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Encyclopedia > Aurochs
Aurochs

Conservation status
Image:Status iucn3.1 EX.svg
Extinct (1627)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Subfamily: Bovinae
Genus: Bos
Species: B. primigenius
Binomial name
Bos primigenius
Subspecies

Bos primigenius primigenius
  (Bojanus, 1827)
Bos primigenius namadicus
  (Falconer, 1859)
Bos primigenius mauretanicus
  (Thomas, 1881)
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1510x916, 243 KB) Original caption: Augsburger Abbildung des Urs (echten Auerochsen). ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... For other uses, see Extinction (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the presence of sweat glands, including milk producing sweat glands, and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... Tribes Bovini Boselaphini Strepsicerotini The biological subfamily Bovinae (or bovines) includes a diverse group of about 24 species of medium-sized to large ungulates, including domestic cattle, Bison, the Water Buffalo, the Yak, and the four-horned and spiral-horned antelopes. ... Species B. acutifrons † B. aegyptiacus † B. frontalis B. gaurus B. grunniens B. javanicus B. planifrons † B. primigenius † B. sauveli B. taurus Bos is the genus of wild and domestic cattle or oxen. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus (July 16, 1776 - April 2, 1827) was a Germany physician and naturalist. ... Hugh Falconer (February 29, 1808 - January 31, 1865) was a Scottish palaeontologist and botanist, and the younger brother of the notable merchant Alexander Falconer. ... Michael Rogers Oldfield Thomas (February 21, 1858 - June 16, 1929) was a British zoologist. ...

See Ur (rune) for the rune.

The aurochs or urus (Bos primigenius) is an extinct, very large, type of cattle originally prevalent in Europe. The animal's original scientific name, Bos primigenius, was meant as a Latin translation of the German term Auerochse or Urochs, which was (possibly incorrectly) interpreted as literally meaning "primeval ox" or "proto-ox". This scientific name is now considered invalid by ITIS, who classify aurochs under Bos taurus, the same species as domestic cattle. However, in 2003, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature "conserved the usage of 17 specific names based on wild species, which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic forms"[citation needed], confirming Bos primigenius for the Aurochs. Taxonomists who consider domesticated cattle a subspecies of the wild Aurochs should use B. primigenius taurus; the name B. taurus remains available for domestic cattle where it is considered to be a separate species. The rune ᚢ representing the sound u is called Ur in all three rune poems, however with different meanings: Norwegian ᚢ er af illu jarne; Dross comes from bad iron; the reindeer often races over the frozen snow. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) is an organization dedicated to achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals. It was founded in 1895 and currently comprises 28 members from 20 countries, primarily practicing zoological taxonomists. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ...

Contents

English-language nomenclature variations

The word aurochs (IPA: /ˈaʊrɒks/ or /ˈɔrɒks/) comes to English from German, where its normative spelling and declension today is Auerochs/Auerochse (sg), Auerochsen (gen), Auerochsen (pl). The declension in English varies, being either aurochs (sg), aurochs (pl)[1],[2] or aurochs (sg), aurochses (pl).[3] The declension auroch (sg), aurochs (pl) is acknowledged by MWU,[4] but it is merely a back-formation analogous to pea-from-pease that misinterprets the singular form's ending in the /s/ sound (being cognate to ox/Ochs(e)). The use in English of the plural form aurochsen is not acknowledged by AHD4 or MWU, but is very sensible, being directly parallel to the German plural and analogous (and cognate) to English ox (sg), oxen (pl). In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up cognate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The word urus (/ˈjʊərəs/) comes to English from Latin, but came to Latin from Germanic origins.[5] It declines in English as urus (sg), uruses (pl).[6],[7] The Germanic aurochs itself is from the combination of the urus  root with Ochs(e), "ox". Although the aur-/ur-  syllable has often been interpreted as being cognate with Germanic ur-  meaning "original/proto-", it may have come from another root referring to water.


The words aurochs, urus, and wisent  have all been used synonymously in English.[8],[9] However, this usage is careless, as the extinct aurochs/urus is a completely separate species from the still-extant wisent (the European bison). Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Å»ubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ...


