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Encyclopedia > Augustus
Augustus Caesar
Emperor of the Roman Empire
Bust of Caesar Augustus.
Reign January 16, 27 BCAugust 19 AD 14
Full name Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus
Born September 23, 63 BC
Rome, Roman Republic
Died August 19, AD 14 (age 76)
Nola,Italia, Roman Empire
Buried Mausoleum of Augustus
Predecessor Gaius Julius Caesar
Successor Tiberius, stepson by third wife and adoptive son
Consort to 1) Clodia Pulchra ? – 40 BC
2) Scribonia 40 BC – 38 BC
3) Livia Drusilla 38 BC – AD 14
Issue Julia the Elder
Royal House Julio-Claudian
Father Gaius Octavius;
adopted by Julius Caesar
Mother Atia Balba Caesonia

Augustus (Latin: IMPERATOR•CAESAR•DIVI•FILIVS•AVGVSTVS;a[›] September 23, 63 BCAugust 19, AD 14), born Gaius Octavius Thurinus and prior to 27 BC, known as Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus after adoption (Latin: GAIVS•IVLIVS•CAESAR•OCTAVIANVS), was the first emperor of the Roman Empire, who ruled from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD. The young Octavius was adopted by his great uncle, Julius Caesar, and came into his inheritance after Caesar's assassination in 44 BC. The following year, Octavian joined forces with Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in a military dictatorship known as the Second Triumvirate. As a Triumvir, Octavian effectually ruled Rome and most of its European possessions as an autocrat, seizing consular power after the deaths of the consuls Hirtius and Pansa and having himself perpetually re-elected. The Triumvirate was eventually torn apart under the competing ambitions of its rulers: Lepidus was driven into exile, and Antony committed suicide following his defeat at the Battle of Actium by the armies of Octavian in 31 BC. May refer to the persons: Augustus, Roman Emperor Pope John XII Octavian Goga, Romanian politician, poet and playwright Octavian Belu, Romanian gymnastics coach Lucky Octavian, Indonesian singer Category: ... Augustus is most commonly: Augustus (63 BC–AD 14), emperor of ancient Rome Augustus (honorific), the title generally used by all Roman Emperors Augustus is also the name of: Augustus, Elector of Saxony (1526–1588) Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (1579–1666), a Duke within the Holy... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Emperor Augustus An old, beginning of the 20th century photo plate. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Clodia Pulchra (Also known as Claudia) was the daughter of Fulvia (Later wife of Mark Antony) and her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. ... Scribonia (70 BC/68 BC-16) was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and Cornelia Sulla, the granddaughter of Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. ... Livia Livia Drusa Augusta, Livia Drusilla, or Julia Augusta (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus and the most powerful woman in Roman history, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris Julia the Elder (October 39 BC - AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA[1]) was the daughter and only natural child of Augustus. ... Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... Gaius Octavius (d. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Julia Caesaris and her husband, the praetor and commissioner Marcus Atius Balbus, had 3 daughters, all named Atia Balba. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... ojuooiuououoieerwerwerwerwerwwe Year 27 BC was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... In the naming convention used in ancient Rome, derived from that of the Etruscan civilization, the names of male patricians normally consist of three parts (tria nomina): the praenomen (given name), nomen gentile or gentilicium (name of the gens or clan) and cognomen (belonging to a family within the gens). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC...


