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Encyclopedia > Augustus Pitt Rivers

Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers (14th April, 18274 May 1900) was an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. He was noted for his innovations in archaeological methods, and in the museum display of archaeological and ethnological collections. (Redirected from 14th April) April 14 is the 104th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (105th in leap years). ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... May 4 is the 124th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (125th in leap years). ... 1900 (MCM) was an exceptional common year starting on Monday. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the British Isles Languages English (de facto) Capital London de facto Largest city London Area – Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population – Total (mid-2004) – Total (2001 Census) – Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... Ethnology (greek ethnos: (non-greek, barbarian) people) is a genre of anthropological study, involving the systematic comparison of the folklore, beliefs and practices of different societies. ... Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech/discourse) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ...


Born Augustus Henry Lane Fox at Bramham, Yorkshire on 14th April 1827, he was the son of William Lane Fox and Lady Caroline Douglas, a Scottish noblewoman. Educated at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and commissioned into the Grenadier Guards, Lane Fox had a long and successful military career, primarily as a staff officer; he served in the Crimea as a lieutenant. He retired in 1882 as a Lieutenant-General. Two years before retirement, Lane Fox inherited the estates of a cousin: Henry Pitt, Baron Rivers and consequently the remainder of the fabulous Richard Rigby fortune. He thereafter adopted the surname Pitt Rivers (sometimes spelled Pitt-Rivers) in honor of his benefactor. The White Yorkshire rose. ... The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (commonly known as Sandhurst) is the British Army officer initial training centre. ... The Grenadier Guards is the most senior regiment of the Guards Division of the British Army, and, as such, is the most senior regiment of infantry. ... Richard Rigby, Secretary of Ireland, Paymaster of the Forces, was a member of the Rigby family also known as Rigby of Mistley Hall in Essex, the site of their manor. ...


Pitt Rivers' interests in archaeology and ethnology began in the 1850s, during postings overseas, and he became a noted scientist while he was still a serving military officer. He was elected, in the space of five years, to the Ethnological Society of London (1861), the Society of Antiquaries of London (1864) and the Anthropological Society of London (1865). By the time he retired he had amassed ethnographic collections numbering tens of thousands of items from all over the world. Influenced by the evolutionary writings of Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer, he arranged them typologically and (within types) chronologically. This style of arrangement, designed to highlight the evolutionary trends in human artifacts, was a revolutionary innovation in museum design. Pitt Rivers' ethnological collections today form the basis of the Pitt Rivers Museum which is still one of Oxford's leading attractions. The Ethnological Society of London was founded in 1843 by a breakaway faction of the Aborigines Protection Society (APS). ... The Society of Antiquaries of London is a learned society, based in the United Kingdom, concerned with the encouragement, advancement and furtherance of the study and knowledge of the antiquities and history of this and other countries. This includes archaeology, architectural history, art history, conservation, heraldry, anthropology, and ecclesiastical studies. ... The Anthropological Society of London was founded in 1863 by Richard Francis Burton and Dr. James Hunt. ... In his lifetime Charles Darwin gained international fame as an influential scientist examining controversial topics. ... Herbert Spencer. ... Pitt Rivers Museum interior The Pitt Rivers Museum is a museum displaying the archaeological and anthropological collections of the University of Oxford. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ...


The estates that Pitt Rivers inherited in 1880 contained a wealth of archaeological material from the Roman and Saxon periods. He excavated these over seventeen seasons, beginning in the mid-1880s and ending with his death. His approach was highly methodical by the standards of the time, and he is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeologist to work in Britain. His most important methodological innovation was his insistence that all artifacts, not just beautiful or unique ones, be collected and cataloged. This focus on everyday objects as the key to understanding the past broke decisively with past archaeological practice, which had often verged on treasure hunting. It is Pitt Rivers most important, and most lasting scientific legacy. Principal sites in Roman Britain Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410 CE. The Romans referred to their province as Britannia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


From 1882 Pitt Rivers served as Britain's first Inspector of Ancient Monuments: a post created by anthropologist and parliamentarian John Lubbock who was married to Pitt-Rivers' daughter, Alice. Charged with cataloging archaeological sites and protecting them from destruction, he worked with his customary methodical zeal but was hampered by the limitations of the law, which gave him little real power over the landowners on whose property the sites stood. 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... John Lubbock. ...


References

  • Bowden, M.C., 1984, General Pitt-Rivers: The Father of Scientific Archaeology. Salisbury: Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum.
  • Bowden, M.C., 1991, Pitt Rivers : The Life and Archaeological Work of Lieutenant-General Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • M. W. Thompson, 1977, General Pitt-Rivers: Evolution and Archaeology in the Nineteenth Century. Moonraker Press.

External links

  • The Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford

  Results from FactBites:
 
Augustus Pitt Rivers - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (550 words)
Pitt Rivers' interests in archaeology and ethnology began in the 1850s, during postings overseas, and he became a noted scientist while he was still a serving military officer.
Pitt Rivers' ethnological collections today form the basis of the Pitt Rivers Museum which is still one of Oxford's leading attractions.
The estates that Pitt Rivers inherited in 1880 contained a wealth of archaeological material from the Roman and Saxon periods.
Pitt Rivers Museum - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (383 words)
The Pitt Rivers Museum is a museum displaying the archaeological and anthropological collections of the University of Oxford.
The museum was founded in 1884 by General Augustus Pitt Rivers, who donated his collection to the University of Oxford with the condition that a permanent lecturer in anthropology must be appointed.
This layout owes a lot to the theories of General Pitt Rivers himself, who intended for his collection to show progression in design and evolution in human culture from simple to complex.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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