronunciation. Like most dialects of English it is distinguished primarily by its vowel phonology.[10] Australian English is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians. ... Image File history File links Australian English IPA vowel chart, based on information as cited in the wikipedia:Australian English phonology page, created by uploader. ... Image File history File links Australian English IPA vowel chart, based on information as cited in the wikipedia:Australian English phonology page, created by uploader. ... Image File history File links Summary Australian English IPA diphthong chart, based on information as cited in the wikipedia:Australian English phonology page, created by uploader. ... Image File history File links Summary Australian English IPA diphthong chart, based on information as cited in the wikipedia:Australian English phonology page, created by uploader. ... English pronunciation is divided into two main accent groups, the rhotic and non-rhotic, depending on when the phoneme (the letter r) is pronounced. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ...

The vowels of Australian English can be divided into two categories: long and short vowels. The short vowels, consisting only of monophthongs, mostly correspond to the lax vowels used in analyses of Received Pronunciation. The long vowels, consisting of both monophthongs and diphthongs, mostly correspond to its tense vowels and centring diphthongs. Unlike most varieties of English it has a phonemic length distinction: that is, certain vowels differ only by length. A monophthong (in Greek μονόφθογγος = single note) is a pure vowel sound, one whose articulation at both beginning and end is relatively fixed, and which does not glide up or down towards a new position of articulation; compare diphthong. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ...

Australian English consonants are similar to those of other non-rhotic varieties of English. In comparison to other varieties, it has a flapped variant of /t/ and /d/ in similar environments, as in American English. Many speakers have also coalesced /tj/ and /dj/ into /tʃ/ and /dʒ/, producing standard pronunciations such as /tʃʉːn/. This page discusses a phonological phenomenon. ... // H-cluster reductions The h-cluster reductions are various consonant reductions that have occurred in the history of English involving consonant clusters beginning with /h/ that have lost the /h/ in certain dialects. ...


Look up Appendix:Australian English vocabulary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Australian English has many words that Australians consider unique to their language. One of the best-known is outback, meaning a remote, sparsely-populated area. Another is bush, meaning either a native forest or a country area in general. However, both terms have been widely used in many English-speaking countries. Other similar words, phrases and usages were brought by the convicts to Australia. Many words used frequently by country Australians are, or were, also used in all or part of England, with variations in meaning. For example, creek in Australia, as in North America, means a stream or small river, whereas in England it means a small watercourse flowing into the sea; paddock in Australia means field, whereas in England it means a small enclosure for livestock; bush or scrub in Australia, as in North America, means a wooded area, whereas in England they are commonly used only in proper names (such as Shepherd's Bush and Wormwood Scrubs). Australian English and several British English dialects (for example, Cockney, Scouse or Geordie) both use the word mate for a close friend of the same sex and increasingly for a platonic friend of the opposite sex (rather than the conventional meaning of "a spouse"), but this usage has also become common in some other varieties of English. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... The following is a list of countries where English is an official language, in order of population: India United States (de facto only; the USA has no official language) Nigeria Philippines United Kingdom Hong Kong South Africa Canada Kenya Uganda Ghana Sri Lanka Australia Cameroon Zimbabwe Malawi Zambia Sierra Leone... Shepherds Bush is a district of West London in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, situated 4. ... Wormwood Scrubs is a place in the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham in west London. ... St Mary-le-Bow The term cockney is often used to refer to working-class people of London, particularly east London, and the slang used by these people. ... This article is about the accent. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

The origins of other words are not as clear or are disputed. Dinkum (or "fair dinkum") means "true", or when used in speech: "is that true?", "this is the truth!", among other things, depending on context and inflection. It is often claimed that dinkum dates back to the Australian goldrushes of the 1850s, and that it is derived from the Cantonese (or Hokkien) ding kam, meaning "top gold". But scholars give greater credence to the conjecture that it originated from the East Midlands dialect in England, where dinkum (or dincum) meant "hard work" or "fair work", which was also the original meaning in Australian English (though it is now extinct in the original dialect).[11] The derivative dinky-di means a 'true' or devoted Australian. The words dinkum or dinky-di and phrases like true blue are widely purported to be typical Australian sayings, even though they are more commonly used in jest or parody than as authentic slang. The Australian gold rushes started in 1851 when prospector Edward Hargraves discovered gold near Bathurst, New South Wales, at a site Hargraves called Ophir. ... This article is about all of the Cantonese (Yue) dialects. ... The East Midlands is one of the regions of England and consists of most of the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. ...