After the demise of the Second Triumvirate, Octavian restored the outward facade of the Roman Republic, with governmental power vested in the Roman Senate, but in practice retained his autocratic power. It took several years to work out the exact framework by which a formally republican state could be led by a sole ruler, the result of which became known as the Roman Empire. The emperorship was never an office like the Roman dictatorship which Caesar and Sulla had held before him; indeed, he declined it when the Roman populace "entreated him to take on the dictatorship".[1] By law, Augustus held a collection of powers granted to him for life by the Senate, including those of tribune, censor, and consul, without being formally elected to either of those (incompatible) offices. His substantive power stemmed from financial success and resources gained in conquest, the building of patronage relationships throughout the Empire, the loyalty of many military soldiers and veterans, the authority of the many honors granted by the Senate,[2] and the respect of the people. Augustus' control over the majority of Rome's legions established an armed threat that could be used against the Senate, allowing him to coerce the Senate's decisions. With his ability to eliminate senatorial opposition by means of arms, the Senate became docile towards his paramount position of leadership. This article refers to the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For alternate meanings, see Roman Republic (18th century) and Roman Republic (19th century). ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Dictator was a political office of the Roman Republic. ... Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (Latin: L·CORNELIVS·L·F·P·N·SVLLA·FELIX) ¹ (ca. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Legion can refer to: Roman legion, a division of troops within the Roman army Legion (demon), a demon found in the Christian Bible in Mark 5:9 and Luke 8:30 The American Legion, A veterans organization in the United States A creature from Castlevania Category: ...


The rule of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Augusta, or Augustan peace. Despite continuous frontier wars, and one year-long civil war over the imperial succession, the Mediterranean was at peace for more than two centuries. Augustus expanded the boundaries of the Roman Empire, secured the Empire's borders with client states, and made peace with Parthia through diplomacy. He reformed the Roman system of taxation, developed networks of roads with an official courier system, established a standing army (and a small navy), established the Praetorian Guard, and created official police and fire fighting forces for Rome. Much of the city was rebuilt under Augustus; and he wrote a record of his own accomplishments, known as the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, which has survived. Upon his death in 14 AD, Augustus was declared a god by the Senate, to be worshipped by the Romans.[3] His names Augustus and Caesar were adopted by every subsequent emperor, and the month of Sextilis was officially renamed August in his honour. He was succeeded by his step-son Tiberius. Roman Empire at its greatest extent with the conquests of Trajan Pax Romana, Latin for the Roman peace (sometimes Pax Augusta), was the long period of relative peace and minimal expansion by military force experienced by the Roman Empire between 27 BC and 180 AD. It was Augustus Caesar who... The forced suicide of emperor Nero, in 68 AD, was followed by a brief period of civil war (the first Roman civil war since Antonys death in 31 BC) known as the Year of the four emperors. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... Sextilis was the Latin name for the sixth month in the Roman calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early life

Roman imperial dynasties
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Augustus
Children
   Natural - Julia the Elder
   Adoptive - Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus, Tiberius
Tiberius
Children
   Natural - Julius Caesar Drusus
   Adoptive - Germanicus
Caligula
Children
   Natural - Julia Drusilla
   Adoptive - Tiberius Gemellus
Claudius
Children
   Natural - Claudia Antonia, Claudia Octavia, Britannicus
   Adoptive - Nero
Nero
Children
   Natural - Claudia Augusta
Main article: Early life of Augustus

Augustus was born in Rome (or Velletri) on September 23, 63 BC with the name Gaius Octavius.[4] His father, of the same name, came from a respectable but undistinguished family of the equestrian order and had been governor of Macedonia.[5][6] Shortly after Octavius' birth, his father gave him the cognomen of Thurinus, possibly to commemorate his victory at Thurii over a rebellious band of slaves.[7] His mother Atia was the niece of Julius Caesar. Octavius spent his early years in his grandfather's house near Veletrae (modern Velletri). Template:Julio-Claudian Dynasty The Julio-Claudian Dynasty refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula, Claudius, and Nero. ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris Julia the Elder (October 39 BC - AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA[1]) was the daughter and only natural child of Augustus. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, (12 BC-14 AD) also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Drusus the Younger, son of Tiberius. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... For the identically named daughter of Germanicus, see Drusilla (sister of Caligula). ... Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus the Younger and Livilla Tiberius Julius Caesar Nero , known as Tiberius Gemellus, (10 October AD 19–AD 37 or 38) was the son of Drusus and Livilla, the grandson of Tiberius, and the cousin of Gaius Caligula. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Antonia (30–66 AD) was Claudius only child from his second marriage to Aelia Paetina. ... Octavia was the name of three women of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty of ancient Rome: two were sisters of Augustus Caesar, and the younger was the daughter of Claudius and wife of Nero. ... Britannicus (41 - 55 A.D.) was the son of the Roman emperor Claudius and his third wife Messalina. ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Claudia Augusta was the only daughter of the Roman Emperor Nero by his second wife Poppaea Sabina. ... Main article: Augustus The early life of the Roman Emperor Augustus began at his birth in Rome on September 23, 63 BC, and is considered to have ended around the assassination of the Dictator Julius Caesar, his great-uncle and adoptive father, on March 15, 44 BC. // Augustus was born... Velletri is a comune in the province of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in Lazio (Latium) - Italy. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gaius Octavius (d. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Thurii, or Thueium, was a city of Magna Graecia on the Gulf of Taranto, near the site of the older Sybaris. ... Julia Caesaris and her husband, the praetor and commissioner Marcus Atius Balbus, had 3 daughters, all named Atia Balba. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Velletri is a comune in the province of Rome, on the Alban Hills, in Lazio (Latium) - Italy. ...


