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Encyclopedia > Australia
Commonwealth of Australia
Flag of Australia Coat of arms of Australia
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemAdvance Australia FairN1
Location of Australia
Capital Canberra
35°18′S 149°08′E / 35.3°S 149.133°E / -35.3; 149.133
Largest city Sydney
Official languages NoneN2
National language English (de facto)N2
Ethnic groups  29.06% Australian,
0.45% Australian Aboriginal,
52.8% European,
6.67% Asian,
4.69% Other,
6.33% Unstated[1]
Demonym Australian,
Aussie[2][3] (colloquial)
Government Federal parliamentary democracy and constitutional monarchy, see Government of Australia
 -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II
 -  Governor-General Quentin Bryce
 -  Prime Minister Kevin Rudd
Independence from the United Kingdom 
 -  Constitution 1 January 1901 
 -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931 
 -  Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 9 October 1942 (with effect from 3 September 1939) 
 -  Australia Act 3 March 1986 
Area
 -  Total 7,686,850 km2 (6th)
2,967,909 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.897
Population
 -  2009 estimate 21,585,178[4] (51st)
 -  2006 census 19,855,288[5] 
 -  Density 2.833/km2 (232nd)
7.3/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate
 -  Total $762.887 billion[6] (17th)
 -  Per capita $36,225[6] (14th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $1,069 billion (DFAT) (15th)
 -  Per capita $50,150 (DFAT) (16th)
HDI (2008) 0.965 (high) (4th)
Currency Australian dollar (AUD)
Time zone variousN3 (UTC+8 to +10.5)
 -  Summer (DST) variousN3 (UTC+9 to +11.5)
Drives on the left
Internet TLD .au
Calling code 61

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the southern hemisphere comprising the mainland of the world's smallest continent, the major island of Tasmania, and numerous other islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.N4 Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor, and Papua New Guinea to the north, the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, and New Caledonia to the north-east, and New Zealand to the south-east. Australia can mean: Australia, a nation containing the Australian mainland in the southern hemisphere Australian continent, smallest of the continental masses includes Tasmania, the mainland, Torres islands, Papua, Moluccas islands, and Timor Australia (single), a 1996 single by the Manic Street Preachers A number of ships have also carried that... Australian may refer to: Something of, or related to Australia, a country and continent of the Southern Hemisphere. ... National flag and state ensign. ... Australian Coat of Arms (since 1912) The Coat of Arms of Australia is the official symbol of Australia. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The National Anthem booth at the 2005 Floriade, Canberra - on the J. Verbeeck fairground organ. ... A capital is the area of a country, province, region, or state, regarded as enjoying primary status; it is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting places of the seat of government and fixed by law, but there are a number of exceptions. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A national language is a language (or language variant, i. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Languages see Indigenous Australian languages Religions see Australian Aboriginal mythology Australian Aborigines ( , aka Aboriginal Australians) are a class of peoples who are identified by Australian law as being members of a race indigenous to the Australian continent. ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... Asian people[1] is a demonym for people from Asia. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Look up Aussie in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... The Commonwealth of Australia is a federative constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy. ... This article is about the monarchy of Australia, one of sixteen that share a common monarch; for information about this constitutional relationship, the other Commonwealth realm monarchies, and other relevant articles, see Commonwealth realm; for information on the reigning monarch, see Elizabeth II. Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... Quentin Bryce, AC, is a lawyer, by training and currently the Governor of Queensland, Australia. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which formally accepted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament which established the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire, allowing their parliaments and governments... Australia Act 1986 (United Kingdom) document, located in Parliament House, Canberra The Australia Act 1986 is an act of the Parliament of Australia (No. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Map of countries by 2007 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, April 2008). ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... In mainland Australia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Australian Eastern Standard Time EST/AEST (UTC+10), Australian Central Standard Time CST/ACST (UTC+9:30) and Australian Western Standard Time WST/AWST (UTC+8). ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... In mainland Australia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Australian Eastern Standard Time EST/AEST (UTC+10), Australian Central Standard Time CST/ACST (UTC+9:30) and Australian Western Standard Time WST/AWST (UTC+8). ... UTC redirects here. ...  right-hand traffic left-hand traffic Right-hand traffic and left-hand traffic mean regulations requiring all traffic to keep either to the left or the right side of the road. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... This article covers the top-level domain name. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... southern hemisphere highlighted in yellow (Antarctica not depicted). ... The Australian continental shelf (light blue) is contiguous with New Guinea, but not with other Pacific islands like New Zealand. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Peter Underwood Premier David Bartlett (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2006-07)  - Product... Australia has thousands of islands within its territory and several external territories. ...


For around 40,000 years before European settlement commenced in the late 18th century, the Australian mainland and Tasmania were inhabited by around 250 individual nations[7] of indigenous Australians.[8] After sporadic visits by fishermen from the immediate north, and European discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606,[9] the eastern half of Australia was claimed by the British in 1770 and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales, founded on 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in the following years; the continent was explored, and during the 19th century another five largely self-governing Crown Colonies were established. Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses see Transport (disambiguation) or Transportation (disambiguation). ... NSW redirects here. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ...


On 1 January 1901, the six colonies became a federation, and the Commonwealth of Australia was formed. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system and remains a Commonwealth realm. The population is just over 21.3 million, with approximately 60% concentrated in and around the mainland state capitals of Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide. The nation's capital city is Canberra, located in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... Liberal democracy is a form of government. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Slogan or Nickname: The Nations Heart or The Capital Motto(s): For the Queen, the Law and the People Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Governor General of Australia Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product...


Technologically advanced and industrialised, Australia is a prosperous multicultural country and has good results in many international comparisons of national performance such as health care, life expectancy, quality-of-life, human development, public education, economic freedom, and the protection of civil liberties and political rights.[10] World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Multiculturalism or cultural pluralism is a policy, ideal, or reality that emphasizes the unique characteristics of different cultures in the world, especially as they relate to one another in immigrant receiving nations. ... For other uses, see Australia (disambiguation). ...

Etymology

Artist's rendition of Port Jackson, the site where Sydney was established, viewed from the South Head. (From A Voyage to Terra Australis.)

The name Australia is derived from the Latin Australis, meaning "Southern". Legends of an "unknown land of the south" (terra australis incognita) date back to Roman times and were commonplace in medieval geography but were not based on any documented knowledge of the continent. In 1521 Spaniards were among the first Europeans to sail the Pacific Ocean. The first use of the word Australia in English was in 1625, in "A note of Australia del Espiritu Santo, written by Master Hakluyt", published by Samuel Purchas in Hakluytus Posthumus.[11] The Dutch adjectival form Australische was used by Dutch East India Company officials in Batavia to refer to the newly discovered land to the south in 1638. Australia was used in a 1693 translation of Les Aventures de Jacques Sadeur dans la Découverte et le Voyage de la Terre Australe, a 1676 French novel by Gabriel de Foigny under the pen-name Jacques Sadeur.[12] Alexander Dalrymple then used it in An Historical Collection of Voyages and Discoveries in the South Pacific Ocean (1771), to refer to the entire South Pacific region. In 1793, George Shaw and Sir James Smith published Zoology and Botany of New Holland, in which they wrote of "the vast island, or rather continent, of Australia, Australasia or New Holland". For other uses, see Port Jackson (disambiguation). ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of the map Terra Australis (also: Terra Australis Incognita, Latin for the unknown land of the South) was an imaginary continent, appearing on European maps from the 15th to the 18th century. ... Samuel Purchas (1575?-1626), was an English travel writer, a near-contemporary of Richard Hakluyt. ... This article is about the trading company. ... Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. ... Gabriel de Foigny (ca 1630-1692) is the author of an important utopia, La Terre Australe connue, 1676. ... Alexander Dalrymple (July 24, 1737 - June 19, 1808 was a Scottish geographer. ... George Shaw. ... For the mayor of Toronto by this name please see James Edward Smith (Toronto). ... Map of a part of New Holland made by William Dampier in 1699 New Holland is a historic name for the island continent of Australia. ...


The name Australia was popularised by the 1814 work A Voyage to Terra Australis by the navigator Matthew Flinders, the first person known to have circumnavigated Australia. Though its title reflected the British Admiralty's usage, Flinders used the word Australia in his book, and because it was widely read it gave the term general currency. Governor Lachlan Macquarie of New South Wales subsequently used the word in his dispatches to England, and on 12 December 1817 recommended to the Colonial Office that it be formally adopted.[13] In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known officially as Australia. Captain Matthew Flinders RN (16 March 1774 – 19 July 1814) was one of the most successful navigators and cartographers of his age. ... Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ... This list covers English language country names with their etymologies. ... Major General Lachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales Major-General Lachlan Macquarie CB (31 January 1762[1] – 1 July 1824), British military officer and colonial administrator, served as Governor of New South Wales from 1810 to 1821 and had a leading role in the social, economic and architectural development... NSW redirects here. ...


The word Australia in Australian English is pronounced /əˈstɹæɪljə, -liə, -jə/.[14] Since early in the 20th century the country is sometimes referred to locally and internationally as Oz.N5 Aussie (less frequently spelt Ozzie, better representing the pronunciation) is common colloquially as an adjective, and as a noun referring to an Australian.N6 The pejorative term ocker is also in use; it suggests an uncouth Australian, normally male.N7 Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... Australian English is a non-rhotic variety of English spoken by most native-born Australians. ... An Ocker is an Australian working tradesman (bricky, sparkie, builder, and so on) usually dressed in flannos (flanelette shirts), wife beaters (blue singlets), Stubbies (shorts) and old boots. ...


History

Main article: History of Australia

Human habitation of Australia is estimated to have begun between 42,000 and 48,000 years ago.[15] These first Australians may have been ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians; they may have arrived via land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now South-East Asia. Most of these people were hunter-gatherers, with a complex oral culture and spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime. The Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, were originally horticulturalists and hunter-gatherers. Their cultural practices have always been distinct from those of the Aborigines. The written history of Australia began when Dutch explorers first sighted the country in the 17th century. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Oral tradition or oral culture is a way of transmitting history, literature or law from one generation to the next in a civilization without a writing system. ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... The Torres Strait Islander Flag. ... map of Melanesia Melanesia (from Greek: μέλας black, νῆσος island) is a subregion of Oceania extending from the western side of the West Pacific to the Arafura Sea, north and northeast of Australia. ...

