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Encyclopedia > Austen Chamberlain
Sir Austen Chamberlain

Sir Austen Chamberlain, senior British statesman Image File history File links Nobel_prize_medal. ... source: http://www. ...


In office
11 August 1902 – 9 October 1903
Prime Minister Arthur Balfour
Monarch Edward VII
Preceded by The Marquess of Londonderry
Succeeded by The Lord Stanley

In office
9 October 1903 – 4 December 1905
Prime Minister Arthur Balfour
Monarch Edward VII
Preceded by Charles Thomson Ritchie
Succeeded by H.H. Asquith
In office
10 January 1919 – 1 April 1921
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Monarch George V
Preceded by Andrew Bonar Law
Succeeded by Sir Robert Horne

In office
25 May 1915 – 17 July 1917
Prime Minister H.H. Asquith (1915-1916)
David Lloyd George (1916-1917)
Monarch George V
Preceded by The Marquess of Crewe
Succeeded by Edwin Samuel Montagu

In office
1 April 1921 – 23 October 1923
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Monarch George V
Preceded by Andrew Bonar Law
Succeeded by Lord Robert Cecil

In office
3 November 1924 – 4 June 1929
Prime Minister Stanley Baldwin
Monarch George V
Preceded by Ramsay MacDonald
Succeeded by Arthur Henderson

In office
24 August – 5 November 1931
Prime Minister Ramsay MacDonald
(Coalition Government)
Monarch George V
Preceded by A.V. Alexander
Succeeded by Sir Bolton Eyres-Monsell

Sir Joseph Austen Chamberlain, KG (October 16, 1863March 17, 1937) was a British statesman, politician, and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. In the United Kingdom, the Postmaster General is a now defunct ministerial position. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest-Stewart, 6th Marquess of Londonderry (16 July 1852 - 8 February 1915) was a British Conservative politician who in various capacities in the Conservative administrations of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Stanley on the cover of Time, 1930 Edward George Villiers Stanley, 17th Earl of Derby KG , PC, GCB, GCVO, TD (4 April 1865–4 February 1948) was an English politician around the turn of the 20th century. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... For the steel manufacturer, see Arthur Balfour, 1st Baron Riverdale. ... Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... Charles Thomson Ritchie, by Carlo Pellegrini, 1885. ... Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith (September 12, 1852 - February 15, 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... Half Measures Sir Robert Horne, President of the Board of Trade, and Sir Eric Geddes, Minister of Transport (speaking together). ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith (September 12, 1852 - February 15, 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Robert Offley Ashburton Crewe-Milnes, 1st and last Marquess of Crewe (12 January 1858–20 June 1945) was an English statesman and writer. ... Edwin Samuel Montagu (1879-1924) was a British Liberal polician. ... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... The Leader of the House of Commons is a member of the Cabinet of the United Kingdom who is responsible for arranging government business in the House of Commons. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount Cecil of Chelwood, previously known as Lord Robert Cecil (September 14, 1864 – November 24, 1958) was a lawyer, politician and diplomat. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (commonly referred to as Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Right Honourable Arthur Henderson (September 13, 1863 – October 20, 1935) was a British politician and union leader. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... Albert Victor Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Hillsborough, KG (1 May 1885 - 11 January 1965) was a British Labour and Co-operative politician. ... Bolton Meredith Eyres-Monsell, 1st Viscount Monsell, PC (1881-1969) was a British Conservative politician who served as Chief Whip until 1931 and then as First Lord of the Admiralty. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Statesman is a respectful term used to refer to politicians, and other notable figures of state. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ...

Contents

Early career

Austen Chamberlain was educated first at the prestigious Rugby School, before passing on to Trinity College, Cambridge, the largest of the constituent colleges of the Cambridge University. Chamberlain made his first political address there in 1884 at a meeting of the Political Society of his university, and it would appear that from an early age his father had intended for politics to be his Austen's future path. A view of Rugby School from The Close, the playing field where according to legend Rugby was invented Rugby School, located in the town of Rugby, Warwickshire, is one of the oldest public schools in England and is one of the major co-educational boarding schools in the country. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ...