In 59 BC, when he was four years old, his father died.[8] He was brought up by his mother and his stepfather, Lucius Marcius Philippus.[9] In 52 or 51 BC, Octavius delivered the funeral oration for his grandmother Julia, elder sister of Caesar.[10] He donned the toga virilis four years later,[11] and was elected to the College of Pontiffs in 47 BC.[12][13] The following year in 46 BC he was put in charge of the Greek games that were staged in honor of the Temple of Venus Genetrix, built by Julius Caesar.[13] According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Octavius wished to join Caesar's staff for his campaign in Africa but gave way when Atia protested.[14] In 46 BC, she consented for him to join Caesar in Hispania, where he planned to fight the forces of Pompey, Caesar's enemy who was already dead by then, but Octavius fell ill and was unable to travel. Philippus was a member of a senatorial family. ... Julia is the name of two daughters of Gaius Julius Caesar III and Aurelia Cotta, who were also the parents of Julius Caesar. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was the distinctive garb of Ancient Rome. ... The College of Pontiffs or Collegium Pontificum (collegium in Latin means a board or committee rather than an educational institution) was a body of the ancient Roman state whose members were the highest-ranking priests of the polytheistic state religion. ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Venus Genitrix temple in Forum of Caesar, Rome. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... Categories: Historical stubs | Ancient Roman provinces ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ...


When he had recovered, he sailed to the front, but was shipwrecked; after coming ashore with a handful of companions, he made it across hostile territory to Caesar's camp, which impressed his great-uncle considerably.[11] Velleius Paterculus reports that Caesar afterwards allowed the young man to share his carriage.[15] When back in Rome, Caesar deposited a new will with the Vestal Virgins, naming Octavius as the prime beneficiary.[16] Marcus Velleius Paterculus (c. ... A vestal Virgin, engraving by Sir Frederick Leighton, ca 1890: Leightons artistic sense has won over his passion for historical accuracy in showing the veil over the Vestals head at sacrifices, the suffibulum, as translucent, instead of fine white wool In Ancient Rome, the Vestal Virgins were the...


Rise to power

Heir to Caesar

The Death of Caesar, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1867). On March 15, 44 BC, Octavius' adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus.
The Death of Caesar, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1867). On March 15, 44 BC, Octavius' adoptive father Julius Caesar was assassinated by a conspiracy led by Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus.