A replica of Lieutenant Cook's ship HM Bark Endeavour in Cooktown Harbour

The first recorded European sighting of the Australian mainland was made by the Dutch navigator Willem Janszoon, who sighted the coast of Cape York Peninsula in 1606. During the 17th century, the Dutch charted the whole of the western and northern coastlines of what they called New Holland, but they made no attempt at settlement. In 1770, James Cook sailed along and mapped the east coast of Australia, which he named New South Wales and claimed for Great Britain. HMB Endeavour was a small 18th century British sailing ship, famous for being the vessel commanded by Lt. ... Cooktown is the northernmost town on the East coast of Australia, located at 15°28′ S 145°17′ E on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. ... Willem Janszoon (c. ... This article is about the peninsula located in the Australian state of Queensland; it should not be confused with either Yorke Peninsula in South Australia, or Cape York, Greenland. ... This article is about the British explorer. ...


Cook's discoveries prepared the way for establishment of a new penal colony. The British Crown Colony of New South Wales began a settlement at Port Jackson by Captain Arthur Phillip on 26 January 1788. This date was later to become Australia's national day, Australia Day. Van Diemen's Land, now known as Tasmania, was settled in 1803 and became a separate colony in 1825. The United Kingdom formally claimed the western part of Australia in 1829. Separate colonies were created from parts of New South Wales: South Australia in 1836, Victoria in 1851, and Queensland in 1859. The Northern Territory was founded in 1911 when it was excised from South Australia. South Australia was founded as a "free province"—that is, it was never a penal colony. Victoria and Western Australia were also founded "free" but later accepted transported convicts.[16] The transportation of convicts to the colony of New South Wales ceased in 1848 after a campaign by the settlers.[17] A penis colony is a colony used to detain prisoners and generally use them for penal labor in an economically underdeveloped part of the states (usually colonial) territories, and on a far larger scale than a prison farm. ... A United Kingdom overseas territory (formerly known as a dependent territory or earlier as a crown colony) is a territory that is under the sovereignty and formal control of the United Kingdom but is not part of the United Kingdom proper (almost exclusively Great Britain and Northern Ireland). ... For other uses, see Port Jackson (disambiguation). ... Admiral Arthur Phillip RN (11 October 1738 – 31 August 1814) was a British naval officer and colonial administrator. ... The National Day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a country. ... Anniversary Day redirects here. ... 1663 map of Van Diemens Land, showing the parts discovered by Tasman, including Storm Bay, Maria Island and Schouten Island. ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... VIC redirects here. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... A studio photograph of Tasmanian convict Bill Thompson, showing the convict uniform and the use of leg irons. ...

Port Arthur, Tasmania was Australia's largest gaol for transported convicts.

The Indigenous Australian population, estimated at 350,000 at the time of European settlement,[18] declined steeply for 150 years following settlement, mainly because of infectious disease[19] combined with forced re-settlement and cultural disintegration.[citation needed] The removal of children from their families, which historians such as Henry Reynolds and Indigenous Australians[which?] have argued could be considered genocide by some definitions,[20] may have contributed to the decline in the indigenous population.[citation needed] Such interpretations of Aboriginal history are disputed by some commentators as being exaggerated or fabricated for political or ideological reasons.[21] This debate is known within Australia as the History Wars. Following the 1967 referendum, the Federal government gained the power to implement policies and make laws with respect to Aborigines. Traditional ownership of land—native title—was not recognised until 1992, when the High Court case Mabo v Queensland (No 2) overturned the notion of Australia as terra nullius (literally "no one's land", effectively "empty land") at the time of European occupation. The iconic view of the penitentiary originally built as a flour mill, across the water. ... For other uses, see Jail (disambiguation). ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of... Henry Reynolds (VC, MC) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... The History wars are an ongoing public debate in Australia over the interpretation of the history of the European colonisation of Australia, and its impact on Indigenous Australians and Torres Strait Islanders. ... The referendum of 27 May 1967 approved two amendments to the Australian constitution relating to Indigenous Australians. ... Native title is a concept in the law of Australia that recognises the continued ownership of land by local Indigenous Australians. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo) was a landmark Australian court case which was decided by the High Court of Australia on June 3, 1992. ... Terra nullius (English pronunciation IPA: , Latin pronunciation IPA: ) is a Latin expression deriving from Roman Law meaning land belonging to no one, nobodys land i. ...

The Last Post is played at an ANZAC Day ceremony in Port Melbourne, Victoria. Similar ceremonies are held in most suburbs and towns.

A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, and the Eureka Stockade rebellion against mining licence fees in 1854 was an early expression of civil disobedience. Between 1855 and 1890, the six colonies individually gained responsible government, managing most of their own affairs while remaining part of the British Empire. The Colonial Office in London retained control of some matters, notably foreign affairs, defence, and international shipping. On 1 January 1901, federation of the colonies was achieved after a decade of planning, consultation, and voting. The Commonwealth of Australia was born as a dominion of the British Empire. The Federal Capital Territory (later renamed the Australian Capital Territory) was formed from a part of New South Wales in 1911 to provide a location for the proposed new federal capital of Canberra. (Melbourne was the temporary seat of government from 1901 to 1927 while Canberra was being constructed.) The Northern Territory was transferred from the control of the South Australian government to the Commonwealth in 1911. Australia willingly participated in World War I.[22] Many Australians regard the defeat of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs) at Gallipoli as the birth of the nation—its first major military action.[23] The Kokoda Track Campaign is regarded by many as an analogous nation-defining event during World War II. Last Post is a bugle call used at military funerals and ceremonies commemorating those who have fallen in war. ... A veteran on Anzac Day. ... Port Melbourne is a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... For other meanings, see Gold rush (disambiguation) A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers into the area of a dramatic discovery of commercial quantities of gold. ... The Eureka Flag The Eureka Stockade was the setting of a gold miners revolt in 1854 in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, against the officials supervising the mining of gold in the region. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The federation of Australia was the process by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria and Western Australia formed a federation. ... This article is about Dominions of the British Empire and of the Commonwealth of Nations. ... The Federal Capital Territory may refer to: the Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria the former name for the Australian Capital Territory ... Slogan or Nickname: The Nations Heart or The Capital Motto(s): For the Queen, the Law and the People Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Governor General of Australia Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps was a First World War army corps of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force that was formed in Egypt in 1915 and operated during the Battle of Gallipoli. ... Belligerents British Empire Australia British India Newfoundland New Zealand United Kingdom Egyptian labourers[1] France Senegal Ottoman Empire German Empire[2] Austria-Hungary[3] Commanders Sir Ian Hamilton Lord Kitchener John de Robeck Otto Liman von Sanders Mustafa Kemal Strength 5 divisions (initial) 16 divisions (final) 6 divisions (initial) 15... Combatants  Australia Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Thomas Blamey Sydney Rowell Edmund Herring Arthur Tubby Allen George Vasey Selwyn Porter Arnold Potts Hisaichi Terauchi Yosuke Yokoyama Tomitaro Horii â€  Strength 2,000 plus reinforcements 10,000 plus reinforcements Casualties 725 killed 1,055 wounded Hundreds sick with disease 6,500... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Australian women were encouraged to participate in the war effort.

The United Kingdom's Statute of Westminster 1931 formally ended most of the constitutional links between Australia and the UK. Australia adopted it in 1942, but backdated it to the beginning of World War II to confirm the validity of legislation passed by the Australian Parliament during the war. The shock of the UK's defeat in Asia in 1942 and the threat of Japanese invasion caused Australia to turn to the United States as a new ally and protector. Since 1951, Australia has been a formal military ally of the US, under the ANZUS treaty. After World War II, Australia encouraged immigration from Europe; since the 1970s and the abolition of the White Australia policy, immigration from Asia and elsewhere was also encouraged. As a result, Australia's demography, culture, and self-image have been transformed. The final constitutional ties between Australia and the UK were severed with the passing of the Australia Act 1986, ending any British role in the government of the Australian States, and ending judicial appeals to the UK Privy Council.[24] At the 1999 referendum, 54% of Australian voters rejected a proposal to become a republic with a president appointed by two-thirds vote of both houses of the Australian Parliament. Since the election of the Whitlam Government in 1972, there has been an increasing focus on the expansion of ties with other Pacific Rim nations while maintaining close ties with Australia's traditional allies and trading partners. An Australian light machine gun team in action against Japanese positions near Wewak in June 1945 Australia entered World War II shortly after the invasion of Poland, declaring war on Germany on September 3, 1939. ... This article is about the Statute of Westminster relating to the British Empire and its dominions. ... The Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which formally accepted the Statute of Westminster 1931, an Act of the British Imperial Parliament which established the legislative independence of the various self-governing Dominions of the British Empire, allowing their parliaments and governments... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... Australia Act 1986 (United Kingdom) document, located in Parliament House, Canberra The Australia Act 1986 is an act of the Parliament of Australia (No. ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ... The 1999 Australian referendum was a two question referendum held on 6 November 1999. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (pronounced goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... The USS Abraham Lincoln Battle Group along with ships from Australia, Chile, Japan, Canada, and Korea speed towards Honolulu in RIMPAC 2000. ...


Politics

Parliament House in Canberra was opened in 1988, replacing the provisional Parliament House building opened in 1927.

The Commonwealth of Australia is a constitutional democracy based on a federal division of powers. The form of government used in Australia is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of government. Queen Elizabeth II is the Queen of Australia, a role that is distinct from her position as monarch of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen is represented by the Governor-General at federal level and by the Governors at state level. Although the Constitution gives extensive executive powers to the Governor-General, these are normally exercised only on the advice of the Prime Minister. The most notable exercise of the Governor-General's reserve powers outside the Prime Minister's direction was the dismissal of the Whitlam Government in the constitutional crisis of 1975.[25] The Commonwealth of Australia is a federative constitutional monarchy under a parliamentary democracy. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag mast. ... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Old Parliament House today Opening of Parliament House in May 1927 Old Parliament House, formerly known as the Provisional Parliament House, was the seat of the Parliament of Australia from 1927 to 1988. ... // In ancient times, India, Greece, and Rome had governments similar to constitutional democracies. ... For theological federalism, see Covenant Theology. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A constitutional monarchy or limited monarchy is a form of government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges an elected or hereditary monarch as head of state, as opposed to an absolute monarchy, where the monarch is not... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... In political science and constitutional law, the executive is the branch of government responsible for the day-to-day management of the state. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... In a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government, a reserve power is a power that may be exercised by the head of state without the approval of another branch of the government. ... The secretary of the Governor-General, David Smith, announcing the dissolution of Parliament on November 11th, 1975. ...


There are three branches of government: The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Separation of powers is a term coined by French political Enlightenment thinker Baron de Montesquieu[1][2], is a model for the governance of democratic states. ...

