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Wikipedia:How to read a taxobox
How to read a taxobox
Auks
Parakeet Auklets (Aethia psittacula)
Parakeet Auklets (Aethia psittacula)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Alcidae
Leach, 1820
Genera

Uria
Alle
Alca
Pinguinus
Synthliboramphus
Cepphus
Brachyramphus
Ptychoramphus
Aethia
Cerorhinca
Fratercula
Extinct genera, see Systematics Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 594 pixelsFull resolution (2868 × 2130 pixel, file size: 337 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parakeet Auklet (Cyclorrhynchus psittacula) Creator: Sowls, Art Source: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service first upload: Feb 27, 2005 - en:Wikipedia by en:User:Sabines Sunbird... Binomial name Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas, 1769) The Parakeet Auklet is a small seabird of the North Pacific, the only member of the genus Cyclorrhynchus (Kaup, 1829). ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Animalia redirects here. ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... “Aves” redirects here. ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... William Elford Leach FRS (February 2, 1790 - August 26, 1836) was an English zoologist and marine biologist. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... A Guillemot is a variety of seeabird. ... Binomial name Alle alle (Linnaeus, 1758) The Little Auk, or Dovekie, Alle alle, is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle (Link, 1806). ... Binomial name Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 The Razorbill, Alca torda, is a large alcid, 38-43 cm in length, with a 60-69 cm wingspan. ... Binomial name Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis, formerly Alca impennis) is an extinct bird. ... Species Synonyms Endomychura Synthliboramphus is a small genus of seabirds in the auk family from the North Pacific. ... The Guillemots comprise two genera of auks, Uria and Cepphus. ... species Brachyramphus is a small genus of seabirds from the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811) The Cassin’s Auklet is a small, chunky seabird that ranges widely in the North Pacific. ... Species Aethia cristatella Aethia psittacula Aethia pusilla Aethia pygmaea Aethia is a genus of auklets. ... Binomial name Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas, 1811) The Rhinoceros Auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata, is a seabird considered, despite its name, a close relative of the puffins. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata For prehistoric species, see article text. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ...

Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. They are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits. Nevertheless they are not related to the penguins at all, but considered by some to be a product of moderate convergent evolution. For other meanings of bird, see bird (disambiguation). ... Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ...


In contrast to penguins, the modern auks are able to fly (with the exception of the recently extinct Great Auk). They are good swimmers and divers, but their walking appears clumsy. Due to their short wings auks have to flap their wings very quickly in order to fly. Extant auks range in size from the Least Auklet, at 85 g (3 oz) and 15 cm (6 inches), to the Thick-billed Murre, at 1 kg (2.2 lbs) and 45 cm (18 inches). Binomial name Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis, formerly Alca impennis) is an extinct bird. ... Binomial name Aethia pusilla (Pallas, 1811) The Least Auklet, Aethia pusilla, is a seabird and the smallest species of auk. ... Binomial name Uria lomvia (Linnaeus, 1758) The Brunnichs Guillemot, or Thick-billed Murre, Uria lomvia, is a bird in the auk family. ...


Auks live on the open sea and only go ashore for breeding, although some species, like the Common Guillemot, spend a great part of the year defending their nesting spot from others. Binomial name Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Common Guillemot, known as the Common Murre in North America, Uria aalge, is a large alcid. ...


Several species have different names in Europe and North America. The guillemots of Europe are murres in North America, if they occur in both continents, and the Little Auk becomes the Dovekie. World map showing the location of Europe. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ...


Some species, such as the Uria guillemots, nest in large colonies on cliff edges; others, like the Cepphus guillemots, breed in small groups on rocky coasts; and the puffins, auklets and some murrelets nest in burrows. All species except the Brachyramphus murrelets are colonial. Uriah (אוּרִיָּה (My) light/flame of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Uriyya, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÛriyyāh) was the name of several men in the Old Testament: In the Books of Samuel, Uriah the Hittite is a soldier in King David... Colonial seabirds in Hawaii. ... The Guillemots comprise two genera of auks, Uria and Cepphus. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata For prehistoric species, see article text. ... species Brachyramphus is a small genus of seabirds from the North Pacific. ...