With this in mind, Austen was dispatched first to France, where he studied at the Paris Institute of Political Studies (best known as the Sciences Po). Whilst there, Austen developed a lasting admiration (some would say love) for the French people and their culture. For nine months, he was shown the brilliance of Paris under the Third Republic, and met and dined with the likes of Georges Clemenceau and Alexandre Ribot. The Paris Institute of Political Studies (French: Institut détudes politiques de Paris), often referred to as Sciences-Po (pronounced see-ahns po), is a Grand Établissement in Paris, France. ... Sciences Po, often referred to as Foundation Nationale des Sciences Politiques de Paris, Institut detudes Politiques de Paris, or simply IEP Paris, is a leading specialist school in the French capital. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... The French Third Republic, (in French, Troisième Republique, sometimes written as IIIème Republique) ( 1870/ 75- 1940/ 46), was the governing body of France between the Second French Empire and the Fourth Republic. ... Georges Clemenceau, by Nadar. ... Alexandre-Félix-Joseph Ribot (February 7, 1842 – January 13, 1923) was a French politician, four times Prime Minister. ...


From Paris, Austen was sent to Berlin for twelve months, there to imbibe the political culture of the other great European power, Germany. Though in his letters home to Beatrice and Neville he showed an obvious preference for France and the lifestyle he had left behind there, Chamberlain undertook to learn German and learn from his experience in the capital of the Kaiserreich. Among others, Austen met and dined with the “Iron Chancellor” Otto von Bismarck, an experience which was to hold a special place in his heart for the duration of his life. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article or section should include material from German Monarchy The term German Empire (the translation from German of Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... Bismarck redirects here. ...


While attending the University of Berlin, Austen also developed a suspicion for the pronounced nationalism then arising in the German Empire. This was based upon his experience of the lecturing style of Heinrich von Treitschke, who opened up to Austen "a new side of the German character - a narrow-minded, proud, intolerant Prussian chauvinism", the consequences of which he was later to ponder during the First World War, and the crises of the 1930s. Heinrich von Treitschke (September 15, 1834 - April 28, 1896), German historian and political writer, was born at Dresden. ...


Though he was again upset to leave his newfound friends and return to the constraints of life under his father’s roof, Austen returned to the United Kingdom in 1888, lured largely by the prize of a parliamentary constituency.


He was first elected to parliament as a member of his father's own Liberal Unionist Party in 1892, sitting for the seat of East Worcestershire. Owing to the prominence of his father and the alliance between the anti-Home Rule Liberal Unionists and Conservative Party, Chamberlain was returned unopposed on 30th March, and at the first sitting of the new session, Austen walked up the floor of the house flanked by his father and his uncle Richard. For the Canadian party see Liberal-Unionist The Liberal Unionists were a British political party that split away from the Liberals in 1886, and had effectively merged with the Conservatives by the turn of the century. ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... East Worcestershire was a county constituency in the county of Worcestershire, represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named Richard Chamberlain, see Richard Chamberlain (disambiguation). ...


Owing to the dissolution of parliament and the August general election, Chamberlain was unable to make his maiden speech until April of 1893. This speech, when delivered, was acclaimed by the four-time Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone as “one of the best speeches which has been made”. That Chamberlain was speaking against Gladstone’s Second Home Rule Bill does not seem to have dampened the enthusiasm of the Prime Minister, who responded by publicly congratulating both Austen and his father Joseph on such an excellent performance. This was highly significant, given the bad blood existing between Joseph Chamberlain and his former leader. The 1892 UK general election was held from 4th - 26th July 1892. ... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ...