  • The legislature: the Commonwealth Parliament, comprising the Queen, the Senate, and the House of Representatives; the Queen is represented by the Governor-General, who by convention acts on the advice of his or her Ministers.
  • The executive: the Federal Executive Council (the Governor-General as advised by the Executive Councillors); in practice, the councillors are the Prime Minister and Ministers of State.
  • The judiciary: the High Court of Australia and other federal courts. Appeals from Australian courts to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in the United Kingdom ceased when the Australia Act was passed in 1986.

The bicameral Commonwealth Parliament consists of the Queen, the Senate (the upper house) of 76 senators, and a House of Representatives (the lower house) of 150 members. Members of the lower house are elected from single-member constituencies, commonly known as "electorates" or "seats", allocated to states on the basis of population, with each original state guaranteed a minimum of five seats. In the Senate, each state is represented by twelve senators, and each of the territories (the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory) by two. Elections for both chambers are normally held every three years, simultaneously; senators have overlapping six-year terms, since only half of places in the Senate are put to each election unless the cycle is interrupted by a double dissolution. The party with majority support in the House of Representatives forms government and its leader becomes Prime Minister. Type Bicameral Houses House of Representatives Senate Speaker of the House of Representatives David Hawker, Liberal Party since 16 November 2004 President of the Senate Alan Ferguson, Liberal Party since 14 August 2007 Members 226 (150 Representatives, 76 Senators) Political groups Liberal Party ALP National Party Country Liberal Party Greens... The Federal Executive Council is the formal body holding executive authority under the Australian Constitution. ... High Court entrance The High Court of Australia is the final court of appeal in Australia, the highest court in the Australian court hierarchy. ... Courtroom 1 in the High Court in Canberra. ... The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... The Australia Act of 1986 (No. ... Government House from the lookout on Lady Denman Drive Government House, Canberra, commonly known as Yarralumla, is the official residence of the Governor-General of Australia, located in the suburb of Yarralumla, Canberra. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... This article is about bicameralism in government. ... Type Upper house President Alan Ferguson, Liberal since 14 August 2007 Members 76 Political groups Coalition (39) ALP (28) Green (4) Democrat (4) FFP (1) Last elections 9 October 2004 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site Senate Entrance to the Senate Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State... Type Lower house Speaker of the House David Hawker, Liberal since November 16, 2004 Members 150 Political groups ALP (85) Liberal Party (53) National Party (10) Last elections 24 November 2007 Meeting place Parliament House, Canberra, ACT Web site House of Representatives Entrance to the House of Representatives Judicial High... Image:Ac. ...


There are two major political groups that form government, federally and in the states: the Australian Labor Party, and the Coalition which is a formal grouping of two parties: the Liberal Party and its minor partner, the National Party. Independent members and several minor parties—including the Greens and the Australian Democrats—have achieved representation in Australian parliaments, mostly in upper houses. Since the election of 3 December 2007, the Labor Party led by the Prime Minister Kevin Rudd has been in power. Every Australian parliament (federal, state, and territory) then had a Labor government until September 2008 when the Liberal Party formed a minority government in association with the National Party in Western Australia. In the 2004 election, the previous governing coalition led by John Howard won control of the Senate—the first time in more than 20 years that a party (or a coalition) has done so while in government. Voting is compulsory for all enrolled citizens 18 years and over, in each state and territory and at the federal level. Enrolment to vote is compulsory in all jurisdictions except South Australia.[26] ALP redirects here. ... The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... This article is about the modern Australian political party. ... The National Party of Australia is an Australian political party. ... The Australian Greens, commonly known as The Greens, is a Green Australian political party. ... The Australian Democrats is an Australian political party which was formed in 1977 through a merger of the Australia Party and the Liberal Movement after principals of those minor parties secured the commitment of former Liberal minister Don Chipp as a high-profile leader[1]. The new party was based... Federal elections for the Parliament of Australia were held on Saturday 24 November 2007 after a 6-week campaign, in which 13. ... Kevin Michael Rudd (born 21 September 1957), is the leader of the federal Australian Labor Party and Leader of the Opposition in the Australian Parliament. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Federal elections were held in Australia on 9 October 2004. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Compulsory voting is a practice that requires citizens to vote in elections or to attend a polling place to get their name crossed off the electoral roll. ...


States and territories

Perth Adelaide Melbourne Canberra Sydney Brisbane Darwin Hobart Tasmania Australian Capital Territory Australian Capital Territory Western Australia Northern Territory South Australia Queensland New South Wales Victoria Tasmania Great Australian Bight Tasman Sea Indian Ocean Coral Sea Indonesia Papua New Guinea Gulf of Carpentaria Arafura Sea East Timor Timor Sea Great Barrier Reef
Australian States and mainland Territories

Australia has six states and two major mainland territories. There are also lesser territories that are under the administration of the federal government. The states and territories of Australia make up the Commonwealth of Australia under a federal system of government. ...


The states are New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, and Western Australia. The two major mainland territories are the Northern Territory and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). In most respects these two territories function like states, but the Commonwealth Parliament can override any legislation of their parliaments. By contrast, federal legislation only overrides state legislation in certain areas that are set out in Section 51 of the Australian Constitution; state parliaments retain all residual legislative powers, including powers over hospitals, education, police, the judiciary, roads, public transport, and local government. NSW redirects here. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Peter Underwood Premier David Bartlett (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2006-07)  - Product... VIC redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Slogan or Nickname: The Nations Heart or The Capital Motto(s): For the Queen, the Law and the People Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Governor General of Australia Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product... Section 51 of the Australian Constitution grants legislative powers to the Australian (Commonwealth) Parliament. ...


Each state and major mainland territory has its own legislature or parliament: unicameral in the Northern Territory, the ACT, and Queensland, and bicameral in the remaining states. The states are sovereign, though subject to certain powers of the Commonwealth as defined by the Constitution. The lower house is known as the Legislative Assembly (House of Assembly in South Australia and Tasmania) and the upper house is known as the Legislative Council. The head of the government in each state is the Premier, and in each territory the Chief Minister. The Queen is represented in each state by a Governor; an Administrator in the Northern Territory, and the Australian Governor-General in the ACT, have analogous roles. The Parliaments of the Australian states and territories are legislative bodies within the federal framework of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... For unicameral alphabets, see the article letter case. For The unicameral, see Nebraska Legislature. ... A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. ... A Legislative Assembly in some parts of the Commonwealth refers to a legislature, or a chamber of the legislature. ... House of Assembly is a name given to the legislature or lower house of a bicameral legislature, in some countries, often at subnational level. ... For the demesne in The Keys to the Kingdom series, see The House An upper house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house. ... A Legislative Council in British constitutional thought is the second-to-top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, inferior to an Executive Council and equal to or superior to a Legislative Assembly. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... The Premiers of the Australian states are the heads of the executive governments in the six states of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Judicial High Court Lower Courts Constitution State and territory governments Executive Governors and Administrators Premiers and Chief Ministers Legislative Parliaments and Assemblies State electoral systems ACT - NSW - NT - Qld. ... The political office of the Administrator of the Northern Territory of Australia has been held by the following people. ...


The federal government directly administers the following territories: Jervis Bay Territory (a naval base and sea port for the national capital—land that was formerly part of New South Wales); Christmas Island, and Cocos (Keeling) Islands (inhabited external territories); and Ashmore and Cartier Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, and the Australian Antarctic Territory (largely uninhabited). Norfolk Island is also technically an external territory; however, under the Norfolk Island Act 1979 it has been granted more autonomy and is governed locally by its own legislative assembly. The Queen is represented by an Administrator, currently Owen Walsh. The Jervis Bay Territory is a territory of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... The Australian Antarctic Territory (AAT) is the part of Antarctica claimed by Australia. ... List of Administrative Heads of Norfolk Island, (Australia) Categories: | ... Owen Walsh (1933 - 2002) was born in Westport, County Mayo, Ireland. ...


Foreign relations and military

Over recent decades, Australia's foreign relations have been driven by a close association with the United States through the ANZUS pact, and by a desire to develop relationships with Asia and the Pacific, particularly through ASEAN and the Pacific Islands Forum. In 2005 Australia secured an inaugural seat at the East Asia Summit following its accession to the Treaty of Amity and Cooperation. Australia is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, in which the Commonwealth Heads of Government meetings provide the main forum for cooperation. Australia has energetically pursued the cause of international trade liberalisation. It led the formation of the Cairns Group and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation. Australia is a member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization, and has pursued several major bilateral free trade agreements, most recently the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement and Closer Economic Relations with New Zealand. Australia is also negotiating a free trade agreement with Japan, with whom Australia has close economic ties as a trusted partner in the Asia Pacific region.[27] A founding member country of the United Nations, Australia is strongly committed to multilateralism along with its middle power allies Canada and the Nordic countries, and maintains an international aid program under which some 60 countries receive assistance. The 2005–06 budget provides A$2.5 billion for development assistance;[28] as a percentage of GDP, this contribution is less than that recommended in the UN Millennium Development Goals. Australia ranks 7th overall in the Center for Global Development's 2008 Commitment to Development Index.[29] RG Casey House, Canberra, is the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the department responsible for the formulation and enactment of Australian foreign policy. ... The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. ... The Australian War Memorial is Australias national memorial to the members of all its armed forces and supporting organisations who have died or participated in the wars of the Commonwealth of Australia. ... RG Casey House, Canberra, is the headquarters of the Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, the department responsible for the formulation and enactment of Australian foreign policy. ... The Australia, New Zealand, United States Security Treaty (ANZUS or ANZUS Treaty) is the military alliance which binds Australia and New Zealand and, separately, Australia and the United States to cooperate on defence matters in the Pacific Ocean area, though today the treaty is understood to relate to attacks in... ASEAN[1], pronounced // (AH-SEE-AHN) in English, or the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is a geo-political and economic organization of 10 countries located in Southeast Asia, which was formed on August 8, 1967 by Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand[2] as a display of solidarity... The Pacific Islands Forum is an inter-governmental consultative organization which aims to enhance cooperation between the independent countries of the Pacific Ocean and represent their interests. ... The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a pan-Asia forum held annually by the leaders of 16 countries in East Asia and the region, with ASEAN in a leadership position. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The leaders of the nations with membership in the Commonwealth of Nations (or British Commonwealth) are collectively known as the Commonwealth Heads of Government. ... The Cairns Group is an interest group of 18 agricultural exporting countries, composed of Argentina, Australia , Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Paraguay, the Philippines, South Africa, Thailand, and Uruguay. ... APEC redirects here. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... -1... The Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA) is a preferential trade agreement between Australia and the United States of America modelled on the North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map showing general definition of Asia-Pacific The term Asia-Pacific or APAC generally applies to littoral East Asia, Southeast Asia and Australasia near the Pacific Ocean, plus the states in the ocean itself (Oceania). ... UN redirects here. ... Multilateralism is an international relations term that refers to multiple countries working in concert. ... Middle power is a term used in the field of international relations to describe states that are not superpowers or great powers, but still have large and mild influence and recognized internationally. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The Millenium Development Goals The Millennium Development Goals are eight goals that 192 United Nations member states have agreed to try to achieve by the year 2015. ... The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a think tank focused on reducing global poverty and inequality, headquartered in Washington, D.C. CGD was founded in November 2001 by Edward W. Scott, Jr. ... The Commitment to Development Index (CDI), published annually by the Center for Global Development, assesses the development-friendliness of 21 rich country policies in seven policy areas: aid, trade, investment, migration, environment, security, and technology. ...