Origin

Defensive aurochs.
Defensive aurochs.

According to the Paleontologisk Museum, University of Oslo, aurochs evolved in India some two million years ago, migrated into the Middle East and further into Asia, and reached Europe about 250,000 years ago.[1] They were once considered a distinct species from modern European cattle (Bos taurus), but more recent taxonomy has rejected this distinction[citation needed]. The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from a different group of aurochs at the edge of the Thar Desert in India; this would explain zebu resistance to drought. Domestic yak, gayal and Javan cattle do not descend from aurochs. Modern cattle have become much smaller than their wild forebears: the height at the withers of a large domesticated cow is about 1.5 meters (5 feet, 15 hands)[10], whereas aurochs were about 1.75 meters (5.75 feet, 17 hands). Aurochs also had several features rarely seen in modern cattle, such as lyre-shaped horns set at a forward angle, a pale stripe down the spine, and sexual dimorphism of coat color. Males were black with a pale eel stripe or finching down the spine, while females and calves were reddish (these colours are still found in a few domesticated cattle breeds, such as Jersey cattle). Aurochs were also known to have very aggressive temperaments and killing one was seen as a great act of courage in ancient cultures. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The University of Oslo, Paleontological Museum contains the largest collection of fossils in Norway and functions as a National Museum. ... The University of Oslo (Norwegian: , Latin: ) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... A NASA satellite image of the Thar Desert, with the India-Pakistan border superimposed is found in canada, united states. ... Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For other uses, see Yak (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Bos gaurus H. Smith, 1827 The Gaur (Bos gaurus, previously Bibos gauris) is a large, dark-coated ox of the hilly areas of India and Southeast Asia, which may be found wild or domesticated. ... Binomial name Bos javanicus dAlton, 1823 The Banteng (Bos javanicus) is an ox that is found in Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Borneo, Java, and Bali. ... The withers is the highest point on an animals back, on the ridge between its shoulder blades. ... A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... A hand (or handbreadth) is a unit of length measurement, usually based on the breadth of a male human hand and thus around 1 dm, i. ... Female (left) and male Common Pheasant, illustrating the dramatic difference in both color and size, between the sexes Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different sex in the same species. ... Finching is a colour pattern of cattle occurring in many unrelated breeds. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... A Jersey cow in the western United States. ...


Subspecies

At one time there existed three aurochs subspecies, namely Bos primigenius namadicus (Falconer, 1859) that occurred in India, the Bos primigenius mauretanicus (Thomas, 1881) from North Africa and naturally the Bos primigenius primigenius (Bojanus, 1827) from Europe and the Middle East. Only the European subspecies has survived until recent times.


Domestication and extinction

Skull of an aurochs.
Monument to the last aurochs in Jaktorów, Poland.
Monument to the last aurochs in Jaktorów, Poland.

Domestication of the aurochs began in the southern Caucasus and northern Mesopotamia from about the 6th millennium BC, while genetic evidence suggests that aurochs were independently domesticated in northern Africa and in India.[11] Domestication caused dramatic changes to the physiology of the creatures, to the extent that domestic cattle have been regarded as a separate species (see above). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 729 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aurochs Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 729 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aurochs Metadata This... Image File history File links Jaktorow_pomnik_tura. ... Image File history File links Jaktorow_pomnik_tura. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Genetic analysis of aurochs bones and of modern cattle has provided many insights about the aurochs. Though aurochs became extinct in Britain during the Bronze age, analysis of bones from aurochs that lived contemporaneously with domesticated cattle there showed no genetic contribution to modern breeds. As a result, modern European cattle are now thought to be descended directly from the Near East domestication process. Indian cattle (zebu), although domesticated eight to ten thousand years ago, are related to aurochs which diverged from the Near Eastern ones some 200,000 years ago. The African cattle are thought to descend from aurochs more closely related to the Near Eastern ones. The Near East and African aurochs groups are thought to have split some 25,000 years ago, probably 15,000 years before domestication. The "Turano-Mongolian" type of cattle now found in Northern China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan may represent a fourth domestication event (and a third event among Bos taurus–type aurochs). This group may have diverged from the Near East group some 35,000 years ago. Whether these separate genetic populations would have equated to separate subspecies is unclear. Genetic testing allows the genetic diagnosis of vulnerabilities to inherited diseases, and can also be used to determine a persons ancestry. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Trinomial name Bos primigenius indicus Linnaeus, 1758 Zebus (Bos primigenius indicus), sometimes known as humped cattle, are better-adapted to tropical environments than other domestic cattle. ...