Similarly, g'day, a stereotypical Australian greeting, is no longer synonymous with "good day" in other varieties of English (it can be used at night time) and is never used as an expression for "farewell", as "good day" is in other countries.

Some elements of Aboriginal languages have been included into Australian English—mainly as names for places, flora and fauna (for example dingo). Beyond that, little has been adopted into the wider language, except for some localised terms and slang. Some examples are cooee and Hard yakka. The former is used as a high-pitched call, for attracting attention, (pronounced /kʉː.iː/) which travels long distances. Cooee is also a notional distance: if he's within cooee, we'll spot him. Hard yakka means hard work and is derived from yakka, from the Yagara/Jagara language once spoken in the Brisbane region. Also from there is the word bung, meaning broken or pretending to be hurt. A failed piece of equipment may be described as having bunged up or as "on the bung" or "gone bung". A person pretending to be hurt is said to be "bunging it on". A hurt person could say "I've got a bung knee". The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus dingo (Meyer, 1793) Dingo range Breed standards (external link) ANKC The dingo (plural dingoes or dingos) or warrigal, Canis lupus dingo, is a type of wild dog, probably descended from the Indian Wolf (Canis Indica). ... Cooee! (IPA /ku:i:/) is a shout used in the Australian Outback mainly to attract attention, find missing people, or indicate ones own location. ... Yakka is a loan word from two different Australian Aboriginal languages, both now commonly used in broader Australian English vocabulary. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ...

Though often thought of as an Aboriginal word, didgeridoo (a well known wooden ceremonial musical instrument) is probably an onomatopoeic word of Western invention. It has also been suggested that it may have an Irish derivation.[12] A didgeridoo. ... For the supervillain, see Onomatopoeia (comics). ...

These words of Australian Aboriginal origin include some which are almost universal in the English-speaking world, such as kangaroo and boomerang. ...


Australian spelling is almost always the same as British spelling, with only a few exceptions. The Macquarie Dictionary is generally used by publishers, schools, universities and governments as the standard spelling reference. Well-known differences to British spelling include: Image:Macq4TH 3D NEW.jpg The Macquarie Dictionary, 4th edition. ...

  • program is more common than programme [13][14][15]
  • jail is prevalent, gaol is generally still used in official contexts
  • -ise and -ize are both accepted, as in British English, but -ise is preferred in Australian English by a ratio of about 3:1 according to the Macquarie. It has been found that schools no longer accept words that are spelt ending in "-ize" when the British way to spell the word is "-ise".

There is a widely-held belief in Australia that controversies over spelling result from the "Americanisation" of Australian English; the influence of American English in the late 20th century, but the debate over spelling is much older. For example, a pamphlet entitled The So-Called "American Spelling", published in Sydney some time before 1901, argued that "there is no valid etymological reason for the preservation of the u in such words as honor, labor, etc.",[16] alluding to older British spellings which also used the -or ending. The pamphlet also claimed that "the tendency of people in Australasia is to excise the u, and one of the Sydney morning papers habitually does this, while the other generally follows the older form". The Australian Labor Party retains the -or ending it officially adopted in 1912. However, while many Australian newspapers did formerly "excise the u", in words like colour, this is no longer the case. The town of Victor Harbor has the Victor Harbour Railway Station and the municipality's official website speculates that excising the u from the town's name was originally a "spelling error".[17] This continues to cause confusion in how the town is named in official and unofficial documents.[18] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Victor Harbor is a city on the coast of the Fleurieu Peninsula in South Australia, Australia. ...

Varieties of Australian English

Most linguists consider there to be three main varieties of Australian English: Broad, General and Cultivated Australian English. They are part of a continuum, reflecting variations in accent. They often, but not always, reflect the social class or educational background of the speaker. Most linguists consider there to be three main varieties of Australian English. ... It is sometimes claimed that regional variations in pronunciation and accent of Australian English exist, but if present at all they are very small compared to those of British, Irish and North American English – sufficiently so that linguists are divided on the question. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...

Broad Australian English is the most recognisable variety. It is familiar to English speakers around the world because it identifies Australian characters in non-Australian films and television programs. Examples are television/film personalities Steve Irwin and Paul Hogan. Slang terms Ocker, for a speaker, and Strine, for the dialect, are used in Australia. This article is about motion pictures. ... For the rugby league footballer of the same name, see Steve Irwin (rugby league). ... Paul Hogan starring as Michael Crocodile Dundee Paul Hogan and The Paul Hogan Show (VHS) For other persons named Paul Hogan, see Paul Hogan (disambiguation). ... Australian English is the form of the English language used in Australia. ...