Australia's armed forces—the Australian Defence Force (ADF)—comprise the Royal Australian Navy (RAN), the Australian Army, and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF), in total numbering 73,000 personnel (including 53,000 regulars and 20,000 reservists).[30] Australia's military is 68th largest in the world, but one of the world's smallest in per capita terms. All branches of the ADF have been involved in UN and regional peacekeeping (most recently in East Timor, the Solomon Islands, and Sudan), disaster relief, and armed conflict, including the 2003 invasion of Iraq. The government appoints the Chief of the Defence Force from one of the armed services; the current Chief of the Defence Force is Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston. In the 2006–07 budget, defence spending was A$22 billion,[31] accounting for less than 1% of global military spending. Australia was placed 27th on the 2008 Global Peace Index, primarily due to its presence in Afghanistan.[32] While the Governor-General is the Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force, he or she does not play an active part in the ADF's command structure as the elected Australian Government controls the ADF.[33] The Australian Defence Force (ADF) is the military organisation responsible for the defence of Australia. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Australian Army is Australias military land force. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... Number of active troops per country This list of countries by size of armed forces displays national troop levels by active troop strength, number of Naval combatants, fighter aircraft and nuclear weapons. ... Number of total troops per country This is a list of countries sorted by the number of total troops within the command of that country, including reserve forces that can aid a depleted active military and/or paramilitary. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Air Chief Marshal Angus Houston, current CDF The Chief of the Defence Force (CDF) is the most senior appointment in the Australian Defence Force (ADF). ... Air Chief Marshal Allan (Angus) Grant Houston, AO, AFC, is the Chief of the Australian Defence Forces as of 4 July 2005. ... Military spending in 2006, in billions of euros, according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute and the European Defence Agency. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ...


Geography

Main articles: Geography of Australia, Climate of Australia, and Environment in Australia
Climatic zones in Australia, based on Köppen classification

Australia's landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi)[34] is on the Indo-Australian Plate. Surrounded by the IndianN4 and Pacific oceans, Australia is separated from Asia by the Arafura and Timor seas. Australia has 34,218 kilometres (21,262 mi) of coastline (excluding all offshore islands)[35] and claims an extensive exclusive economic zone of 8,148,250 square kilometres (3,146,060 sq mi). This exclusive economic zone does not include the Australian Antarctic Territory. The geography of Australia encompasses a wide variety of biogeographic regions being the worlds smallest continent but the sixth-largest country in the world. ... Climate map of Australia, based on Köppen classification. ... Australia is located in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Köppen climate map The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... The Arafura Sea is the body of water that lies between Australia and New Guinea. ... The Timor Sea (Indonesian: Laut Timor; Portugeuse: Mar Timor) is an arm of the Indian Ocean situated between the island of Timor, now split between the states of Indonesia and East Timor, and the Northern Territory of Australia. ... Sea areas in international rights Under the law of the sea, an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) is a seazone over which a state has special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources. ...

Landscape of Cradle Mountain in Tasmania

The Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest coral reef,[36] lies a short distance off the north-east coast and extends for over 2,000 kilometres (1,240 mi). Mount Augustus, claimed to be the world's largest monolith,[37] is located in Western Australia. At 2,228 metres (7,310 ft), Mount Kosciuszko on the Great Dividing Range is the highest mountain on the Australian mainland, although Mawson Peak on the remote Australian territory of Heard Island is taller at 2,745 metres (9,006 ft). Dove Lake and Cradle Mountain, Central Tasmanian Highlands Cradle Mountain forms the northern end of the wild Cradle Mountain-Lake St Clair National Park, itself a part of the Tasmanian Wilderness World Heritage Area. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Peter Underwood Premier David Bartlett (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2006-07)  - Product... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,600 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (133,000 sq mi). ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Mount Augustus National Park in Western Australia, 852 km north of Perth, is a national park based around the largest monolith in the world called Mount Augustus, or Burringurrah as it is known by the local Wadjari Aboriginal people. ... For other uses, see Monolith (disambiguation). ... Location in New South Wales Mount Kosciuszko, located in the Snowy Mountains, in Kosciuszko National Park, is the highest mountain in Australia (not including its external territories), at 2,228 metres (7,310 ft) above sea level. ... The Great Dividing Range, also known as the Eastern Highlands, is Australias most substantial mountain range. ... Mawson Peak is a peak on Heard Island, an Australian territory in the Southern Ocean. ... Heard Island and McDonald Islands (abbreviated as HIMI [1]) are uninhabited, barren islands located in the Southern Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Madagascar to Antarctica, or 7718 km due south of Rajapur, Maharashtra. ...


By far the largest part of Australia is desert or semi-arid lands commonly known as the outback. Australia is the flattest continent, with the oldest and least fertile soils, and is the driest inhabited continent. Only the south-east and south-west corners of the continent have a temperate climate. The population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, is among the lowest in the world, although a great proportion of the population lives along the temperate south-eastern coastline. The landscapes of the northern part of the country, with a tropical climate, consist of rainforest, woodland, grassland, mangrove swamps, and desert. The climate is significantly influenced by ocean currents, including the El Niño southern oscillation, which is correlated with periodic drought, and the seasonal tropical low pressure system that produces cyclones in northern Australia.[38] Location of deserts in Australia Deserts of Australia cover a large portion of the land in Australia. ... For other uses, see Outback (disambiguation). ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Square kilometre (U.S. spelling: square kilometer), symbol km², is a decimal multiple of SI unit of surface area square metre, one of the SI derived units. ... For the novel, see Rainforest (novel). ... Limber Pine woodland, Toiyabe Range, central Nevada Biologically, a woodland is a treed area differentiated from a forest. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Chart of ocean surface temperature anomaly [°C] during the last strong El Niño in December 1997 El Niño and La Niña (also written in English as El Nino and La Nina) are major temperature fluctuations in surface waters of the tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. ... Drought in Australia is defined as rainfall over a three month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ...


Climate change has become an increasing concern in Australia in recent years,[39] with many Australians considering it to be the most important issue facing the country.[40] The first Rudd Ministry has initiated several emission reduction activities;[41] Rudd's first official act, on his first day in office, was to sign the instrument of ratification of the Kyoto Protocol. Nevertheless Australia's carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world, lower than only several other industrialised nations including the United States, Canada, and Norway. Rainfall in Australia has increased over the past century, both nationwide and for all four quadrants of the nation.[42] Despite this beneficial effect of climate change, water restrictions are currently in place in many regions and cities of Australia in response to chronic shortages due to urban population increases and localised drought.[43] Climate change has become a major [which?] issue in Australia in recent years. ... The First Rudd Ministry (Australian Labor Party) will be the 65th Australian ministry. ... The Kyoto Protocol is a protocol to the international Framework Convention on Climate Change with the objective of reducing greenhouse gases that cause climate change. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here CO2 emission per capita per year per country This is a list of countriesafsdafdasfsdfsfsdfafsafsdafsadfs by carbon dioxide emissions per capita from 1990 through 2003. ... Level 5 water restrictions in Goulburn in 2006. ... Drought in Australia is defined as rainfall over a three month period being in the lowest decile of what has been recorded for that region in the past. ...


Ecology

The koala and the eucalyptus forming an iconic Australian pair

Although most of Australia is semi-arid or desert, it includes a diverse range of habitats from alpine heaths to tropical rainforests, and is recognised as a megadiverse country. Because of the continent's great age, its extremely variable weather patterns, and its long-term geographic isolation, much of Australia's biota is unique and diverse. About 85% of flowering plants, 84% of mammals, more than 45% of birds, and 89% of in-shore, temperate-zone fish are endemic.[44] Australia has the greatest number of reptiles of any country, with 755 species.[45] Many of Australia's ecoregions, and the species within those regions, are threatened by human activities and introduced plant and animal species. The federal Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999 is a legal framework for the protection of threatened species. Numerous protected areas have been created under the national Biodiversity Action Plan to protect and preserve unique ecosystems; 64 wetlands are registered under the Ramsar Convention, and 16 World Heritage Sites have been established. Australia was ranked 13th in the world on the 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index.[46] Australian forests often contain a wide variety of eucalyptus trees and are mostly located in higher rainfall regions. For other uses, see Koala (disambiguation). ... [[Link title]] This article is about the plant genus. ... Alpine may refer to: Alpine, a breed of goat. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests of the world Tropical rainforests are rainforests generally found near the equator. ... The Megadiverse countries are a group of countries in which less than the 10% of the global surface has more than the 70% of the biodiversity. ... It has been suggested that Biota (taxonomy) be merged into this article or section. ... // This list is based on the Birds Australia list, September 2003 (PDF, free registration required). ... In biology and ecology endemic means exclusively native to a place or biota, in contrast to cosmopolitan or introduced. ... Common invasive species in the Adelaide Hills: Olive, Cotton thistle, Fennel and Bamboo Invasive species are a serious threat to the native biodiversity of Australia and are an ongoing cost to Australian agriculture. ... Diademed Sifaka, an endangered primate of Madagascar Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) is a an internationally recognized programme addressing threatened species or habitats, which is designed to protect and restore biological systems. ... The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... The Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is a composite index tracking 21 elements of environmental sustainability covering natural resource endowments, past and present pollution levels, environmental management efforts, contributions to protection of the global commons, and a societys capacity to improve its environmental performance over time. ... Australian vegetation including forest cover The buttressed roots of an Antarctic Beech in Lamington National Park Rainforest in Tasmanias Hellyer Gorge is considered a Gondwanan relic. ... [[Link title]] This article is about the plant genus. ...