Contents

Feeding and ecology

The feeding behaviour of auks is often compared to that of penguins; they are both wing-propelled pursuit divers. In the region where auks live their only seabird competition is with cormorants (which dive powered by their strong feet); in areas where the two groups feed on the same prey the auks tend to feed further offshore. Modern genera Aptenodytes Eudyptes Eudyptula Megadyptes Pygoscelis Spheniscus For prehistoric genera, see Systematics Some penguins are curious. ... A Laughing Gull with its wings extended in a gull wing profile Aircraft wing planform shapes: a swept wing KC-10 Extender (top) refuels a trapezoid-wing F/A-22 Raptor A wing is a surface used to produce lift and therefore flight, for travel in the air or another... For other uses, see Cormorant (disambiguation). ...


Although not to the extent of penguins, auks have to a large extent sacrificed flight, and also mobility on land, in exchange for swimming; their wings are a compromise between the best possible design for diving and the bare minimum needed for flying. This varies by subfamily, the Uria guillemots (including the Razorbill) and murrelets being the most efficient under the water, whereas the puffins and auklets are better adapted for flying and walking. This reflects the type of prey taken; murres hunt faster schooling fish, whereas auklets take slower moving krill. Time depth recorders on auks have shown that they can dive as deep as 100 m in the case of Uria guillemots, 40 m for the Cepphus guillemots and between 30 m for the auklets. Binomial name Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 The Razorbill, Alca torda, is a large alcid, 38-43 cm in length, with a 60-69 cm wingspan. ...


Evolution and distribution

Traditionally, the auks were believed to be one of the earliest distinct charadriiform lineages due to their characteristic morphology. However, molecular analyses have demonstrated that these peculiarities are the product of strong natural selection instead: as opposed to, for example, plovers (a much older charadriiform lineage), auks radically changed from a wading shorebird to a diving seabird lifestyle. Thus, today, the auks are no longer separated in their own suborder ("Alcae"), but are considered part of the Lari suborder which otherwise contains gulls and similar birds. Judging from molecular data, their closest living relatives appear to be the skuas, with these two lineages separating about 30 MYA (Paton et al., 2003). This may or may not be correct due to uncertainties of the fossil record (Thomas et al., 2004, and see below). Alternatively, auks may have split off far earlier from the rest of the Lari and undergone strong morphological, but slow molecular evolution, which would require a very high evolutionary pressure, coupled with a long lifespan and slow reproduction. Genera Pluvialis Charadrius Thinornis Elseyornis Peltohyas Anarhynchus Phegornis Oreopholus Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae. ... Families Charadridae Jacanidae Rostratulidae Ibidorhynchidae Recurvirostridae Haematopodidae Scolopacidae Dromadidae Burhinidae Glareolidae Thinocoridae Waders, called Shorebirds in North America (where wader is used to refer to long-legged wading birds such as storks and herons), are members of the order Charadriiformes, excluding the more marine web-footed seabird groups. ... Families Laridae Sternidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae The suborder Lari is the part of the order Charadriiformes which includes the gulls, terns, skuas and skimmers, with the waders and auks making up the rest of the order. ... Genera Stercorarius Catharacta The skuas are seabirds in the family Stercorariidae. ... In astronomy, geology, and paleontology, mya is an acronym for million years ago and is used as a unit of time to denote length of time before the present. ... Evolutionary pressure or selection pressure can be formalized as an external pressure applied to a process, thereby pushing that process in a distinct direction. ...