Appointed a junior Whip of the Liberal Unionists after the general election, Austen’s main role was to act as his father’s “standard bearer” in matters of policy. Upon the massive Conservative and Unionist landslide win in the election of 1895, Chamberlain was appointed a Civil Lord of the Admiralty, holding that post until 1900, when he became Financial Secretary to the Treasury. In 1902, following the retirement of Prime Minister Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury, Chamberlain was promoted to the position of Postmaster General by the new premier, the Conservative Arthur James Balfour. The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... The office of Lord High Admiral had been created in about 1400 to oversee the Royal Navy. ... Financial Secretary to the Treasury is a junior Ministerial post in the UK Treasury. ... Robert Arthur Talbot Gascoyne-Cecil, 3rd Marquess of Salisbury (February 3, 1830–August 22, 1903). ... In the United Kingdom, the Postmaster General is a now defunct ministerial position. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


In the wake of the struggle between his father and Balfour, Austen Chamberlain became Chancellor of the Exchequer in 1903. Austen's appointment was largely a compromise solution to the bitter division of the two Unionist heavyweights, which threatened to split the coalition between supporters of Chamberlain's free-trade campaign and Balfour's more cautious advocacy of protectionism. While Austen supported his father’s programme, his influence within the cabinet was diminished following the departure of the senior Chamberlain to the back benches. Facing a resurgent Liberal opposition and the threat of an internal party split, Balfour eventually took the Unionists into opposition in December 1905, and in the ensuing rout in the election of 1906, Austen Chamberlain found himself one of the few surviving Liberal Unionists in the House of Commons. The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The UK general election of 1906 was from 12th January – 8th February 1906. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin...


Following his father's stroke and enforced retirement from active politics a few months later, Austen became the effective leader of the Tariff Reform campaign within the Unionist Party, and thus a contender for the eventual leadership of the party itself.


Leadership questions

With the Unionists in disarray after the two successive electoral defeats of 1910, Arthur James Balfour was forced from his position as party leader in November 1911. Chamberlain was one of the leading candidates to succeed as Conservative leader - even though he was still technically only a member of the Liberal Unionist wing of the coalition (the two parties merged formally in 1912). Chamberlain was opposed by Canadian-born Andrew Bonar Law, Walter Long and the Irish Unionist Sir Edward Carson, though given their standing in the party, only Chamberlain and Long had a realistic chance of success. Though Balfour had intended Chamberlain to succeed him, it became clear from an early canvass of the sitting MPs that Long would be elected by a slender margin. After a short period of internal party campaigning, Chamberlain determined to withdraw from the contest for the good of the still-divided party. He succeeded in persuading Long to withdraw with him, in favour of Bonar Law, who was subsequently chosen by unanimous vote as a compromise candidate. There were two general elections held in the United Kingdom in 1910: United Kingdom general election, January 1910 was held from 15 January – 10 February 1910. ... Arthur James Balfour, 1st Earl of Balfour (25 July 1848 - March 19, 1930) was a British statesman and the thirty-third Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | UK political parties | Historical liberal parties ... Andrew Bonar Law (16 September 1858 – 30 October 1923) was a British Conservative Party statesman and Prime Minister. ... Walter Hume Long, 1st Viscount Long (13 July 1854 - 26 September 1924 was a British Unionist politician. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chamberlain's action, though it prevented him from attaining the party leadership, and arguably ultimately the premiership, did a great deal to maintain unity within the Conservative and Liberal Unionist parties at a time of great uncertainty and strain.

Taking the offertory.Mr. Austen Chamberlain (as Sidesman). "The threepenny-bit is economical, perhaps; but a desirable coin, from my point of view, it is not.".Cartoon from Punch magazine Vol. 158, February 25th, 1920, after a debate in the House of Commons in which Chamberlain spoke in favour of continuing to mint the threepenny-bit, against the objections of others who cited the displeasure of churchwardens with the coin.
Taking the offertory.
Mr. Austen Chamberlain (as Sidesman). "The threepenny-bit is economical, perhaps; but a desirable coin, from my point of view, it is not.".
Cartoon from Punch magazine Vol. 158, February 25th, 1920, after a debate in the House of Commons in which Chamberlain spoke in favour of continuing to mint the threepenny-bit, against the objections of others who cited the displeasure of churchwardens with the coin.

Image File history File links Austen_Chamberlain_-_Punch_cartoon_-_Project_Gutenberg_etext_16509. ... Image File history File links Austen_Chamberlain_-_Punch_cartoon_-_Project_Gutenberg_etext_16509. ... Punch was a British weekly magazine of humour and satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ...