The original range of the aurochs was from the British Isles, to Africa, the Middle East, India and central Asia. By the 13th century A.D., the aurochs' range was restricted to Poland, Lithuania, Moldavia, Transylvania and East Prussia. The right to hunt large animals on any land was restricted to nobles and gradually to the royal household. As the population of aurochs declined, hunting ceased but the royal court still required gamekeepers to provide open fields for the aurochs to graze in. The gamekeepers were exempted from local taxes in exchange for their service and a decree made poaching an aurochs punishable by death. In 1564, the gamekeepers knew of only 38 animals, according to the royal survey. The last recorded live aurochs, a female, died in 1627 in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland. The skull was later taken by the Swedish Army during the Swedish invasion of Poland (16551660) and is now the property of Livrustkammaren in Stockholm. This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... For other uses, see Poaching (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Livrustkammaren is the Royal Armoury in Stockholm, covering many interesting artefacts of swedish military history. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


In the 1920s two German zookeepers, the brothers Heinz and Lutz Heck, attempted to breed the aurochs back into existence (see breeding back) from the domestic cattle that were their descendants. Their plan was based on the conception that a species is not extinct as long as all its genes are still present in a living population. The result is the breed called Heck Cattle, 'Recreated Aurochs', or 'Heck Aurochs', which bears an incomplete resemblance to what is known about the physiology of the wild aurochs[citation needed]. Breeding back is an attempt to assemble the genes of an extinct subspecies or domesticated breed, which may still be present in the larger gene pool of the overall species or other interbreedable species. ... Heck Cattle, also called reconstructed aurochs, is a hardy breed of cattle (Bos taurus) often referred to by its promoters by the name of aurochs. (The aurochs was an extinct recent ancestor to modern cattle. ...