The earliest unequivocal fossils of auks are from the Miocene (e.g. the genus Miocepphus, 15 MYA). Two very fragmentary fossils are often assigned to the Alcidae, although this may not be correct: Hydrotherikornis (Late Eocene, some 35 MYA) and Petralca (Late Oligocene). Most extant genera are known to exist since the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene (c. 5 MYA). Miocene fossils have been found in both California and Maryland, but the greater diversity of fossils and tribes in the Pacific leads most scientists to conclude that it was there they first evolved, and it is in the Miocene Pacific that the first fossils of extant genera are found. Early movement between the Pacific and the Atlantic probably happened to the south (since there was no northern opening to the Atlantic), later movements across the Arctic Sea (Konyukhov, 2002). The flightless subfamily Mancallinae which was apparently restricted to the Pacific coast of southern North America became extinct in the Early Pleistocene. Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... hfajhfiudshfas == == == --24. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 90 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37°53N to 39°43N  - Longitude 75°4W to 79°33... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the word, please see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... The Arctic Ocean, located entirely in the north polar region, is the smallest of the worlds five oceans (after the Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, and Southern Ocean), and the shallowest. ... Genera Alcodes Praemancalla Mancalla The Mancallinae were a sub-family of prehistoric flightless auks that lived on the Pacific coast of todays California and Mexico from the late Miocene Epoch to the Early Pleistocene. ... The Pleistocene epoch (IPA: ) is part of the geologic timescale. ...

Razorbills are true auks only found in the Atlantic Ocean
Razorbills are true auks only found in the Atlantic Ocean

The extant auks (subfamily Alcinae) are broken up into 2 main groups: the usually high-billed puffins (tribe Fraterculini) and auklets (tribe Aethiini), as opposed to the more slender-billed murres and true auks (tribe Alcini), and the murrelets and guillemots (tribes Brachyramphini and Cepphini). The tribal arrangement was originally based on analyses of morphology and ecology (Strauch 1985). mtDNA cytochrome b sequence and allozyme studies (Friesen et al., 1996; Moum et al., 2002) confirm these findings except that the Synthliboramphus murrelets should be split into a distinct tribe, as they appear more closely related to the Alcini - in any case, assumption of a closer relationship between the former and the true guillemots was only weakly supported by Strauch's 1985 study. Image File history File links Alca_torda_Roest_2003. ... Image File history File links Alca_torda_Roest_2003. ... Binomial name Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 The Razorbill, Alca torda, is a large alcid, 38-43 cm in length, with a 60-69 cm wingspan. ... Morphology is the following: In linguistics, morphology is the study of the structure of word forms. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... CoQ Cytochrome c reductase The Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase complex, sometimes called the cytochrome bc1 complex, and at other times Complex III, is the third complex in the electron transfer chain (PDB 1KYO, EC 1. ... part of a DNA sequence A DNA sequence (sometimes genetic sequence) is a succession of letters representing the primary structure of a real or hypothetical DNA molecule or strand, The possible letters are A, C, G, and T, representing the four nucleotide subunits of a DNA strand (adenine, cytosine, guanine... In biochemistry, isozymes (or isoenzymes) are isoforms (closely related variants) of enzymes. ...


Compared to other families of seabirds, there are no genera with many species (such as the 47 Larus gulls). This is probably a product of the rather small geographic range of the family (the most limited of any seabird family), and the periods of glacial advance and retreat that have kept the populations on the move in a narrow band of subarctic ocean. In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biodiversity. ... Genera Pagophila Larus Rissa Creagus Xema Rhodostethia Gulls are seabirds in the family Laridae and subfamily Lari. ... Look up gull in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Austrias longest glacier, the Pasterze, winds its 8 km (5 mile) route at the foot of Austrias highest mountain, the Grossglockner A glacier is a large, long-lasting river of ice that is formed on land and moves in response to gravity. ...