When Caesar was killed on the Ides of March (the 15th) 44 BC, Octavius was studying and undergoing military training in Apollonia, Illyria. Rejecting the advice of some army officers to take refuge with the troops in Macedonia, he sailed to Italia to ascertain if he had any potential political fortunes or security.[17] After landing at Lupiae near Brundisium, he learned the contents of Caesar's will, and only then did he decide to become Caesar's political heir as well as heir to ⅔ of his estate.[18][17][13] Having no legitimate children alive (his daughter Julia had died in 54 BC), Caesar had adopted his great-nephew Octavius as his son and main heir.[19] Owing to his adoption, Octavius assumed the name Gaius Julius Caesar. Roman tradition dictated that he also append the surname Octavianus (Octavian) to indicate his biological family. Yet no evidence exists that he ever used that name, as it would have made his modest origins too obvious.[20][21] Mark Antony later charged that Octavian had earned his adoption by Caesar through sexual favours, though Suetonius describes Antony's accusation as political slander.[22] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (1129 × 667 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 473 pixelsFull resolution (1129 × 667 pixel, file size: 114 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Pollice Verso by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872, is the immediate source of the thumbs down gesture in popular culture. ... is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 49 BC 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ides of March (disambiguation). ... Apollonia in Illyria (modern Albania), known as Apollonia (κατ Εριδαμνον or προς Εριδαμνω), was located on the right bank of the Aous, the ruins of which are situated in the Fier region, near the village of Pojan (Pojani), geographically located at 40°43′N 19°28′E. It was founded in 588 BCE by... Brundisium (Gr. ... Julia Caesaris (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS) was the daughter of Gaius Julius Caesar the dictator, by Cornelia Cinna, and his only child in marriage. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC - 50s BC - 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC Years: 59 BC 58 BC 57 BC 56 BC 55 BC 54 BC 53 BC 52 BC 51... Possibly the most famous Roman adoptee, Augustus Caesar In ancient Rome, adoption of boys was a fairly common procedure, particularly in the upper senatorial class. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ...


To make a successful entry into the echelons of the Roman political hierarchy, Octavian could not rely on his then-limited funds.[23] After a warm welcome by Caesar's soldiers at Brundisium,[24] Octavian demanded a portion of the funds that were allotted by Caesar for the intended war against Parthia in the Middle East.[23] This amounted to 700 million sesterces stored at Brundisium, the staging ground in Italy for military operations in the east.[25] A later senatorial investigation into the disappearance of the public funds made no action against Octavian, since he subsequently used that money to raise troops against the Senate's arch enemy, Mark Antony.[24] Octavian made another bold move in 44 BC when he appropriated the annual tribute that had been sent from Rome's Near Eastern province to Italy without any official permission to do so.[21][26] Octavian began to bolster his personal forces with Caesar's veteran legionaries and troops designated for the Parthian war, gathering support by emphasizing his status as heir to Caesar.[27][17] On his march to Rome through Italy, Octavian's presence and newly-acquired funds attracted many, winning over Caesar's former veterans stationed in Campania.[21] By June he had gathered an army of 3,000 loyal veterans, paying each a salary of 500 denarii.[28][29][30] Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... First row : c. ...

20th century drawing of Augustus. From the Augustus of Prima Porta.
20th century drawing of Augustus. From the Augustus of Prima Porta.

Arriving in Rome on May 6, 44 BC,[21] Octavian found the consul Mark Antony, Caesar's former colleague, in an uneasy truce with the dictator's assassins; they had been granted a general amnesty on March 17, yet Antony succeeded in driving most of them out of Rome.[21] This was due to his "inflammatory" eulogy given at Caesar's funeral, mounting public opinion against the assassins.[21] Although Mark Antony was amassing political support, Octavian still had opportunity to rival him as the leading member of the faction supporting Caesar. Mark Antony had lost the support of many Romans and supporters of Caesar when he at first opposed the motion to elevate Caesar to divine status.[31] Octavian failed to persuade Antony to relinquish Caesar's money to him, but managed to win support from Caesarian sympathizers during the summer.[32] In September, the Optimate orator Marcus Tullius Cicero began to attack Antony in a series of speeches, seeing Antony as the greatest threat to the order of the Senate.[33][34] With opinion in Rome turning against him and his year of consular power nearing its end, Antony attempted to pass laws which would lend him control over Cisalpine Gaul, which had been assigned as part of his province, from Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus, one of Caesar's assassins.[35][36] Octavian meanwhile built up a private army in Italy by recruiting Caesarian veterans, and on November 28 won over two of Antony's legions with the enticing offer of monetary gain.[37][38][39] With Octavian's large and capable force, Antony saw the danger of staying in Rome, and to the relief of the Senate he fled to Cisalpine Gaul, which was to be handed to him on January 1.[39] Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Augustus of Prima Porta Augustus of Prima Porta is a statue of Augustus Caesar, discovered on April 20th, 1863 in Prima Porta, Rome. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Optimates (Good Men) were the aristocratic faction of the later Roman Republic. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... A philippic is a fiery, damning speech delivered to condemn a particular political actor. ... Map with location of Cisalpine Gaul This article is about the Roman province. ... Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