Most Australian woody plant species are evergreen and many are adapted to fire and drought, including many eucalypts and acacias. Australia has a rich variety of endemic legume species that thrive in nutrient-poor soils because of their symbiosis with rhizobia bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi. Among well-known Australian fauna are the monotremes (the platypus and the echidna); a host of marsupials, including the kangaroo, the koala, and the wombat; the saltwater and freshwater crocodiles; and birds such as the emu and the kookaburra. Australia is home to some of the most venomous snakes in the world.[47] The dingo was introduced by Austronesian people who traded with Indigenous Australians around 3000 BCE.[48] Many plant and animal species became extinct soon after first human settlement, including the Australian megafauna; others have become extinct since European settlement, among them the thylacine.[49] Eucalypts are tree species belonging to three closely related genera, Angophora, Corymbia and Eucalyptus. ... For other uses, see Acacia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit of the plants also called legumes. For the plants themselves, see Fabaceae . ... Soybean root nodules, each containing billions of Bradyrhizobium bacteria Rhizobia (from the Greek words riza = root and bios = Life) are soil bacteria that fix nitrogen (diazotrophy) after becoming established inside root nodules of legumes (Fabaceae). ... A mycorrhiza (typically seen in the plural forms mycorrhizae or mycorrhizas, Greek for fungus roots) is the result of a mutualistic association between a fungus and a plant. ... The Red Kangaroo is the largest macropod and is one of Australias heraldic animals, appearing with the Emu on the Coat of Arms of Australia. ... Families †Kollikodontidae Ornithorhynchidae Tachyglossidae †Steropodontidae Monotremes (from the Greek monos single + trema hole, referring to the cloaca) are mammals that lay eggs (Prototheria) instead of giving birth to live young like marsupials (Metatheria) and placental mammals (Eutheria). ... For other uses, see Platypus (disambiguation). ... For other senses of this word, see Echidna (disambiguation). ... This article is about mammals. ... Species Macropus rufus Macropus giganteus Macropus fuliginosus Macropus antilopinus A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae (macropods, meaning large foot). In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family, the Red Kangaroo, the Antilopine Kangaroo, and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo... For other uses, see Koala (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Wombat (disambiguation). ... Binomial name (Schneider, 1801) Range of the Saltwater Crocodile in black The Saltwater or Estuarine Crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) is the largest of all living crocodilians and reptiles. ... Binomial name Crocodylus johnstoni (Krefft, 1873) Range of the Freshwater Crocodile in black The Freshwater Crocodile also known as Johnstons Crocodile or Freshies are found in the northern regions of Australia. ... For other uses, see EMU. Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in orange. ... Species Dacelo gaudichaud Dacelo leachii Dacelo novaeguineae Dacelo tyro For other uses, see Kookaburra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dingo (disambiguation). ... BCE redirects here. ... Marsupial Lion skeleton in Naracoorte Caves, South Australia. ... Binomial name (Harris, 1808) The Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus, pronounced ) was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Australia
See also: Economic history of Australia and Median household income in Australia and New Zealand
The Super Pit in Kalgoorlie, Australia's largest open cut gold mine

The Australian dollar is the currency of the Commonwealth of Australia, including Christmas Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Norfolk Island, as well as the independent Pacific Island states of Kiribati, Nauru, and Tuvalu. The Australian Securities Exchange and the Sydney Futures Exchange are the largest stock exchanges in Australia. www. ... This article is a brief timeline of the economic history of Australia. ... 2006 Median household income (PPP, US$) Highlights Most people (90%) live in a state where the median household income is US$39,000. ... Super Pit gold mine. ... Kalgoorlie may refer to the following geographically related places: Kalgoorlie, Western Australia, a city and council in Western Australia; Division of Kalgoorlie, a federal division of the Australian House of Representatives located around the geographical area; Electoral district of Kalgoorlie, an electoral district of the Western Australian Legislative Assembly. ... El Chino, located near Silver City, New Mexico, is an open-pit copper mine Open-pit mining, or opencast mining, refers to a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit or borrow. ... ISO 4217 Code AUD User(s) Australia 6 countries and territories Kiribati Nauru Tuvalu Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands Norfolk Island Inflation 4. ... Tuamotu, French Polynesia The Pacific Ocean contains an estimated 20,000 to 30,000 islands (the exact number has yet to be precisely determined). ... The Australian Securities Exchange (ASX) is the primary stock exchange in Australia. ... The Sydney Futures Exchange (SFE) is both a futures exchange and options exchange located in Australia. ...

Perth, Western Australia is one of the world's most liveable cities.

Australia is one of the most laissez-faire capitalist economies, according to indices of economic freedom. Australia's per capita GDP is slightly higher than that of the UK, Germany, and France in terms of purchasing power parity. The country was ranked third in the United Nations 2007 Human Development Index, first in Legatum's 2008 Prosperity Index, and sixth in The Economist worldwide Quality-of-Life Index for 2005. All of Australia's major cities fare well in global comparative liveability surveys;[50] Melbourne reached 2nd place on The Economist's 2008 World's Most Livable Cities list, followed by Perth at 4th, Adelaide at 7th, and Sydney at 9th.[51] The emphasis on exporting commodities rather than manufactures has underpinned a significant increase in Australia's terms of trade during the rise in commodity prices since the start of the century. Australia has a balance of payments that is more than 7% of GDP negative, and has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years.[52] Australia has grown at an average annual rate of 3.6% for over 15 years, a period in which the OECD annual average was 2.5%.[52] The Worlds Most Livable Cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... This article includes a list of countries of the world sorted by their economic freedom, as measured by Index of Economic Freedom and Economic Freedom of the World reports. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... UN redirects here. ... The Legatum Logo LEGATUM is a privately owned, international investment organisation, headquartered in Dubai, part of the United Arab Emirates. ... The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking, developed by the Legatum Institute, of over 100 countries according to the degree to which those nations are promoting the factors that create prosperity, which is defined as a holistic combination of economic competitiveness and comparative liveability. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the objective determinants of quality of life across countries. ... The Worlds Most Livable Cities is an informal name given to any list of cities as they rank on a reputable annual survey of living conditions. ... Australia has had persistently large current account deficits for more than 50 years. ... The term current account usually refers to the current account of the balance of payments (BOP) and contains the import and export items of goods and services. ...


The Hawke Government floated the Australian dollar in 1983 and partially deregulated the financial system.[53] The Howard government followed with a partial deregulation of the labour market and the further privatisation of state-owned businesses, most notably in the telecommunications industry.[54] The indirect tax system was substantially changed in July 2000 with the introduction of a 10% Goods and Services Tax (GST), which has slightly reduced the reliance on personal and company income tax that characterises Australia's tax system. Robert James Lee (Bob) Hawke, AC (born 9 December 1929) was the 23rd Prime Minister of Australia after previously being an Australian trade union leader. ... John Howard John Winston Howard (born July 26, 1939), is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia, coming to office on March 11, 1996 and winning re-election in 1998, 2001 and 2004. ... WorkChoices, or the Workplace Relations Act 1996 as amended by the Workplace Relations Amendment (Workchoices) Act 2005, came into effect in March 2006. ... Communications in Australia is dominated by the telecommunications provider, Telstra (short for Telecom Australia). ... The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a value added tax of 10% on most goods and services sold in Australia. ...


In January 2007, there were 10,033,480 people employed, with an unemployment rate of 4.6%.[55] Over the past decade, inflation has typically been 2–3% and the base interest rate 5–6%. The service sector of the economy, including tourism, education, and financial services, accounts for 69% of GDP.[56] Although agriculture and natural resources account for only 3% and 5% of GDP respectively, they contribute substantially to export performance. Australia's largest export markets are Japan, China, the US, South Korea, and New Zealand.[57] Export performance is the relative success or failure of the efforts of a firm or nation to sell domestically-produced goods and services in other nations. ...


Demography

Historical populations[58]
Year Population Increase
1788 900  —
1800 5,200 477.8%
1850 405,400 7,696.2%
1900 3,765,300 828.8%
1910 4,525,100 20.2%
1920 5,411,000 19.6%
1930 6,501,000 20.1%
1940 7,078,000 8.9%
1950 8,307,000 17.4%
1960 10,392,000 25.1%
1970 12,663,000 21.9%
1980 14,726,000 16.3%
1990 17,169,000 16.6%
2000 19,169,100 11.6%
2008 Estimate 21,370,800 11.5%

Most of the estimated 21.3 million Australians are descended from colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants from Europe, with almost 90% of the population being of European descent. For generations, the vast majority of both colonial-era settlers and post-Federation immigrants came almost exclusively from the British Isles, and the people of Australia are still mainly of British or Irish ethnic origin. The demographics of Australia covers basic statistics, most populous cites, ethnicity and religious affiliation. ... Exactly when Immigration to Australia began is unknown but estimates typically range from 40,000 - 50,000 years ago,[1] when the ancestors of Australian Aborigines arrived on the continent via the islands of the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article deals with the European people as an ethnic group or ethnic groups. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


Australia's population has quadrupled since the end of World War I,[59] spurred by an ambitious immigration program. Following World War II and through to 2000, almost 5.9 million of the total population settled in the country as new immigrants, meaning that nearly two out of every seven Australians were born overseas.[60] Most immigrants are skilled,[61] but the immigration quota includes categories for family members and refugees.[61] In 2001, the five largest groups of the 23.1% of Australians who were born overseas were from the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Italy, Vietnam, and China.[57][62] Following the abolition of the White Australia policy in 1973, numerous government initiatives have been established to encourage and promote racial harmony based on a policy of multiculturalism.[63] In 2005–06, more than 131,000 people emigrated to Australia, mainly from Asia and Oceania.[64] The migration target for 2006–07 was 144,000.[65] “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Italian Australians are one of the largest ethnic groups in Australia. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ...

Nearly three quarters of Australians live in metropolitan cities and coastal areas. The beach is an integral part of the Australian identity.[66]

Australia opens its doors to about 300,000 new migrants in 2008–09—its highest level since the Immigration Department was created after World War II.[67][68]


The Indigenous population—mainland Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders—was 410,003 (2.2% of the total population) in 2001, a significant increase from the 1976 census, which showed an indigenous population of 115,953. Indigenous Australians suffer from higher rates of imprisonment and unemployment, lower levels of education, and life expectancies for males and females that are 17 years lower than those of non-indigenous Australians.[57] Some remote Indigenous communities have been described as having "failed state"-like conditions.[69] Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including Islam and various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group... The Torres Strait Islands are a group of at least 274 small islands which lie in Torres Strait, the waterway separating far northern continental Australias Cape York Peninsula and the island of New Guinea. ... For Noam Chomskys 2006 book, see Failed States (book). ...


In common with many other developed countries, Australia is experiencing a demographic shift towards an older population, with more retirees and fewer people of working age. In 2004, the average age of the civilian population was 38.8 years.[70] A large number of Australians (759,849 for the period 2002–03)[71] live outside their home country.

Brisbane, Queensland is Australia's third most populous city.