Today, as in the past, the auks are restricted to cooler northern waters. Their ability to spread further south is restricted as their prey hunting method, pursuit diving, becomes less efficient in warmer waters. The speed at which small fish (which along with krill are the auk's principal food items) can swim doubles as the temperature increases from 5°C to 15°C, with no corresponding increase in speed for the bird. The southernmost auks, in California and Mexico, can survive there because of cold upwellings. The current paucity of auks in the Atlantic (6 species), compared to the Pacific (19-20 species) is considered to be because of extinctions to the Atlantic auks; the fossil record shows there were many more species in the Atlantic during the Pliocene. Auks also tend to be restricted to continental shelf waters and breed on few oceanic islands. Families Euphausiidae Euphausia Dana, 1852 Meganyctiphanes Holt and W. M. Tattersall, 1905 Nematobrachion Calman, 1905 Nematoscelis G. O. Sars, 1883 Nyctiphanes G. O. Sars, 1883 Pseudeuphausia Hansen, 1910 Stylocheiron G. O. Sars, 1883 Tessarabrachion Hansen, 1911 Thysanoessa Brandt, 1851 Thysanopoda Latreille, 1831 Bentheuphausiidae Bentheuphausia amblyops Krill are shrimp-like marine... Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-deplete surface water. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...


Systematics

ORDER CHARADRIIFORMES
Suborder Lari Families Thinocoridae Pedionomidae Scolopacidae Rostratulidae Jacanidae Chionididae Burhinidae Haematopodidae Recurvirostridae Ibidorhynchidae Charadriidae Pluvianellidae Dromadidae Glareolidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae Laridae Sternidae Alcidae Charadriiformes is a diverse order of small to medium-large birds. ... Families Laridae Sternidae Stercorariidae Rhynchopidae The suborder Lari is the part of the order Charadriiformes which includes the gulls, terns, skuas and skimmers, with the waders and auks making up the rest of the order. ...


Family Alcidae

  • Hydrotherikornis (fossil, disputed)
Xantus's Murrelet is a synthliboramphine auk and quite distinct from the brachyramphine murrelets
  • Subfamily Petralcinae (fossil, disputed)
    • Petralca