Aurochs in art, history, mythology, and media

See also: Bull (mythology)
Aurochs on a cave painting in Lascaux, France.
Aurochs on a cave painting in Lascaux, France.
  • Aurochs are depicted in many Paleolithic European cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux and Livernon in France. Their life force may have been attributed with magical qualities, for early carvings of the aurochs have also been found. The impressive and dangerous aurochs survived into the Iron Age in Anatolia and the Near East, and was worshipped throughout that area as a sacred animal, the Lunar Bull, associated with the Great Goddess and later with Mithras.
  • Aurochs are depicted on the Ishtar Gate.
  • A 1999 archaeological dig in Peterborough, England, uncovered the skull of an aurochs. The front part of the skull had been removed but the horns remained attached. The supposition is that the killing of the aurochs in this instance was a sacrificial act.
  • The wild-ox called re'em (Strong's # 07214) in the Bible (Numbers 23:22 and 24:8, Deuteronomy 33:17, Job 39:9-10, Psalms 22:21, 29:6, 92:10 and Isaiah 34:7) is occasionally associated with the aurochs and has incorrectly been translated as 'unicorn' in the past (The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Entry for 'Wild Ox', Copyright, 1939, by Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.).
  • Julius Caesar wrote about them in Gallic War Chapter 6.28, "...those animals which are called uri. These are a little below the elephant in size, and of the appearance, color, and shape of a bull. Their strength and speed are extraordinary; they spare neither man nor wild beast which they have espied. These the Germans take with much pains in pits and kill them. The young men harden themselves with this exercise, and practice themselves in this sort of hunting, and those who have slain the greatest number of them, having produced the horns in public, to serve as evidence, receive great praise. But not even when taken very young can they be rendered familiar to men and tamed. The size, shape, and appearance of their horns differ much from the horns of our oxen. These they anxiously seek after, and bind at the tips with silver, and use as cups at their most sumptuous entertainments."
  • The aurochs ("bour" in Romanian) was also the symbol of Moldavia; nowadays they can be found in the coat of arms of both Romania and Moldova. The horn of the aurochs is a charge of coat of arms of Lithuanian town Taurage. It is also present in the emblem of Kaunas, Lithuania and was part of the emblem of Bukovina during its time as a Kronland of Austria-Hungary.
Possible version of a Moldavian princely flag during Stephen the Great )
  • Comic-book Asterix in Spain features an Aurochs replacing a lion in the Roman circus of Spain, a reference to bullfighting. The character who manages to defeat the Aurochs decides to be known as El Aurochero (for torero, stemming from toro, Spanish for bull), and a footnote explains that form El Aurocheador is incorrect (for toreador).
  • The fantasy novel series A Song of Ice and Fire by George R.R. Martin makes frequent use of aurochs in character dialog and setting descriptions in place of more modern cattle to accentuate the otherworldly setting.
  • In the Magic: The Gathering card game expansion sets Ice Age and Coldsnap, Aurochs were used for some of the card imagery and titles.
  • The debut album Age of Winters by Austin, Texas-based metal band The Sword includes a song called "Lament for the Aurochs."
  • In the MMORPGs Asheron's Call, Guild Wars, and The Lord of the Rings Online: Shadows of Angmar from Turbine, aurochs are a type of monster that can be fought.
  • The famous last lines of Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita are: "I am thinking of aurochs and angels, the secret of durable pigments, prophetic sonnets, the refuge of art. And this is the only immortality you and I may share, my Lolita."
  • An Aurochs hunt features in the novel The Iron Hand of Mars by Lindsey Davis.
  • An Aurochs hunt features in the novel Sarum by Edward Rutherford.
  • In the popular anime Full Metal Panic!, M.I.T.H.R.I.L's code names for their arm slaves are all provided with the prefix "Uruz".
  • Aurochs are featured in Leo Frankowski's "Conrad Stargard" series. The hero of the story encounters several aurochs in 13th century Poland, and then saves and breeds them to save them from extinction.
  • In the game Final Fantasy X, the main character Tidus is in a blitzball team called the Besaid Aurochs.
  • The Aurochs is one of the 30 extinct animals to be adoptable in the Zoo Tycoon 2: Extinct Animals expansion pack.
  • East Slavic surnames Turenin, Turishchev, Turov, Turovsky originate from the East Slavic name of the species (Tur).[12]
  • Aurochs feature in the series Chronicles of Ancient Darkness by Michelle Paver