General Australian English is the stereotypical variety of Australian English. It is the variety that the majority of Australians use and predominates among modern Australian films and television programs. Examples are actors Nicole Kidman, Cate Blanchett and Russell Crowe (who, although born and partly-raised in New Zealand, does not speak New Zealand English). For the term used in computing, see stereotype (UML). ... Nicole Mary Kidman AC (born June 20, 1967), is an Australian [1] actress. ... Catherine Élise Blanchett (born on May 14, 1969) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe Award-winning Australian actress. ... Russell Ira Crowe (born April 7, 1964) is a New Zealand-Australian[1] actor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Cultivated Australian English has many similarities to British Received Pronunciation, and is often mistaken for it. Cultivated Australian English is now spoken by less than 10% of the population. Examples are actors Judy Davis and Geoffrey Rush. Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Judy Davis (born 23 April 1955) is an Academy Award-nominated and 3-time Emmy Award-winning Australian actress. ... Geoffrey Roy Rush (born 6 July 1951) is an Academy Award- and Emmy Award-winning Australian actor. ...

There is significant variation in Australian English vocabulary between different regions; perhaps the most prominent example being the many names for processed pork products, generally known in other countries as "baloney" or "luncheon meat".[specify] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Bologna sausage is the American version of the Italian mortadella, which is produced by Oscar Mayer, which is now owned by Kraft, which is now owned by Philip Morris. ... Cold cuts are precooked meat, often sausages or meat loaves, that are sliced and usually served cold on sandwiches or on party trays. ...

It is sometimes claimed that there are variations in accent and pronunciation among people of different states and territories. However, these are small in comparison to those of the British and American English, and Australian pronunciation is determined less by region than by social, cultural and educational influences. But there are some well-documented regional preferences. For example, in Tasmania, words such as "dance", "grant" and "branch" are usually heard with the older pronunciation of these words, using IPA: /æ/, whereas in South Australia, IPA: /aː/ is preferred.[19] Both pronunciations are common in other parts of Australia, although when people sing the national anthem, "Advance Australia Fair", they often use [əd'vaːns] where they might otherwise use [əd'væːns]. Slogan or Nickname: The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114... // Trap-bath split The trap-bath split is a vowel split that occurs mainly in southern varieties of English English (including Received Pronunciation), in the Boston accent, and in the Southern Hemisphere accents (Australian English, New Zealand English, South African English), by which the Early Modern English phoneme was lengthened... Australian English is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Australian English is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians. ... The National Anthem booth at the 2005 Floriade, Canberra - on the J. Verbeeck fairground organ. ...

Use of words by Australians

Australian English makes frequent use of diminutives. They are formed in various ways and are often used to indicate familiarity. Some examples are arvo (afternoon), servo (service station), bottle-o (bottle-shop), barbie (barbecue), cozzie (swimming costume), footy (Rugby League or Australian rules football) and mozzie (mosquito). Similar diminutives are commonly used for personal nicknames (Johnno, Fitzy). Occasionally a -za diminutive is used, usually for personal names where the first of multiple syllables ends in an "r": so Barry becomes Bazza and Sharon Shazza. A diminutive is a formation of a word used to convey a slight degree of the root meaning, smallness of the object or quality named, encapsulation, intimacy, or endearment. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A liquor store in Decatur, Georgia. ... Wally Lewis passing the ball in Rugby League State of Origin. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of...

Many phrases once common to Australian English have become stereotypes and caricaturised exaggerations, and have largely disappeared from everyday use. Among the words less used are cobber, strewth, you beaut and crikey; and stereotypical phrases like flat out like a lizard drinking are rarely used without irony. In modern usage, a stereotype is a simplified mental picture of an individual or group of people who share a certain characteristic (or stereotypical) qualities. ...