English is the national language.[72] Australian English is a major variety of the language, with its own distinctive accent and vocabulary (some of which has found its way into standard English), but less internal dialectal variation (apart from small regional pronunciation and lexical variations) than either British or American English. Grammar and spelling are largely based on those of British English. According to the 2001 census, English is the only language spoken in the home for around 80% of the population. The next most common languages spoken at home are Chinese (2.1%), Italian (1.9%), and Greek (1.4%). A considerable proportion of first- and second-generation migrants are bilingual. It is believed that there were between 200 and 300 Australian Aboriginal languages at the time of first European contact. Only about 70 of these languages have survived, and all but 20 of these are now endangered. An indigenous language remains the main language for about 50,000 (0.25%) people. Australia has a sign language known as Auslan, which is the main language of about 6,500 deaf people. For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Australian English (AuE, AusE, en-AU) is the form of the English language used in Australia. ... The Australian Aboriginal languages comprise several language families and isolates native to Australia and a few nearby islands, but by convention excluding Tasmania. ... An endangered language is a language with so few surviving speakers that it is in danger of falling out of use. ... Two sign language Intepreters working as a team for a school. ... Auslan is the sign language used by the Australian Deaf community. ...

The Barossa Valley wine-producing region of South Australia. Fewer than 15% of Australians live in rural areas.

Australia has no state religion. In the 2006 census, 64% of Australians were listed as Christian of any denomination, including 26% as Roman Catholic and 19% as Anglican. "No religion" (which includes humanism, atheism, agnosticism, and rationalism) accounted for 19%; and a further 12% declined to answer or did not give a response adequate for interpretation. The fastest-growing and second largest religion in Australia is Buddhism, followed by Hinduism and Islam. Overall less than 6% of Australians identify with non-Christian religions.[73] Surveys have found Australia to be one of the least devout nations in the developed world, with religion not described as an important part in many Australians' lives.[74] As in many Western countries, the level of active participation in church worship is low and in decline;[75] weekly attendance at church services in 2004 was about 1.5 million: about 7.5% of the population.[76] Tanunda is surrounded by vineyards showing Autumn colour. ... South America Europe Middle East Africa Asia Oceania Demography of religions by country Full list of articles on religion by country Religion Portal         Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The Roman Catholic Church in Australia is part of the worldwide Roman Catholic Church, under the spiritual leadership of the Pope and curia in Rome. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Major religious affiliations in Australia by census year. ... Secular humanism is a humanist philosophy that upholds reason, ethics, and justice, and specifically rejects the supernatural and the spiritual as warrants of moral reflection and decision-making. ... Atheist redirects here. ... Agnosticism (Greek: α- a-, without + γνώσις gnōsis, knowledge; after Gnosticism) is the philosophical view that the truth value of certain claims — particularly metaphysical claims regarding theology, afterlife or the existence of God, gods, deities, or even ultimate reality — is unknown or, depending on the form of agnosticism, inherently unknowable. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Buddhism is a Dharmic religion and philosophy[1] with between 230 to 500 million adherents worldwide. ... Hinduism is a religious tradition[1] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


School attendance is compulsory throughout Australia, starting at 6 years and ending at 15 years (16 years in South Australia and Tasmania and 17 years in Western Australia and Queensland), contributing to an adult literacy rate that is assumed to be 99%. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), currently ranks Australia's education as the eighth best in the world, significantly higher than the average world ranking among the thirty OECD countries.[77] Government grants have supported the establishment of Australia's 38 universities; and although several private universities have been established, the majority receive government funding. There is a state-based system of vocational training, higher than colleges, known as TAFE Institutes, and many trades conduct apprenticeships for training new tradespeople. Approximately 58% of Australians aged from 25 to 64 have vocational or tertiary qualifications,[57] and the tertiary graduation rate of 49% is the highest among OECD countries. The ratio of international to local students in tertiary education in Australia is the highest in the OECD countries.[78] The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) is an international organization of those developed countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... For the Texas educational association, see Texas Association of Future Educators. ...

This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ... Hobart is the state capital and most populous city of the Australian island state of Tasmania. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Peter Underwood Premier David Bartlett (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2006-07)  - Product... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... VIC redirects here. ... This article is about the Victorian city; the name may also refer to City of Geelong or Geelong city centre. ... VIC redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brisbane (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metropolitan area of Townsville in Northern Queensland. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person... Cairns redirects here. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adelaide (disambiguation). ... For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Toowoomba (also known as the The Garden City) is a city in South East Queensland, Australia. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... Gold Coast redirects here. ... Twin Towns, Tweed Heads. ... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... NSW redirects here. ... Port Darwin redirects here. ... For similar terms, see Northern Territories (disambiguation) Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004... Below is a list of suburbs that are located within the Greater Newcastle region in New South Wales, Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ... Launceston is a city in the north of the state of Tasmania, Australia, population approximately 90,000 (Greater urban and 99,100 statistical division), located at the juncture of the North Esk, South Esk, and Tamar rivers. ... Slogan or Nickname: Island of Inspiration; The Apple Isle; Holiday Isle Motto(s): Ubertas et Fidelitas (Fertility and Faithfulness) Other Australian states and territories Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Peter Underwood Premier David Bartlett (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2006-07)  - Product... For other uses, see Canberra (disambiguation). ... Queanbeyan is a city and local government area (Queanbeyan City Council) in south eastern New South Wales, Australia. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Nations Heart or The Capital Motto(s): For the Queen, the Law and the People Other Australian states and territories Capital Canberra Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Governor General of Australia Chief Minister Jon Stanhope (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product... NSW redirects here. ... Albury is a city in New South Wales, Australia, located on the Hume Highway on the northern side of the Murray River. ... Wodonga () is a small city on the Victorian side of the border with New South Wales, 300 kilometres north-east of Melbourne, Australia. ... NSW redirects here. ... VIC redirects here. ... Wollongong (pronounced ) is the 3rd largest city in the state of New South Wales, Australia, after Sydney and Newcastle. ... NSW redirects here. ... A view of Ballarat East and Eureka from Sovereign Hill. ... VIC redirects here. ... Population: 282,645* (2005)[1] (11th) Location: 100 km from Brisbane State District: Caloundra, Maroochydore, Kawana, Noosa, Nicklin Federal Division: Fisher, Fairfax The Sunshine Coast (population 282,645 with up to an additional 50,000 in visitors and seasonal workers) is a coastal region located in South East Queensland, north... For other uses, see Queensland (disambiguation). ... For the electoral division in the Australian House of Representatives, see Division of Bendigo. ... VIC redirects here. ...

Culture

The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne was the first building in Australia to be listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2004.

Since 1788, the primary basis of Australian culture has been Anglo-Celtic, although distinctive Australian features soon arose from the country's natural environment and Indigenous cultures. Since the middle of the 20th century, Australian culture has been influenced by American popular culture (particularly television and cinema), by Australia's Asian neighbours, and by large-scale immigration from non-English-speaking countries. The demographics of Australia show it to be one of the most urbanised populations in the world; the majority of Australians live on the coast. ... Ned Kelly depicted in the first ever feature-length narrative film The cinema of Australia has a long history and has produced many internationally-recognized films, actors and filmmakers. ... Australian music is the music originating from the country of Australia. ... The Royal Exhibition Building from the main avenue of the Carlton Gardens The Royal Exhibition Building, viewed from the west The Royal Exhibition Building is located in Melbourne, Australia. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Anglo-Celtic is a macro-cultural term[1] used to collectively describe the cultures native to the British Isles, and the significant diasporas located in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United States. ...

Sunlight Sweet by Australian landscape artist Arthur Streeton

Australian visual arts are thought to have begun with the cave and bark paintings of its Indigenous peoples.[80] The traditions of Indigenous Australians are largely transmitted orally and are tied to ceremony and the telling of the stories of the Dreamtime. Australian Aboriginal music, dance, and art have influenced contemporary Australian visual and performing arts.[citation needed] From the time of European settlement, a theme in Australian art has been the Australian landscape, seen for example in the works of Albert Namatjira, Arthur Streeton and others associated with the Heidelberg School, and Arthur Boyd. Australian artists who were influenced by the modern American and European art at the time include cubist Grace Crowley, surrealist James Gleeson, abstract expressionist Brett Whiteley, and pop artist Martin Sharp. The National Gallery of Australia and the various state galleries maintain Australian and overseas collections. From early in the 20th century until the present, the country's landscape remains sources of inspiration for Australian modernist artists; it has been depicted in acclaimed works by artists such as Sidney Nolan, Grace Cossington Smith, Fred Williams, Sydney Long, and Clifton Pugh. This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Arthur Streeton by George Lambert (1917). ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... Representation of the Rainbow serpent, the Waugal The Dreamtime is the central, unifying theme in Australian Aboriginal mythology. ... Ŵú Australian Aborigines are the native peoples of Australia. ... Aboriginal hollow log tomb Aboriginal art is art done by Australian Aborigines, covering art that pre-dates European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aborigines based on traditional culture. ... The Art of Australia refers to both Australian Aboriginal art and Post Colonial art. ... Namatjira outside Government House, Sydney, circa 1947. ... Arthur Streeton by George Lambert (1917). ... The Heidelberg School was an Australian art movement of the late 19th century. ... A tapestry which is a greatly enlarged version of Arthur Boyds painting hangs in the Great Hall of Parliament House, Canberra Arthur Merric Bloomfield Boyd AC OBE (20 July 1920 – 24 April 1999) was a member of the prominent Boyd artistic dynasty in Australia, with many relatives being painters... Woman with a guitar by Georges Braque, 1913 Cubism was an avant-garde art movement that revolutionised European painting and sculpture in the early 20th century. ... Grace Crowley (1890-1979) was an Australian artist. ... Surrealism is an artistic movement and an aesthetic philosophy that aims for the liberation of the mind by emphasizing the critical and imaginative powers of the subconscious. ... James Gleeson (born 21 November 1915) is one of Australias most well known surrealist artists, as well as a poet, critic, writer and curator. ... American post-World War II art movement. ... Front of the Brett Whiteley gallery in Surry Hills, Sydney For other uses, see Brett Whiteley (disambiguation). ... Pop art is an artistic movement that is a rejection of abstract expressionism and aims to return to figurative art while incorporating themes and techniques from mass culture. ... Martin Sharp (born 1944) is an Australian artist, cartoonist, songwriter and film-maker. ... National Gallery of Australia The National Gallery of Australia is a major art gallery (museum) in Canberra, Australia. ... Dejeuner sur lHerbe by Pablo Picasso Modern art is a general term used for most of the artistic production from the late 19th century until approximately the 1970s. ... Sidney Nolan, The Trial, 1947: enamel on composition board; 90. ... Grace Cossington Smith (April 22, 1892 - December 10, 1984) was an Australian artist. ... For other uses, see Fred Williams (disambiguation). ... Sydney Long (1871-1955) was an Australian Artist. ... Clifton Pugh, AO, (December 17, 1924 - October 14, 1990) was an Australian artist, who won the Archibald Prize three times, and an Order of Australia medal in 1985. ...