First conflict with Antony

After Decimus Brutus refused to give up Cisalpine Gaul, Antony besieged him at Mutina.[40] The resolutions passed by the Roman Senate to stop the violence were not accepted by Antony, as the Senate had no army of its own to challenge him; this provided an opportunity for Octavian, who was already known to have armed forces.[38] Cicero also defended Octavian against Antony's taunts about Octavian's lack of noble lineage; he stated "we have no more brilliant example of traditional piety among our youth."[41] This was in part a rebuttal to Antony's opinion of Octavian, as Cicero quoted Antony saying to Octavian, "You, boy, owe everything to your name".[42][43] In this unlikely alliance orchestrated by the arch anti-Caesarian senator Cicero, the Senate made Octavian a fellow senatorial member on January 1, 43 BC, yet he was also given the power to vote alongside the former consuls.[38][39] In addition, Octavian was granted imperium (commanding power), which made his command of troops legal, sending him to relieve the siege along with Hirtius and Pansa (the consuls for 43 BC).[44][38] In April of 43 BC, Antony's forces were defeated at the Battles of Forum Gallorum and Mutina, forcing Antony to retreat to Transalpine Gaul. However, both consuls were killed, leaving Octavian in sole command of their armies.[45][46] Modena is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... Aulus Hirtius (c. ... Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus (d. ... Forum Gallorum was a village in northern Italy where a battle was fought on April 14, 43 BC, between the forces of Marc Antony and the legions of the Republic under the overall command of Gaius Vibius Pansa, aided by Aulus Hirtius and the untested Octavian (the future Augustus). ... The Battle of Mutina was fought on April 21, 43 BC between the forces of Marc Antony and the forces of Aulus Hirtius who was providing aid to one of Caesars assassins, Decimus Brutus. ... Transalpine Gaul was a Roman province whose name was chosen to distinguish it from Cisalpine Gaul. ...


After heaping many more rewards on Decimus Brutus than Octavian for defeating Antony, the Senate attempted to give command of the consular legions to Decimus Brutus, yet Octavian decided not to cooperate.[47] Instead, Octavian stayed in the Po Valley and refused to aid any further offensive against Antony.[48] In July, an embassy of centurions sent by Octavian entered Rome and demanded that he receive the consulship left vacant by Hirtius and Pansa.[49] Octavian also demanded that the decree stating Antony was a public enemy should be rescinded.[48] When this was refused, he marched on the city with eight legions.[48] He encountered no military opposition in Rome, and on August 19, 43 BC was elected consul with his relative Quintus Pedius as co-consul.[50][51] Meanwhile, Antony formed an alliance with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, another leading Caesarian.[52] Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of Julius Caesars assassins. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... Centurion can mean: In the military: Centurion (Roman army), a professional officer of the Roman army who commanded a large amount of men. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Quintus Pedius was a great-nephew to Roman Dictator Julius Caesar. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ...


Second Triumvirate

The Roman Revolution

Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right). Struck in 41 BC, this coin was issued to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic".
Roman aureus bearing the portraits of Mark Antony (left) and Octavian (right). Struck in 41 BC, this coin was issued to celebrate the establishment of the Second Triumvirate by Octavian, Antony and Marcus Lepidus in 43 BC. Both sides bear the inscription "III VIR R P C", meaning "One of Three Men for the Regulation of the Republic".[53]