Years of crisis and the First World War

In the last years before the outbreak of the Great War, Chamberlain was concerned with one issue above all others: Home Rule for Ireland. The issue which had prompted his father to split the Liberal Party in the 1880s now threatened to spill over into outright civil war, with the government of Herbert Henry Asquith committed to the passage of a Third Home Rule Bill. Chamberlain was resolutely opposed to the dissolution of the Union with Ireland, and to the strain of these years was added the death of his father in July 1914, only a few days after the assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand began the train of events which led to the First World War. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Devolution or Home rule is the pooling of powers from central government to government at regional or local level. ... The Right Honourable Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852–15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... The Home Rule Act of 1914, also known as the (Irish) Third Home Rule Act (or Bill), and formally known as the Government of Ireland Act 1914 (4 & 5 Geo. ... Franz Ferdinand links to here. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ...


Pressure from the Conservative opposition, in part led by Chamberlain eventually resulted in the formation of the wartime coalition government, in 1915. Chamberlain joined the cabinet as Secretary of State for India. Chamberlain remained at the India Office after Lloyd George succeeded Asquith as Prime Minister in late 1916, but following the failure of various British campaigns in Mesopotamia (undertaken by the separately-administered Indian Army), Chamberlain resigned his post in 1917. This was despite any wrongdoing on his part, and it is widely believed that Austen acted according to his principles: he was the minister ultimately responsible; therefore the fault lay with him. He was widely acclaimed for such a selfless act.[1] A coalition government, or coalition cabinet, is a cabinet in parliamentary government in which several parties cooperate. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The office of Secretary of State for India or India Secretary was created in 1858 when India was brought under direct British rule (British Raj). ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom British India  Ottoman Empire Commanders General Nixon, General Maude Khalil Pasha, General von der Goltz Strength 112,000 90,000 ? Casualties 92,000 100,000 ? The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of the Great War fought between Allied Powers represented by the... A group of native Indian Muslim soldiers posing for volley firing orders. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ...


Later he returned to government and became a member of the War Cabinet in 1918. Following the victory of the Lloyd George coalition in the elections of 1918, Chamberlain was again appointed to the position of Chancellor of the Exchequer. Chamberlain immediately faced the huge task of restoring Britain’s finances after four disastrous years of wartime expenditure. A War Cabinet is committee formed by a government in time of war. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The United Kingdom general election of 1918 held on 14th December 1918, after the Representation of the People Act 1918. ...


Leadership

Citing ill health, Bonar Law retired from the leadership of the Conservative branch of the Lloyd George government in the spring of 1921. Due to his seniority and the general dislike of Lord Curzon, his counterpart in the House of Lords, Chamberlain succeeded Bonar Law as leader of the party in the House of Commons and also took over in the office of Lord Privy Seal. He was succeeded at the Exchequer by Sir Robert Horne, and it seemed that after ten years of waiting, Austen would again be given the opportunity of succeeding to the premiership. The Lloyd George coalition was beginning to falter, following numerous scandals and the unsuccessful conclusion of the Anglo-Irish War, and it was widely believed that it would not survive until the next general election. Strangely, though he had had little regard for Lloyd George in preceding years, the opportunity of working closely with the “Welsh Wizard” gave Chamberlain a new insight into his nominal superior in the government (by now, the Conservative party was by far the largest partner in the government). Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston (January 11, 1859 - March 20, 1925), was a conservative British statesman and sometime Viceroy of India. ... This article is about the British House of Lords. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... The Lord Privy Seal or Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal is one of the traditional sinecure offices in the British Cabinet. ... An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a guerrilla campaign mounted against the British government in Ireland by the Irish Republican Army under the proclaimed legitimacy of the First Dáil, the extra-legal Irish parliament...