Biodiversity of auks seems to have been markedly higher during the Pliocene (Konyukhov, 2002). See the genus accounts for prehistoric species. Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 346 × 207 pixelsFull resolution (346 × 207 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Xantus Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) source: NOAA. first upload: Aug 3, 2005 - en:Wikipedia by en:User:Sabines Sunbird File links The following pages on the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 346 × 207 pixelsFull resolution (346 × 207 pixel, file size: 32 KB, MIME type: image/gif) Xantus Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) source: NOAA. first upload: Aug 3, 2005 - en:Wikipedia by en:User:Sabines Sunbird File links The following pages on the... Binomial name Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus, 1859) Xantuss Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) is a small seabird found in the California Current system in the Pacific Ocean. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Genera Alcodes Praemancalla Mancalla The Mancallinae were a sub-family of prehistoric flightless auks that lived on the Pacific coast of todays California and Mexico from the late Miocene Epoch to the Early Pleistocene. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... A foldable, wooden Mancala board Mancala is a family of board games played around the world, sometimes called sowing games or count and capture games, which comes from the general gameplay. ... Three small ammonite fossils, each approximately 1. ... Uriah (אוּרִיָּה (My) light/flame of/is the LORD, Standard Hebrew Uriyya, Tiberian Hebrew ʾÛriyyāh) was the name of several men in the Old Testament: In the Books of Samuel, Uriah the Hittite is a soldier in King David... Binomial name Uria aalge (Pontoppidan, 1763) The Common Guillemot, known as the Common Murre in North America, Uria aalge, is a large alcid. ... Binomial name Uria lomvia (Linnaeus,, 1758) The Brunnichs Guillemot, or Thick-billed Murre, Uria lomvia, is a bird in the auk family. ... Binomial name Alle alle (Linnaeus, 1758) The Little Auk, or Dovekie, Alle alle, is a small auk, the only member of the genus Alle (Link, 1806). ... Binomial name Pinguinus impennis (Linnaeus, 1758) The Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis, formerly Alca impennis) is an extinct bird. ... In biology and ecology, extinction is the ceasing of existence of a species or group of species. ... Jan. ... Binomial name Alca torda Linnaeus, 1758 The Razorbill, Alca torda, is a large alcid, 38-43 cm in length, with a 60-69 cm wingspan. ... Black Guillemot 1905 image from http://www. ... Black Guillemot 1905 image from http://www. ... Binomial name Cepphus grylle Linnaeus, 1758 The Black Guillemot or Tystie, Cepphus grylle, is a medium-sized alcid at 32-38 cm in length, and with a 49-58 cm wingspan. ... Species Synonyms Endomychura Synthliboramphus is a small genus of seabirds in the auk family from the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Synthliboramphus hypoleucus (Xantus, 1859) Xantuss Murrelet (Synthliboramphus hypoleucus) is a small seabird found in the California Current system in the Pacific Ocean. ... Binomial name Synthliboramphus craveri (Salvadori, 1865) Craveri’s Murrelet (Synthliboramphus craveri) is a small seabird breeds on offshore islands in both thePacific Ocean and the Gulf of California off the Baja peninsula of Mexico. ... Binomial name Synthliboramphus antiquus (Gmelin, 1789) The Ancient Murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus, is a bird in the auk family. ... Binomial name Synthliboramphus wumizusume Temminck, 1836 The Japanese Murrelet, Synthliboramphus wumizusume also known as Crested Murrelet is a small bird that inhabits rocky islets and reefs in the warm waters of Japan, Russia and South Korea. ... The Guillemots comprise two genera of auks, Uria and Cepphus. ... Binomial name Cepphus grylle Linnaeus, 1758 The Black Guillemot or Tystie, Cepphus grylle, is a medium-sized alcid at 32-38 cm in length, and with a 49-58 cm wingspan. ... Binomial name Cepphus columba Pallas, 1811 The Pigeon Guillemot (Cepphus columba) is a medium-sized alcid. ... The Spectacled, or Sooty Guillemot, Cepphus carbo is about 15, its wingpsan has not been recorded. ... species Brachyramphus is a small genus of seabirds from the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, 1789) The Marbled Murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus is a small seabird from the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Brachyramphus marmoratus (Gmelin, 1789) The Marbled Murrelet, Brachyramphus marmoratus is a small seabird from the North Pacific. ... Binomial name Brachyramphus brevirostris (Vigors, 1829) The Kittlitzs Murrelet, (Brachyramphus brevirostris) is a small auk found in the waters off Alaska and Eastern Siberia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 588 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 704 pixel, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Auk Metadata This file contains additional... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 588 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 704 pixel, file size: 109 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Auk Metadata This file contains additional... Binomial name Fratercula cirrhata (Pallas, 1769) The Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) is a medium-sized pelagic seabird about 30 cm in length and weighing about three quarters of a kilogram. ... Binomial name Ptychoramphus aleuticus (Pallas, 1811) The Cassin’s Auklet is a small, chunky seabird that ranges widely in the North Pacific. ... Species Aethia cristatella Aethia psittacula Aethia pusilla Aethia pygmaea Aethia is a genus of auklets. ... Binomial name Cyclorrhynchus psittacula (Pallas, 1769) The Parakeet Auklet is a small seabird of the North Pacific, the only member of the genus Cyclorrhynchus (Kaup, 1829). ... Binomial name Aethia cristatella (Pallas, 1769) The Crested Auklet is a small seabird of the family Alcidae which nests in huge colonies (>1 million individuals) in the Bering Sea and Sea of Okhotsk. ... Binomial name Aethia pygmaea (Gmelin, 1789) The Whiskered Auklet, Aethia pygmaea, is a small seabird of the auk family. ... Binomial name Aethia pusilla (Pallas, 1811) The Least Auklet, Aethia pusilla, is a seabird and the smallest species of auk. ... Binomial name Cerorhinca monocerata (Pallas, 1811) The Rhinoceros Auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata, is a seabird considered, despite its name, a close relative of the puffins. ... Species Fratercula arctica Fratercula corniculata Fratercula cirrhata The puffin is an auk (or alcid) of the genus Fratercula (Latin: Little Brother - probably a reference to their black and white plumage resembling monastic robes) with a brightly colored beak in the breeding season. ... Binomial name Fratercula arctica (Linnaeus, 1758) The Atlantic Puffin (Fratercula arctica) is a seabird in the auk family. ... Binomial name Fratercula corniculata (Naumann,JF, 1821) The Horned Puffin (Fratercula corniculata) is an auk, similar in appearance to the Atlantic Puffin; this birds bill is yellow at the base and red at the tip. ... Binomial name Fratercula cirrhata (Pallas, 1769) The Tufted Puffin (Fratercula cirrhata) is a medium-sized pelagic seabird about 30 cm in length and weighing about three quarters of a kilogram. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of taxonomic life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... The Pliocene epoch (spelled Pleiocene in some older texts) is the period in the geologic timescale that extends from 5. ...