Performance of Aboriginal song and dance in the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney

Many of Australia's performing arts companies receive funding through the federal government's Australia Council. There is a symphony orchestra in each of the states' capital cities, and a national opera company, Opera Australia, which became prominent through the singer Joan Sutherland. Nellie Melba was her famous predecessor. Ballet and dance are represented by The Australian Ballet and various state dance companies. Each state has a publicly funded theatre company. HMAS Onslow and HMAS Vampire at the Australian National Maritime Museum Admiralty Pattern anchors from training ship NSS Vernon (1839) modified for mooring, now Merchant Navy memorial Exhibits in the Tasman Light gallery include a Fresnel lens from a lighthouse on Tasman Island, southern Tasmania, and a Royal Australian Navy... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... The Australia Council for the Arts (commonly called the Australia Council) is the Australian Governments arts council. ... Opera Australia is Australias major opera company, formed by the merger of the Australian Opera and the Victorian State Opera companies in 1996. ... Dame Joan Sutherland OM, AC, DBE (born November 7, 1926) is an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the bel canto revival of the 1950s and 1960s. ... Portrait of Dame Nellie Melba GBE by Henry Walter Barnett Dame Nellie Melba, GBE (19 May 1861 – 23 February 1931), born Helen Porter Mitchell, legendary Australian opera soprano and probably the most famous of all sopranos, was the first Australian to achieve international recognition in the form. ... The Australian Ballet was founded in 1962. ...

Academy Award-winning actress Nicole Kidman

The Australian cinema industry began with 1906 release of the The Story of the Kelly Gang, a 70-minute account of the Australian bush ranger Ned Kelly, which is regarded as being the world's first feature-length film.[81] The New Wave of Australian cinema in the 1970s brought a resurgence of successful films, including Mad Max and Gallipoli. Later successes included Shine, Rabbit-Proof Fence, and Happy Feet. Australia's diverse landscapes and cities have served as primary locations for many other films, such as The Matrix, Peter Pan, Superman Returns, and Finding Nemo. Well-known Australian actors include Judith Anderson, Errol Flynn, Nicole Kidman, Hugh Jackman, Heath Ledger, Geoffrey Rush, Russell Crowe, Toni Collette, Naomi Watts, and current joint director of the Sydney Theatre Company, Cate Blanchett. Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Nicole Mary Kidman, Order of Australia (born 20 June 1967 in Honolulu) is an Academy Award-winning Australian/American[1] actress. ... Ned Kelly depicted in the first ever feature-length narrative film The cinema of Australia has a long history and has produced many internationally-recognized films, actors and filmmakers. ... The Story of the Kelly Gang (also screened as Ned Kelly and His Gang) is widely regarded as the worlds first feature length film. ... Bush Ranger may refer to: bushranger, an Australian criminal who used the Australian bush as a refuge; Bush Ranger, a financial supporter of George W. Bush who provided $200,000 or more for his 2004 election campaign. ... For other uses, see Ned Kelly (disambiguation). ... A feature-length is a movie/film term meaning full-length or uncut. ... A resergence in worldwide popularity of Australian cinema culture that started in the late 1970s and lasted until the late 1980s. ... For other uses, see Mad Max (disambiguation). ... Gallipoli is a 1981 Australian film, directed by Peter Weir and starring Mel Gibson, about several young men from rural Western Australia who enlist in the Australian Imperial Force during the First World War. ... Shine is a 1996 Australian film based on the life of pianist David Helfgott, who suffered a mental breakdown and spent years in institutions. ... Map of the actual Rabbit proof fence showing the trip from Moore River to Jigalong. ... Happy Feet is an Academy Award-winning Australian-produced 2006 computer-animated comedy-drama film, directed and co-written by George Miller. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... Peter Pan is a film released on December 25, 2003, by Universal Pictures. ... For the video game of the same name, see Superman Returns (video game). ... Finding Nemo is a 2003 computer-animated American family film. ... Dame Judith Anderson, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1934 Dame Judith Anderson, AC DBE (February 10, 1897–January 3, 1992), born Frances Margaret Anderson-Anderson, was an Tony award and Emmy winning stage and film actress who was also nominated for a Grammy and an Oscar. ... Errol Leslie Thomson Flynn (June 20, 1909 – October 14, 1959) was an Australian film actor, most famous for his romantic swashbuckler roles in Hollywood films and his flamboyant lifestyle. ... Nicole Mary Kidman, Order of Australia (born 20 June 1967 in Honolulu) is an Academy Award-winning Australian/American[1] actress. ... Hugh Jackman (born 12 October 1968) is an Australian film, television and stage actor, known mostly for his roles in several major Hollywood films, including Van Helsing and X-Men. ... Heath Andrew Ledger (April 4, 1979 – January 22, 2008) was an Academy Award, BAFTA, Golden Globe, and SAG Award-nominated Australian-born film actor who lived in New York City. ... Geoffrey Roy Rush (born 6 July 1951) is an Academy Award- and Emmy Award-winning Australian actor. ... Russell Ira Crowe (born 7 April 1964) is an Academy Award-, BAFTA-, Golden Globe-, and Screen Actors Guild Award -winning New Zealand-Australian actor[1]. His acting career began in the early 1990s with roles in Australian TV series such as Police Rescue and films such as Romper Stomper. ... Toni Collette (born November 1, 1972) is an Academy Award-nominated Australian actress and musician. ... Naomi Ellen Watts (born September 28, 1968) is a British actress, raised predominately raised in Australia. ... The Sydney Theatre Company (STC) is one of Australias most well-known and notable theatre companies operating from the Wharf Theatre near The Rocks area of Sydney, as well as the Sydney Theatre and the Sydney Opera House. ... Catherine Élise Cate Blanchett (born May 14, 1969) is an Australian actress and stage director. ...


Australian literature has also been influenced by the landscape; the works of writers such as Banjo Paterson, Henry Lawson, and Dorothea Mackellar captured the experience of the Australian bush. The character of colonial Australia, as represented in early literature, is popular with modern Australia and its perceived emphasis on egalitarianism, mateship, and a perceived anti-authoritarianism.[citation needed] In 1973, Patrick White was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, the only Australian to have achieved this. Colleen McCullough, David Williamson, and David Malouf are also renowned writers. Australian literature in English began soon after the settlement of the country by Europeans. ... Andrew Barton Banjo Paterson (17 February 1864 – 5 February 1941)[2] was a famous Australian bush poet, journalist and author. ... Henry Lawson, circa 1902 Henry Lawson[1] (17 June 1867 - 2 September 1922) was an Australian writer and poet. ... Isobel Marion Dorothea Mackellar OBE, (July 1, 1885-January 14, 1968), was an Australian poet and fiction writer. ... For other uses, see Bush. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as concentration of power in a leader or an elite not constitutionally responsible to the people or the doctrine that advocates such absolutism in rule, as in autocracy, despotism, dictatorship, and totalitarianism. ... For the football player, see Patrick White (football player). ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... Colleen McCullough (born 1 June 1937) is an internationally acclaimed Australian author. ... For the magician, see David Williamson (magician). ... David Malouf David Malouf (born March 20, 1934) in Brisbane is an Australian writer whose themes encompass Australian history and the Australian landscape. ...


Australia has two public broadcasters (the Australian Broadcasting Corporation and the multicultural Special Broadcasting Service), three commercial television networks, several pay-TV services, and numerous public, non-profit television and radio stations. Each major city has daily newspapers, and there are two national daily newspapers, The Australian and The Australian Financial Review. According to Reporters Without Borders in 2008, Australia was in 25th position on a list of 173 countries ranked by press freedom, behind New Zealand (7th) and the United Kingdom (23rd) but ahead of the United States (48th). This low ranking is primarily because of the limited diversity of commercial media ownership in Australia;[82] in particular, most Australian print media are under the control of News Corporation and John Fairfax Holdings. The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ... A television network is a distribution network for television content whereby a central operation provides programming for many television stations. ... The Australian is a national daily broadsheet newspaper published by Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... The Australian Financial Review is the leading business newspaper in Australia. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... For other uses, see Publishing (disambiguation). ... 1211 Avenue of the Americas (Sixth Avenue), where News Corporation is based News Corporation (abbreviated to News Corp) (NYSE: NWS, NYSE: NWSa, ASX: , LSE: NCRA) is an American media conglomerate company and the third worlds largest. ... John Fairfax Holdings Limited (ABN 15 008 663 161) is an Australian Public Company operating in the media industry, working predominantly with newspapers. ...

Australian rules football originated in Victoria and is a very popular sport.

23.5% Australians over the age of 15 regularly participate in organised sporting activities in Australia.[57] Australia has strong international teams in cricket, field hockey, netball, rugby league, rugby union, and international rules football, and it performs well in cycling, rowing, and swimming. Some of Australia's best-known sportspersons are swimmers Dawn Fraser and Ian Thorpe, sprinter Cathy Freeman, tennis players Rod Laver and Margaret Court, and cricketer Donald Bradman. Nationally, other popular sports include Australian rules football, horse racing, soccer, and motor racing. Australia has participated in every summer Olympic Games of the modern era, and every Commonwealth Games. Australia hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne and the 2000 Summer Olympics in Sydney, and has ranked among the top six medal-takers since 2000.[83] Australia has also hosted the 1938, 1962, 1982, and 2006 Commonwealth Games. Other major international events held in Australia include the Grand Slam Australian Open tennis tournament, international cricket matches, and the Formula One Australian Grand Prix. The highest-rating television programs include sports coverage such as the summer Olympic Games, State of Origin, and the grand finals of the National Rugby League and Australian Football League.[84] High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... VIC redirects here. ... Beach cricket being played at Cottesloe Beach in Perth. ... This article is about the sport. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men, women and children in many countries around the world. ... Netball is a non-contact generally indoor sport similar to, and derived from, basketball. ... Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... International Rules Football match at the Telstra Dome - Australia vs Ireland. ... Dawn Lorraine Fraser AO, MBE, (born September 4, 1937) is an Australian champion swimmer. ... Ian James Thorpe OAM (born 13 October 1982 in Sydney, New South Wales), also known as the Thorpedo or Thorpey, is a former Australian freestyle swimmer. ... Catherine Astrid Salome Freeman also known as just Cathy Freeman OAM (born 16 February 1973) is an Australian sprinter who is particularly associated with the 400 m race. ... For the arena in Melbourne Park used for show matches in the Australian Open, see Rod Laver Arena Rodney George (Rod) Laver MBE (born August 9, 1938, in Rockhampton, Australia) is a former tennis player from Australia who was the World No. ... Margaret Smith Court (pre-marital name: Margaret Jean Smith) (born July 16, 1942) is a retired Australian professional tennis player. ... Sir Donald George Bradman AC (27 August 1908—25 February 2001), often called The Don, was an Australian cricketer, administrator and writer on the game, and generally acknowledged as the greatest batsman of all time. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... Soccer redirects here. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Current flag of the Commonwealth Games Federation Locations of the games, and participating countries Commonwealth Games Federation seal, adopted in 2001 The Commonwealth Games is a multinational, multi-sport event. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... The 2000 Summer Olympics or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games celebrated in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire Games, the Commonwealth Games being the modern-day equivalent. ... Countries which participated The 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games were held in Perth, Western Australia, Australia from November 22 to December 1. ... Matilda the Kangaroo mascot for the 1982 Commonwealth Games (shown here during her circuit of the track at the stadium during the Games Opening Ceremony, and with a silhouette of Matilda and several joey kangaroos on a large screen, during Rolf Harris segment) Matilda turns her head and winks at... The 2006 Commonwealth Games were held in Melbourne, Australia between March 15 and March 26, 2006. ... For other uses, see Grand Slam. ... The Australian Open is held each January at Melbourne Park. ... Promotional poster for the first Australian Grand Prix in Adelaide in 1985. ... Players are selected to play for the state in which they played their first senior football, hence the name state of origin. Prior to 1980 players were selected for interstate matches on the basis of where they were playing their club football at the time. ... A Grand Final is the culmination of a series of final matches played between a number of sporting teams to decide the premier team. ... NRL redirects here. ... This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ...