This was an unfortunate change of allegiance for Chamberlain, for by late 1921 the Conservative rank-and-file was growing more and more restless for an end to the coalition and a return to single-party (and therefore Conservative) government. Conservatives in the House of Lords began to publicly oppose the coalition, and disregarded calls for support from Chamberlain. In the country at large Conservative candidates began to oppose the coalition at by-elections and this discontent spread to the House of Commons. In the autumn of 1922, Chamberlain faced a backbench revolt (largely led by Stanley Baldwin) designed to oust Lloyd George, and at a meeting of the Carlton Club in October of that year, Chamberlain resigned the party leadership rather than act against what he believed to be his duty. Chamberlain was succeeded by Andrew Bonar Law, whose views and intentions he had divined the evening before the vote at a private meeting. Bonar Law formed a government shortly thereafter, but Chamberlain was not given a post nor, it would seem, would have he accepted a position had it been offered. Chamberlain therefore was the only Commons leader of the Conservative Party in the twentieth century not to attain the post of Prime Minister until William Hague.[2] Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Carlton Club is a gentlemens club in London. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... William Jefferson Hague (born 26 March 1961) is a British politician, the Member of Parliament for Richmond, North Yorkshire, former leader of the Conservative Party, and current Conservative Shadow Foreign Secretary. ...


Foreign Secretary and the triumph of Locarno

At the second resignation of Bonar Law in May 1923 (Law would die from throat cancer later the same year), Chamberlain was passed over again for the leadership of the party in favour of Stanley Baldwin. Baldwin offered Chamberlain the post of Lord Privy Seal, but Chamberlain insisted that other former ministers from the Coalition should be included as well and Baldwin refused. However Chamberlain did return to government when Baldwin formed his second ministry following success in the election of October 1924, serving in the important office of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1924 to 1929. In this office, Chamberlain was largely allowed a free hand by the easygoing Baldwin. Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... The position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs was created in the United Kingdoms governmental reorganization of 1782, in which the Northern and Southern Departments became the Home and Foreign Offices. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It is as Foreign Secretary that Chamberlain’s place in history was finally assured. In a difficult period in international relations, Chamberlain not only faced a split in the Entente Cordiale occasioned by the French invasion of the Ruhr, but also the controversy over the Geneva Protocol, which threatened to dilute British sovereignty over the issue of League of Nations economic sanctions. The Entente Cordiale (cordial understanding) is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom and France. ... For the conurbation see Ruhr Area. ... The League of Nations was an international organization founded as a result of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919–1920. ...


Despite the importance to history of these pressing issues, Chamberlain’s reputation chiefly rests on his part in the negotiations over what came to be known as the Locarno Pact of 1925. Seeking to maintain the post-war status quo in the West, Chamberlain responded favourably to the approaches of the German Chancellor Gustav Stresemann for a British guarantee of Germany’s western borders. Together with Aristide Briand of France, Chamberlain and Stresemann met at the town of Locarno in October 1925 and signed a mutual agreement (together with representatives from Belgium and Italy) to settle all differences between the nations by arbitration and never resort to war. For his services, Chamberlain was not only awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, but was made a Knight of the Order of the Garter. Chamberlain also secured Britain's accession to the Kellogg-Briand Pact, which theoretically outlawed war as an instrument of policy. Chamberlain famously said that Italian dictator Benito Mussolini was "a man with whom business could be done". The Locarno Treaties were seven agreements negotiated at Locarno, Switzerland on 5–16 October 1925 and formally signed in London on December 1, in which the World War I western European Allied powers and the new states of central and eastern Europe sought to secure the post-war territorial settlement... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (May 10, 1878 – October 3, 1929) was a German liberal politician and statesman who served as Chancellor and Foreign Secretary during the time of the Weimar Republic. ... Aristide Briand (March 28, 1862 – March 7, 1932) was a French statesman who served several terms as Prime Minister of France and won the Nobel Peace Prize. ... Location within Switzerland Locarno is a city located on Lake Maggiore (Lago Maggiore) in the southern Swiss canton of Ticino, close to Ascona. ... Lester B. Pearson after accepting the 1957 Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... President Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Frank B. Kellogg, standing, with representatives of the governments who have ratified the Treaty for Renunciation of War (Kellogg-Briand Pact), in the East Room of the White House. ... Mussolini redirects here. ...