The phrase put a shrimp on the barbie is a misquotation from a phrase made famous by Paul Hogan in tourism advertisements that aired in America. Australians use the word prawn rather than shrimp, which means something quite different, and do not commonly barbecue them. Many people trying to impersonate or mock an Australian use this line, though it is generally only used by Australians, ironically, when mocking Americans making fun of Australians.[citation needed] Shrimp on the barbie is an often-quoted phrase that originated in a series of television commercials by the Australian Tourism Commission starring Paul Hogan from 1986. ... Paul Hogan starring as Michael Crocodile Dundee Paul Hogan and The Paul Hogan Show (VHS) For other persons named Paul Hogan, see Paul Hogan (disambiguation). ... Superfamilies Penaeoidea Aristeidae Benthesicymidae Penaeidae Sicyoniidae Solenoceridae Sergestoidea Luciferidae Sergestidae Prawns are shrimp-like crustaceans, belonging to the sub-order Dendrobranchiata [1]. Prawns are distinguished from the superficially similar shrimp by the gill structure which is branching in prawns (hence the name, dendro=tree; branchia=gill), but is lamellar in... Superfamilies Alpheoidea Atyoidea Bresilioidea Campylonotoidea Crangonoidea Galatheacaridoidea Nematocarcinoidea Oplophoroidea Palaemonoidea Pandaloidea Pasiphaeoidea Procaridoidea Processoidea Psalidopodoidea Stylodactyloidea True shrimp are swimming, decapod crustaceans classified in the infraorder Caridea, found widely around the world in both fresh and salt water. ... A barbecue in a public park in Australia A barbecue on a trailer at a block party in Kansas City Pans on the top shelf hold hamburgers and hot dogs that were grilled earlier when the coals were hot. ...

Australian patriotic song Waltzing Matilda, written by bush poet Banjo Paterson, contains many obsolete Australian words and phrases that appeal to a rural ideal and are understood by Australians even though they are not in common usage outside the song. One example is the title, which means travelling (particularly with a type of bed roll called a swag). Waltzing Matilda is usually sung in informal settings, but it was played with a 90 piece orchestra and the 100 voice Melbourne Chorale at the 2005 Classical Spectacular Waltzing Matilda is Australias most widely known folk song, and one that has been popularly suggested as a potential national anthem. ... Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson (February 17, 1864 – February 5, 1941) was a famous Australian bush poet, journalist and author. ...

Samples of Australian English

One of the first writers to attempt renditions of Australian accents and vernacular was the novelist Joseph Furphy (a.k.a. Tom Collins), who wrote a popular account of rural New South Wales and Victoria during the 1880s, Such is Life (1903). C. J. Dennis wrote poems about working class life in Melbourne, such as The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke (1915), which was extremely popular and was made into a popular silent film (The Sentimental Bloke; 1919). John O'Grady's novel They're a Weird Mob has many examples of pseudo-phonetically written Australian speech in Sydney during the 1950s, such as "owyergoinmateorright?" ("How are you going, mate? All right?") Thomas Keneally's novels set in Australia, particularly The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith, frequently use vernacular such as "yair" for "yes" and "noth-think" for "nothing". Other books of note are "Let's Talk Strine" by Afferbeck Lauder—where "Strine" is "Australian" and "Afferbeck Lauder" is "alphabetical order" (the book is in alphabetical order)—and "How to be Normal in Australia". Joseph Furphy (who largely wrote under the pen name Tom Collins), September 26, 1843–September 13, 1912, is widely regarded as the Father of the Australian novel. He was extremely popular in Australia during the 19th century, and is best known for his book Such is Life. ... C. J. Dennis (7 September 1876 - 22 June 1938) was an Australian poet famous for his humorous poems, especially The Sentimental Bloke, published in the early 20th century. ... The Sentimental Bloke (1919) is an Australian silent film based on the 1915 Australian poem The Songs of a Sentimental Bloke by C.J. Dennis. ... John OGrady is an Australian writer. ... Poster for Theyre a Weird Mob. ... Thomas Michael Keneally AO (born October 7, 1935) also Tom Keneally, is an Australian novelist. ... The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith (1978) is an Australian film directed by Fred Schepisi and based on the Booker Prize-nominated novel of the same name by Thomas Keneally. ...

Some Australian actors use their natural accents in international films and television programs. But Australian actors in non-Australian productions generally use non-Australian accents, or adjust their natural accent to make it broader and closer to the archetypal modern Australian accent. One example of an internationally-popular film containing several characters with Australian accents is Finding Nemo, a 2003 computer-animated film. These characters include Nigel the Pelican (played by Geoffrey Rush), the three sharks, the sewage-eating crab, the dentist and his niece. For other uses, see Actor (disambiguation). ... Finding Nemo is an Academy Award-winning computer-animated film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released to theaters by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution. ...

See also

Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language used by Indigenous Australians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The symbols of the International Phonetic Alphabet can be used to show pronounciation in English. ... This chart shows concisely the most common way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is applied to represent the English language. ... // A nickname is a name of a person or thing other than its proper name. ... Australian English is the form of the English language used in Australia. ...