In a meeting near Bologna in October of 43 BC, Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus formed a junta called the Second Triumvirate.[54] This was an explicit grant of special powers lasting five years and supported by law passed by the plebs, unlike the unofficial First Triumvirate formed by Gnaeus Pompey Magnus, Julius Caesar and Marcus Licinius Crassus.[55][54] The triumvirs then set in motion proscriptions in which 300 senators and 2,000 equites branded as outlaws were deprived of their property and, for those who failed to escape, their lives.[56] This issued decree by the triumvirate was motivated in part by a need to raise money to pay their troops' salaries for the upcoming conflict against Caesar's assassins, Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus.[57] Incentive was given for Romans to capture those listed in the proscription due to rewards given for their arrest, while the assets and properties of those arrested were seized as profit by the triumvirs.[56] This measure by the triumvirs went beyond a simple purge of those allied with the assassins. Octavian objected to enacting the proscriptions at first because he wanted to spare the life of his newfound ally Marcus Tullius Cicero (who was to be listed on the proscriptions).[56] However, Antony's hatred of Cicero was unyielding, and Cicero fell victim to the occasion.[56] The death of so many republican senators allowed the triumvirs to fill their positions with their own supporters. This has been called the "Roman revolution" by 20th century historians, and had far-reaching implications in that it wiped out the old order and established a sturdy political foundation for the Augustan form of leadership to come.[58] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... Bust of Mark Antony Marcus Antonius (Latin: M·ANTONIVS·M·F·M·N[1]) ( January 14 83 BC – August 1, 30 BC), known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus was a common name for several successive generations of a family in ancient Rome: Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (consul 187 BC), consul in 187 BC and 175 BC, Pontifex Maximus 180–152 BC, and censor Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120-77 BC), consul in 78 BC Marcus Aemilius Lepidus... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC - 40s BC - 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC 0s BC 0s Years: 48 BC 47 BC 46 BC 45 BC 44 BC 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... A military dictatorship is a form of government wherein the political power resides with the military; it is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military. ... ANT AV · III VIR RPC on this denarius minted by Mark Antony to pay his legions. ... In Ancient Rome, the plebs were the general body of Roman citizens, distinct from the privileged class of the patricians. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Marble bust of Pompey the Great Pompey or Pompey the Great (Classical Latin: CN·POMPEIVS·CN·F·SEX·N·MAGNVS¹, Gnaeus or Cnaeus Pompeius Magnus) (September 29, 106 BC – September 29, 48 BC), was a distinguished military and political leader of the late Roman republic. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Proscription (Latin: proscriptio) is the public identification and official condemnation of enemies of the state. ... An equestrian (Latin eques, plural equites - also known as a vir egregius, lit. ... For other senses of this word, see outlaw (disambiguation). ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... For other uses see Cicero (disambiguation) Marcus Tullius Cicero (January 3, 106 BC - December 7, 43 BC) was an orator and statesman of Ancient Rome, and is generally considered the greatest Latin prose stylist. ...


On January 1 42 BC, the Senate recognised Caesar as a divinity of the Roman state, "Divus Iulius". Octavian was able to further his cause by emphasizing the fact that he was Divi filius, "Son of God".[59] Antony and Octavian then sent 28 legions by sea to face the armies of Brutus and Cassius, who had built their base of power in Greece.[58] After two battles at Philippi in Macedonia in October of 42 BC, the Caesarian army was victorious and Brutus and Cassius committed suicide. Mark Antony would later use the examples of these battles as a means to belittle Octavian, as both battles were decisively won with the use of Antony's forces.[60] In addition to claiming responsibility for both victories, Antony also branded Octavian as a coward for handing over his direct military control to Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa instead.[60] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... See also Legion software and Legion forummer. ... Combatants Triumvirs Liberators Commanders Octavian and Mark Antony Brutus† and Cassius† Strength 19 legions, allied cavalry 33,000; total over 100,000 men 17 legions, allied cavalry 17,000; total about 100,000 men Casualties  ? Surrender of entire army The Battle of Philippi was the final battle in the Wars... Map of Greece showing Philippi Philippi (in Ancient Greek / Philippoi) was a city in eastern Macedonia, founded by Philip II in 356 BC and abandoned in the 14th century after the Ottoman conquest. ... Marcus Junius Brutus (85 –42 BC), or Quintus Servilius Caepio Brutus, was a Roman senator of the late Roman Republic. ... Caius Cassius Longinus featured on a denarius (42 BC). ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ...