Later career

Following his less-satisfactory engagement in issues in the Far East and Egypt, and the resignation of Baldwin’s government after the election of 1929, Chamberlain resigned his position as Foreign Secretary and went into retirement. He briefly returned to government in 1931 as First Lord of the Admiralty in Ramsay MacDonald's first National Government, but soon retired after having been forced to deal with the unfortunate Invergordon Mutiny. Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The First Lord of the Admiralty was a British government position in charge of the Admiralty. ... James Ramsay MacDonald (12 October 1866 – 9 November 1937) was a British politician and three times Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. ... The Invergordon Mutiny was an industrial action by around a thousand sailors in the British Atlantic Fleet, that took place 15-16 September 1931. ...


Over the next six years as a senior backbencher he gave strong support to the National Government but was critical of their foreign policy. In 1935 the government faced a parliamentary rebellion over the Hoare-Laval Pact and Austen’s opposition to the vote of censure is widely believed to have been instrumental in saving the government from defeat on the floor of the House. Chamberlain was again briefly considered for the post of Foreign Secretary, but it is safe to assume that he would have refused if ever asked. Instead his advice was sought as to the suitability of Parliamentary Private Secretary Anthony Eden for the post. Winston Churchill claims in his memoirs that had this crisis ended differently Chamberlain may have been called upon as a respected statesman to form a government of his own, but this view is not widely supported, and may be in part due to Chamberlain’s position as the first public champion on what later became Churchill’s great cause – opposition to the German Nazi government of Adolf Hitler. In the United Kingdom the term National Government is in an abstract sense used to refer to a coalition of some or all UK major political parties. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ... The Hoare-Laval Pact was a December 1935 plan concocted by the British Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Samuel Hoare and the French Prime Minister, Pierre Laval for the partitioning of Ethiopia, as a means of ending the Italo-Ethiopian War. ... A Parliamentary Private Secretary (PPS) is a junior role given to a United Kingdom Member of Parliament (MP). ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Churchill redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


Last great service

During the period 1934 to 1937, Chamberlain was, with Winston Churchill, Roger Keyes and Leo Amery, the most prominent voice calling for British rearmament in the face of a growing threat from Nazi Germany. In addition to speaking eloquently in Parliament on the matter, he was the chairman of two Conservative parliamentary delegations in late 1936 which met with the Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin, to remonstrate with him about his government’s delay in rearming the British defence forces. More respected in this period than the largely discredited Churchill, Chamberlain became something of an icon to young Conservatives, as the last survivor of the Victorian Age of high politics. Roger John Brownlow Keyes, 1st Baron Keyes ( 1872- 1945) was a noted British admiral and hero, with a life of adventure stretching from African anti slavery patrols to Allied landings in Leyte in World War II. Early Days The son of a famous hero father, Keyes was born on October... Leopold Charles Maurice (or Moritz) Stennett Amery (22 November 1873 - 16 September 1955), was a British statesman and Conservative politician. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is currently the second largest political party in the United Kingdom in terms of sitting Members of Parliament (MPs), the largest in terms of public membership, and the oldest political party in the United Kingdom. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of Bewdley, KG, PC (3 August 1867 – 14 December 1947) was a British statesman and thrice Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ...


Though he never again served in a government, Sir Austen Chamberlain survived in good health until March 1937, dying just ten weeks before his half-brother Neville Chamberlain finally became the first (and only) member of the distinguished Chamberlain dynasty to become Prime Minister. Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the British prime minister. ...


Chamberlain's estate was probated at 45,044 pounds sterling.


The personal and political papers of Sir Austen Chamberlain are housed in the Special Collections of the main library of the University of Birmingham. Website http://www. ...


Further reading

For such a prominent historical figure, Chamberlain has had very little attention from academics. The official biography, by Sir Charles Petrie is still quite readable, though the most recent work – by David Dutton – is a far more balanced account. Dutton is widely regarded as the expert in the field, though he disagrees somewhat with Richard Grayson’s assessment of Sir Austen’s views on France and Germany respectively. Some current work is being undertaken on the Chamberlain family by Peter Marsh - author of the most recent biography of Joseph Chamberlain - and Richard Scully is currently working on Sir Austen’s year in Germany and its subsequent effect on his opinions and politics. Charles Petrie (September 28, 1895 - December 13, 1977) was a popular historian. ...