References

  • Collinson, Martin (2006): Splitting headaches? Recent taxonomic changes affecting the British and Western Palaearctic lists. Brit. Birds 99(6): 306-323. HTML abstract
  • Friesen, V. L.; Baker, A. J. & Piatt, J. F. (1996): Phylogenetic Relationships Within the Alcidae (Charadriiformes: Aves) Inferred from Total Molecular Evidence. Molecular Biology and Evolution 13(2): 359-367. PDF fulltext
  • Gaston, Anthony & Jones, Ian (1998): The Auks, Alcidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford. ISBN 0-19-854032-9
  • Konyukhov, N. B. (2002): Possible Ways of Spreading and Evolution of Alcids. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk, Seriya Biologicheskaya 5: 552–560 [Russian version]; Biology Bulletin 29(5): 447–454 [English version]. DOI:10.1023/A:1020457508769 (Biology Bulletin HTML abstract)
  • Moum, Truls; Arnason, Ulfur & Árnason, Einar (2002): Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Evolution and Phylogeny of the Atlantic Alcidae, Including the Extinct Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis). Molecular Biology and Evolution 19(9): 1434–1439. PDF fulltext
  • Paton, T. A.; Baker, A. J.; Groth, J. G. & Barrowclough, G. F. (2003): RAG-1 sequences resolve phylogenetic relationships within charadriiform birds. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29: 268-278. DOI:10.1016/S1055-7903(03)00098-8 (HTML abstract)
  • Strauch, J. G. Jr. (1985): The phylogeny of the Alcidae. Auk 102(3): 520-539. PDF fulltext

  Results from FactBites:
 
Auk (3866 words)
Auk accordingly altered course at 0905 and plunged through the rough seas and a veritable curtain of fog, while her foghorn blared its warning.
Auk returned to the minefields soon thereafter and teamed with Oriole to conduct a sweep on the afternoon of the 14th.
Underway from Kirkwall on 1 October, Auk reached Plymouth, England, on the 5th, and underwent voyage repairs there until the 16th, when she left the British Isles and headed for the coast of France, reaching Brest on the morning of the 17th.
AllRefer.com - auk (Vertebrate Zoology) - Encyclopedia (300 words)
The least auklet (about 6 1/2 in./16.3 cm), common in the Bering Sea region, is the smallest of the family, and the razor-billed auk, Alca torda (16–18 in./40–45 cm), is the largest surviving member.
Auks return to the same breeding grounds every year, and each individual goes to the very same nesting site.
Auks are classified in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, class Aves, order Charadriiformes, family Alcidae.
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