  1. ^ Mitchell, Alexander G., 1995, The Story of Australian English, Sydney: Dictionary Research Centre.
  2. ^ Hughes, Robert. The Fatal Shore. London: Harvill (1986).
  3. ^ Geoffrey Blainey, 1993, The Rush That Never Ended (4th ed.) Melbourne University Press.
  4. ^ Bell, R. Americanization and Australia. UNSW Press (1998).
  5. ^ Robert J. Menner, "The Australian Language" American Speech, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Apr., 1946), pp. 120
  6. ^ Ibid.
  7. ^ Ibid.
  8. ^ Ibid.
  9. ^ Oliver, Mackay and Rochecouste. 'The Acquisition of Colloquial Terms by Western Australian Primary School Children from Non-English Speaking Backgrounds' in Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 24:5 (2003), 413-430.
  10. ^ Harrington, J., F. Cox, and Z. Evans (1997). "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels". Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–84. 
  11. ^ http://www.anu.edu.au/andc/ozwords/November_98/7._dinkum.htm
  12. ^ http://www.flinders.edu.au/news/articles/?fj09v13s02
  13. ^ Peters, Pam. (1986) "Spelling principles", In: Peters, Pam, ed., Style in Australia: Current Practices in Spelling, Punctuation, Hyphenation, Capitalisation, etc.,
  14. ^ The So Called "American Spelling." Its Consistency Examined. pre-1901 pamphlet, Sydney, E. J. Forbes. Quoted by Annie Potts in this article
  15. ^ Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers of Australian Government Publications, Third Edition, Revised by John Pitson, Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra, 1978, page 10, "In general, follow the spellings given in the latest edition of the Concise Oxford Dictionary.
  16. ^ The So Called "American Spelling." Its Consistency Examined. pre-1901 pamphlet, Sydney, E. J. Forbes. Quoted by Annie Potts in this article
  17. ^ http://www.victor.sa.gov.au

    It appears that the spelling of Victor Harbor without the 'u' started in the early days of the Colony. It was around the turn of the century that the u crept into the spelling of Harbor with new businesses spelling it including the u (which is the way most people would have been taught to spell harbour. The Victor Harbour Railway Station is still signposted today with the spelling including the u. Victor Harbor was declared a legal Port on the 28th June 1838 and was officially known to the Harbour's Board as Port Victor until 1921. In 1921 due to the similarity of the name to Port Victoria on the Yorke Peninsula and the confusion it caused, it was decided by the Harbour's Board to change the name back by proclamation to its original name of Victor Harbor. The local newspaper the 'Victor Harbor Times' has always been published without the u since it started in 1912. It was gazetted in 1914 that the township was named as the 'Municipal Town of Victor Harbor'. It can be surmised from the above spelling of all South Australian Harbour's without the u that it originated probably from a spelling error made by an early Surveyor General of South Australia.

  18. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/news/south-australia/victor-harbor/2005/02/17/1108500204729.html

    There were suggestions at the time that Victor Harbor would make an ideal harbour for the whole South Australian colony. Colonel Light was so convinced that Adelaide was the ideal spot that he looked at Victor Harbor and dismissed it.

  19. ^ Crystal, D. (1995). Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. Cambridge University Press.

External links

  • Australian National Dictionary Centre
  • Australian Word Map at the ABC - documents regionalisms
  • Introduction to Australian Phonetics and Phonology
  • Macquarie Dictionary
  • World English Organisation
  • Australian English Dictionary (commercial website)
  • Aussie English for beginners — the origins, meanings and a quiz to test your knowledge at the National Museum of Australia.
  • English for Australia Some words and expressions are taken from British slang, while others are derived from Aboriginal terms.
  • Strine — Australian Terms Explained — basic list of Strine words at School Spirit webstrip.

  Results from FactBites:
Kids.Net.Au - Encyclopedia > Australian English (1151 words)
Australian English is the form of the English language used in Australia.
Australian English is similar in many respects to British English, but there are a few cases where Australian English is closer to American English.
Australian English is sometimes called "Strine[?]" and New Zealand English "Newzilid" - "strine" being the way "Australian" is pronounced with a heavy Australian accent, and "Newzilid" the equivalent for New Zealand - which embodies the essential pronunciation differences.
Australian English Explained - Australia (560 words)
In fact, Australian English is commonly said to be so unique and distinct that it is baffling even to other English speakers.
Heavily influenced by these external sources, the strine language (Australian English) with its unique accent and vernacular was born.
Australians also have a propensity to pepper the language with so much slang that it becomes hard for an outsider to make sense of it.
  More results at FactBites »



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