  • David Dutton, Austen Chamberlain – Gentleman in Politics, Bolton: R. Anderson, 1985.
  • Richard Grayson, Austen Chamberlain and the Commitment to Europe: British Foreign Policy, 1924-1929, London: Frank Cass, 1997.
  • Sir Charles Petrie, The Chamberlain Tradition, London: Lovat Dickson Limited, 1938.
  • Sir Charles Petrie, The Life and Letters of the Right Hon. Sir Austen Chamberlain, London: Cassell & Co., 1939.
  • Robert C. Self (ed.), The Austen Chamberlain Diary Letters: The Correspondence of Sir Austen Chamberlain with his Sisters Hilda and Ida, 1916-1937, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Charles Petrie (September 28, 1895 - December 13, 1977) was a popular historian. ...

References

  1. ^ "Chamberlain out of India Office", The New York Times, 1917-07-13. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. 
  2. ^ "The only other Tory leader who failed to make it to Number 10", The Guardian, 2001-06-08. Retrieved on 2008-01-20. 

The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

Offices held

Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
George Woodyatt Hastings
Member of Parliament for East Worcestershire
1892–1914
Succeeded by
Frederick Leverton Harris
Preceded by
Joseph Chamberlain
Member of Parliament for Birmingham West
1914–1937
Succeeded by
Walter Frank Higgs
Political offices
Preceded by
The Marquess of Londonderry
Postmaster General
1902–1903
Succeeded by
Lord Stanley
Preceded by
Charles Thomson Ritchie
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1903–1905
Succeeded by
H. H. Asquith
Preceded by
The Earl of Crewe
Secretary of State for India
1915–1917
Succeeded by
Edwin Samuel Montagu
Preceded by
Andrew Bonar Law
Chancellor of the Exchequer
1919–1921
Succeeded by
Sir Robert Horne
Preceded by
Andrew Bonar Law
Lord Privy Seal
1921–1922
Succeeded by
Lord Robert Cecil
Conservative Leader in the Commons
1921–1922
Succeeded by
Andrew Bonar Law
(as overall leader)
Leader of the British Conservative Party
1921–1922
with The Marquess Curzon of Kedleston
Preceded by
Ramsay Macdonald
Foreign Secretary
1924–1929
Succeeded by
Arthur Henderson
Preceded by
A. V. Alexander
First Lord of the Admiralty
1931
Succeeded by
The Viscount Monsell
Academic offices
Preceded by
Earl of Birkenhead
Rector of the University of Glasgow
1925—1928
Succeeded by
Stanley Baldwin
Preceded by
James Herbert Benyon
Chancellor of the University of Reading
1935–1937
Succeeded by
Sir Samuel Hoare

  Results from FactBites:
 
Joseph Chamberlain - LoveToKnow 1911 (4987 words)
Mr Chamberlain had a very difficult part to play, in a situation dominated by suspicion on both sides, and while he firmly insisted on the rights of Great Britain and of British subjects in the Transvaal, he was the continual object of Radical criticism at home.
Mr Chamberlain's tenure of the office of colonial secretary between 18 9 5 and 1900 must always be regarded as a turningpoint in the history of the relations between the British colonies and the mother country.
Mr Chamberlain's own activity in the political field was cut short in the middle of the session of 1906 by a serious attack of gout, which was at first minimized by his friends, but which, it was gradually discovered, had completely crippled him.
Neville Chamberlain: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (8644 words)
Chamberlain is perhaps the most ill-regarded British Prime Minister of the 20th century, largely because of his policy of appeasement towards Nazi Germany regarding the abandonment of Czechoslovakia to Hitler at Munich in 1938.
Chamberlain was the eldest son of the second marriage of Joseph Chamberlain, Lord Mayor of Birmingham, and a half-brother to Austen, later Sir Austen.
Chamberlain and Baldwin had a strong political partnership throughout their fourteen years at the height of politics together, but Chamberlain was frustrated by Baldwin's sense of detachment and disinterest in the detail of policy, while Baldwin found Chamberlain's low opinion of the Labour Party disappointing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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