The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... Painting of bison attacking a man, from the cave at Lascaux, c. ... Cave or Rock Paintings are paintings on cave or rock walls and ceilings, usually dating to prehistoric times. ... Painting of bison attacking a man, from the cave at Lascaux, c. ... Livernon is a commune of the Lot département, in France. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... A Mother Goddess is a goddess portrayed as the Earth Mother who serves as a general fertility deity, the bountiful embodiment of the earth. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... The reconstructed Ishtar Gate in the Pergamon Museum in Berlin A detail from the reconstructed gate. ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Tauragė (Polish: Taurogi, German: Tauroggen) is an industrial town in western Lithuania and the capital of Tauragė County. ... Location Ethnographic region AukÅ¡taitija County Kaunas County Municipality Geographic coordinate system Number of elderates 11 General Information Capital of Kaunas County Kaunas city municipality Kaunas district municipality Population 361,274 in 2005 (2nd) First mentioned 1361 Granted city rights 1408 Kaunas ( (help· info), approximate English transcription [ˈkəʊ.nÉ™s... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Cisleithania (German: Cisleithanien) was the name of the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual monarchy created in 1867 and dissolved in 1918. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Asterix in Spain is the fourteenth volume of the Asterix comic book series, by René Goscinny (stories) and Albert Uderzo (illustrations). ... Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865–1866. ... The words toreador and torero are used in English to designate the main performer of Spanish-style bullfighting, who taunts and kills the bull. ... The word toreador is used in English to designate the main performer of Spanish-style bullfighting, who taunts and kills the bull. ... A Song of Ice and Fire (commonly abbreviated as ASoIaF) is a series of epic fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin. ... George R. R. Martin, circa 1986 George Raymond Richard Martin (born September 20, 1948 in Bayonne, New Jersey) is an American writer of science fiction and fantasy, and also a screenwriter and producer. ... Magic: The Gathering (colloq. ... Coldsnap is the third set in the Ice Age block for the Magic:The Gathering collectible card game. ... Austin is the capital of the U.S. state of Texas and the seat of Travis County. ... For other uses, see The Sword (disambiguation). ... Asherons Call (AC) is a fantasy MMORPG for Microsoft Windows-based PCs, released on November 2, 1999. ... This article is for the Guild Wars series. ... Turbine, Inc. ... Vladimir Vladimirovich Nabokov (Russian: Влади́мир Влади́мирович Набо́ков, pronounced ) (April 22 [O.S. April 10] 1899, Saint Petersburg – July 2, 1977, Montreux) was a Russian-American, Academy Award nominated author. ... Lolita (1955) is a novel by Vladimir Nabokov. ... The Iron Hand of Mars is a crime novel by Lindsey Davis. ... Lindsey Davis, historical novelist, was born in Birmingham, England in 1949. ... Sarum (or laterly titled Sarum: The Novel of England) is a work of historical fiction by Edward Rutherfurd and first published in 1987. ... Edward Rutherford was born in Salisbury, England. ... Animé redirects here. ... Published September 9, 1998 – Present Volumes 19 (ongoing) TV anime: Full Metal Panic! Director Koichi Chigira Studio GONZO Licensor ADV Films Madman Entertainment Network WOWOW Original run 8 January 2002 – 18 June 2002 Episodes 24 Manga Author Retsu Tateo Publisher Kadokawa Shoten ADV Manga Serialized in Monthly Comic Dragon Original... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Leo Frankowski (born in Michigan) is an American writer of science fiction novels; he is now a resident of Russia, where he lives with his wife and adopted teenage daughter. ... Conrad Stargard is the protagonist and title character in a series of time travel novels written by Leo Frankowski. ... Final Fantasy X ) is a console role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix), and the tenth installment in the Final Fantasy video game series; it was released in 2001, and is the first numbered Final Fantasy game for the Sony PlayStation 2 video game console. ... Tidus ) is the protagonist in the Square-Enix role-playing video game Final Fantasy X. As the leading character, the player controls Tidus through the world based in the game, manipulating his actions through the unfolding storyline in traditional Final Fantasy style. ... // The Luca blitzball stadium with globe pool being filled in Final Fantasy X There are two known forms of the fictional sport of blitzball, the version featured in the Final Fantasy games, and the version invented by John Knowles in his book A Separate Peace. ... Map of Spira Spira is the world in which the role-playing games Final Fantasy X and Final Fantasy X-2 are based. ... Cyril of Turaŭ (1130 - 1182) (Belarusian: Кіры́ла Ту́раўскі, Kiryla Turaŭski) was an Orthodox Christian bishop and saint in the Orthodox Church. ... The Chronicles of Ancient Darkness is a series of fantasy books by Michelle Paver. ... Michelle Paver is a novelist. ...

See also

Chillingham Cattle is the name of a herd of wild bovids at Chillingham Castle, Northumberland, England; also known as Chillingham Wild Cattle, this rare species herd of 62 animals (as of the year 2006) inhabits a very large woodland that has existed since the Middle Ages, although there were fewer... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) A wisent (Żubr) The Wisent or European Bison (Bison bonasus) (pronounced ) is a bison species and the heaviest land animal in Europe. ... The rune ᚢ representing the sound u is called Ur in all three rune poems, however with different meanings: Norwegian ᚢ er af illu jarne; Dross comes from bad iron; the reindeer often races over the frozen snow. ... Heck Cattle, also called reconstructed aurochs, is a hardy breed of cattle (Bos taurus) often referred to by its promoters by the name of aurochs. (The aurochs was an extinct recent ancestor to modern cattle. ...