International rankings

A.T. Kearney is an international management consulting firm, dating its origins back to the early days of the management consulting profession. ... A countrys foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how that particular country will interact with other countries of the world and, to a lesser extent, non-state actors. ... Globalization Index is a list of countries by A.T. Kearney/Foreign Policy Magazine according to Globalization criteria. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Factbook 2004 cover The World Factbook is an annual publication by the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with basic almanac-style information about the various countries of the world. ... This article is about the measure of remaining life. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The Legatum Logo LEGATUM is a privately owned, international investment organisation, headquartered in Dubai, part of the United Arab Emirates. ... The Legatum Prosperity Index is an annual ranking, developed by the Legatum Institute, of over 100 countries according to the degree to which those nations are promoting the factors that create prosperity, which is defined as a holistic combination of economic competitiveness and comparative liveability. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... The Economist Intelligence Unit’s quality of life index is based on a unique methodology that links the results of subjective life-satisfaction surveys to the objective determinants of quality of life across countries. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Yale redirects here. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... Environmental Performance Index (EPI) is a method of quantifying and numerically scaling the environmental performance of a set of companies or countries. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... Map of Economic Freedom released by the Heritage Foundation. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... World map of the Ease of Doing Business Index. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Lausanne, Switzerland. ... The International Institute for Management Development is a business school located in Lausanne, Switzerland. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Weber Shandwick is one of the worlds leading global public relations firms with offices in major media, business and government capitals around the world. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Simon Anholt is usually given as the inventor or populariser of the concept of Nation Branding. Anholt used the phrase in an article in the Journal of Brand Management entitled Nation Brands of the 21st Century (Henry Stewart Publications, Vol 5 No 6, July 1998) which is considered the first... GfK Logo The GfK (Gesellschaft für Konsumforschung) is Germanys largest market research institute and the fifth largest such institute worldwide. ... The Nation Brands Index (officially Anholt-GfK Roper Nation Brands Index) is an analytical ranking deriving from a global survey in order to estimate national reputation and image. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), (in French: Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques; OCDE) is an international organisation of thirty countries that accept the principles of representative democracy and a free market economy. ... The Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) is a triennial world-wide test of 15-year-old schoolchildrens scholastic performance, the implementation of which is coordinated by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National motto: none Official language Chinese and Portuguese Chief Executive Edmund Ho Hau-wah Area - Total - % water Not ranked 27. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... For other uses, see IBM (disambiguation) and Big Blue. ... The Institute for Business Value is a business research organization that focuses on managerial and economic issues faced by companies and governments around the world. ... e-Readiness is the ability to use Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to develop ones economy and to foster ones welfare. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This entity, also known as EIU is part of The Economist Group. ... World map of the Global Peace Index The Global Peace Index is an attempt to measure the relative position of nations’ and regions’ peacefulness. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Transparency International (TI) is an international organisation addressing corruption, including, but not limited to, political corruption. ... Overview of the index of perception of corruption, 2006 Since 1995, Transparency International has published an annual Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI)[1] ordering the countries of the world according to the degree to which corruption is perceived to exist among public officials and politicians.[2] The organization defines corruption as... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a think tank focused on reducing global poverty and inequality, headquartered in Washington, D.C. CGD was founded in November 2001 by Edward W. Scott, Jr. ... The Commitment to Development Index (CDI), published annually by the Center for Global Development, assesses the development-friendliness of 21 rich country policies in seven policy areas: aid, trade, investment, migration, environment, security, and technology. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Robert Milken, born July 4, 1946, in Encino, California, is an American financier best known as the Junk Bond King of 1980s era Wall Street. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... World map of the 2006-2007 Global Competitiveness Index. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Democracy index map. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fund for Peace is an independent Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit research and educational organization. ... Failed state is a term intended to mean a weak state in which the central government has little practical control over much of its territory. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

  • Australian citizenship
  • Commonwealth Heritage—places and things on government heritage list
  • List of basic Australia topics

Australian citizenship was created on 26 January 1949 by the Nationality and Citizenship Act 1948 (later renamed the Australian Citizenship Act 1948). ... The Commonwealth Heritage lists places on Commonwealth of Australia lands and waters or under Australian Government control with inportance in relation to the natural, indigenous and historic heritage of Australia. ... Location of Australia Australia refers to both the continent of Australia and the country of Australia which is located there. ...

Notes

  1. ^  Australia also has a royal anthem, "God Save the Queen (or King)", which is played in the presence of a member of the Royal Family when they are in Australia. In all other appropriate contexts, the national anthem of Australia, "Advance Australia Fair", is played.[85]
  2. ^  English does not have de jure status.[72]
  3. ^ There are minor variations from these three time zones, see Time in Australia.
  4. ^  Australia describes the body of water south of its mainland as the Southern Ocean, rather than the Indian Ocean as defined by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO). In 2000, a vote of IHO member nations defined the term "Southern Ocean" as applying only to the waters between Antarctica and 60 degrees south latitude.
  5. ^  The Oxford English Dictionary records a first occurrence in 1908, in the form Oss.
  6. ^  Oz is often taken as an oblique reference to the fictional Land of Oz in the film The Wizard of Oz (1939), based on Frank Baum's novel The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900).[86] Australians' "image of Australia as a 'Land of Oz' is not new, and dedication to it runs deep".[87] The spelling Oz is likely to have been influenced by the 1939 film, though the pronunciation was probably always with a /z/, as it is also for Aussie, sometimes spelt Ozzie.[88] The Baz Luhrmann film Australia (2008) makes repeated reference to The Wizard of Oz, which appeared just before the wartime action of Australia. One reviewer writes: "You even nod with approval at Luhrmann's audacity for cribbing from 'The Wizard of Oz' in his depiction of his Land of Oz, Australia, as a magical place over the rainbow."[89] Some critics have even speculated that Baum was inspired by Australia, in naming the Land of Oz: "In Ozma of Oz (1907) Dorothy gets back to Oz as the result of a storm at sea while she and Uncle Henry are traveling by ship to Australia. So, like Australia, Oz is somewhere to the west of California. Like Australia, Oz is an island continent. Like Australia, Oz has inhabited regions bordering on a great desert. One might almost imagine that Baum intended Oz to be Australia, or perhaps a magical land in the center of the great Australian desert."[90]
  7. ^ "Ocker, n2 Austral. slang. ... A rough, uncultivated, or aggressively boorish Australian man (esp. as a stereotype)" SOED.

References

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  41. ^ Australia Sets Target of 15% Carbon Reduction by 2020, Announces 2010 Carbon Market, www.greencarcongress.com. Retrieved on 8 January 2008.
  42. ^ http://www.bom.gov.au/climate/change/rerain.shtml
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  45. ^ Lambertini, A Naturalist's Guide to the Tropics, excerpt at www.press.uchicago.edu
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Bibliography

  • Denoon, Donald, et al. (2000). A History of Australia, New Zealand, and the Pacific. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 0631179623.
  • Hughes, Robert (1986). The Fatal Shore: The Epic of Australia's Founding. Knopf. ISBN 0394506685.
  • Macintyre, Stuart (2000). A Concise History of Australia. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521623596.
  • Powell, J. M. (1988). An Historical Geography of Modern Australia: The Restive Fringe. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521256194.

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A royal anthem is a patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nations monarch. ... For other uses, see God Save the Queen (disambiguation). ... This article is about the monarchy-related concept. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The National Anthem booth at the 2005 Floriade, Canberra - on the J. Verbeeck fairground organ. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... In mainland Australia, the keeping of standard time is divided into three time zones: Australian Eastern Standard Time EST/AEST (UTC+10), Australian Central Standard Time CST/ACST (UTC+9:30) and Australian Western Standard Time WST/AWST (UTC+8). ... The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is an intergovernmental international organization established in 1921. ... The Oxford English Dictionary print set The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP), and is the most successful dictionary of the English language, (not to be confused with the one-volume Oxford Dictionary of English, formerly New Oxford Dictionary of English, of... The Wizard of Oz (film) redirects here. ... Lyman Frank Baum (May 15, 1856 - May 6, 1919) was an American author and the creator of one of the most beloved classics of childrens literature, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz is a childrens novel written by L. Frank Baum and illustrated by W.W. Denslow. ... Baz Luhrmann (born Mark Anthony Luhrmann on September 17, 1962) is an Oscar and Golden Globe-nominated Australian film director, screenwriter, and producer. ... Australia is a 2008 Australian epic romance film directed by Baz Luhrmann and starring Nicole Kidman and Hugh Jackman. ... The Shorter Oxford English Dictionary, often abbreviated to SOED, is a scaled-down version of the Oxford English Dictionary. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... Screenshot of About. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... Australian Bureau of Statistics logo The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the Australian government agency that collects and publishes statistical information about Australia. ... Image:Macq4TH 3D NEW.jpg The Macquarie Dictionary, 4th edition. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. ... The New Criterion is a New York-based magazine, a journal of art and cultural criticism. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... AEC logo The Australian Electoral Commission, or the AEC, is the federal government agency in charge of organising and supervising federal elections. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... The Department of Defence is an Australian government department. ... 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