Notes

  1. ^ AHD4, headword aurochs.
  2. ^ MWU, headword aurochs.
  3. ^ MWU, headword aurochs.
  4. ^ MWU, headword aurochs.
  5. ^ AHD4, headword urus.
  6. ^ AHD4, headword urus.
  7. ^ MWU, headword urus.
  8. ^ AHD4, headwords aurochs, urus, wisent.
  9. ^ MWU, headwords aurochs, urus, wisent.
  10. ^ Height of Holstein cows (at hips – note that cattle are often slightly taller at the withers than the hips).]
  11. ^ (see Shaffer and Liechtenstein 1995, 1999)
  12. ^ Russian Surnames. Popular Etymological Dictionary. Yu. A. Fedosyuk. 6th Ed.

Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ...

References

  • American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition (AHD4). Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Headwords aurochs, urus, wisent.
  • Bunzel-Drüke, M. 2001. Ecological substitutes for Wild Horse (Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 = E. przewalslii Poljakov, 1881) and Aurochs (Bos primigenius Bojanus, 1827). Natur- und Kulturlandschaft, Höxter/Jena, 4, 10 p. AFKP. Online pdf (298 kB)
  • C. Julius Caesar. Caesar's Gallic War. Translator. W. A. McDevitte. Translator. W. S. Bohn. 1st Edition. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1869. Harper's New Classical Library.
  • Garfield, Richard van. 1995. Magic the Gathering: Gatherer search: Aurochs. http://gatherer.wizards.com/?first=1&last=100&term=aurochs&Field_Name=on&Field_Rules=on&Field_Type=on&setfilter=Allsets&colorfilter=All
  • International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84.
  • Merriam-Webster Unabridged (MWU). (Online subscription-based reference service of Merriam-Webster, based on Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.) Headword aurochs. Accessed 2007-06-02.
  • Shaffer, Jim G. (1995). Cultural tradition and Palaeoethnicity in South Asian Archaeology. In: Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia. Ed. George Erdosy. ISBN 8121507901
  • Shaffer, Jim G. (1999). Migration, Philology and South Asian Archaeology. In: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Ed. Bronkhorst and Deshpande. ISBN 1-888789-04-2.
  • Vuure, T. van. 2002. History, morphology and ecology of the Aurochs (Bos primigenius). Lutra 45-1. Online pdf (603 kB)
  • Vuure, C. van. 2005. Retracing the Aurochs: History, Morphology and Ecology of an Extinct Wild Ox. Pensoft Publishers. Sofia-Moscow.
  • Wilson, Don E. and DeeAnn M. Reeder: Mammals.

Houghton Mifflin Company is a leading educational publisher in the United States. ... Merriam-Webster, originally known as the G. & C. Merriam Company of Springfield, Massachusetts, is a United States company that publishes reference books, especially dictionaries that are descendants of Noah Websters An American Dictionary of the English Language (1828). ... Jim G. Shaffer is an American archaeologist and Professor of Anthropology at Case Western Reserve University. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Aurochs (274 words)
The aurochs (Bos primigenius) (or urus) is an extinct European mammal of the Bovidae family.
The last recorded instance of the aurochs was the report of the death of "the last" aurochs, hunted and killed by poachers in 1627 in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland.
Aurochs are depicted in many cave paintings such as those found at Lascaux and Livernon[?] in France.
Aurochs - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1131 words)
The aurochs (Bos primigenius) is an extinct European mammal of the Bovidae family.
Domestication of the aurochs began in the southern Caucasus and northern Mesopotamia from about the 6th millennium BC, while genetic evidence suggests that aurochs were independently domesticated in northern Africa and in India.
The impressive and dangerous aurochs survived into the Iron Age in Anatolia and the Near East, and was worshipped throughout that area as a sacred animal, the Lunar Bull, associated with the Great Goddess and later with Mithras.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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