After the battle, a new territorial arrangement was made between the members of the Second Triumvirate. While Antony would leave Gaul, the provinces of Hispania, and Italia in the hands of Octavian, Antony traveled east to Egypt where he allied himself with Queen Cleopatra VII, the former lover of Julius Caesar and mother of Caesar's infant son, Caesarion. Lepidus was left with the province of Africa, stymied by Antony who conceded Hispania to Octavian instead.[61] Octavian was left to decide where in Italy to settle tens of thousands of veterans of the Macedonian campaign whom the triumvirs had promised to discharge. The tens of thousands who had fought on the republican side with Brutus and Cassius, who could easily ally with a political opponent of Octavian if not appeased, also required land.[61] There was no more government-controlled land to allot as settlements for their soldiers, so Octavian had to choose one of two options: alienating many Roman citizens by confiscating their land, or alienating many Roman soldiers who could mount a considerable opposition against him in the Roman heartland; Octavian chose the former.[62] There were as many as 18 Roman towns affected by the new settlements, with entire populations driven out or at least given partial evictions.[63] Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Cleopatra was a co-ruler of Egypt with her father (Ptolemy XII Auletes), her brothers/husbands Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, consummated a liaison with Gaius Julius Caesar that solidified her grip on the throne, and, after Caesars assassination, aligned with Mark Antony, with whom she produced twins. ... A relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion at the temple of Dendera, Egypt Ptolemy XV[1] Philopator Philometor Caesar, nicknamed Caesarion (little Caesar) Greek: Πτολεμαίος ΙΕ Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καίσαρ, Καισαρίων (June 23, 47 BC – August, 30 BC) was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned, as a child, jointly with his mother, Cleopatra... The Roman Empire ca. ...


Rebellion and marriage alliances

A statue of Octavian, c. 30 BC.
A statue of Octavian, c. 30 BC.

Widespread dissatisfaction with Octavian over his soldiers' settlements encouraged many to rally at the side of Lucius Antonius, who was brother of Mark Antony and supported by the majority in the Senate.[63] Meanwhile, Octavian asked for a divorce from Clodia Pulchra, the daughter of Fulvia and her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. Since his marriage with Clodia was never consummated, he returned her to her mother. Fulvia, Mark Antony's wife, decided to take action. Together with Lucius Antonius she raised an army in Italy to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian. However, Lucius and Fulvia took a political and martial gamble in opposing Octavian, since the Roman army still depended on the triumvirs for their salaries.[63] Lucius and his allies ended up in a defensive siege at Perusia (modern Perugia), where Octavian forced them into surrender in early 40 BC.[63] Lucius and his army were spared due to his kinship with Antony, the strongman of the East, while Fulvia was exiled to Sicyon.[64] However, Octavian showed no mercy for the mass of allies loyal to Lucius; on March 15, the anniversary of Julius Caesar's assassination, he had 300 Roman senators and equestrians executed for allying with Lucius.[65] Perusia was also pillaged and burned as a warning for others.[64] This bloody event somewhat sullied Octavian's career and was criticized by many, such as the Augustan poet Sextus Propertius.[65] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 445 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 930 pixel, file size: 299 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 445 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (690 × 930 pixel, file size: 299 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Another Lucius Antonius was a grandson to Mark Antony. ... Clodia Pulchra (Also known as Claudia) was the daughter of Fulvia (Later wife of Mark Antony) and her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. ... Fulvia (77 BC - 40 BC) was a Roman woman who lived in the first century BC. Fulvia (as she is known by the ancient sources) was born with the name Fulvia Flacca Bambula and is also known as Fulvia Bambaliae. ... Publius Clodius Pulcher (born around 92 BC, died January 18, 52 BC), was a Roman politician, chiefly remembered for his feuds with Titus Annius Milo and Marcus Tullius Cicero and introducing the grain dole. ... The ancient Perusia, now Perugia, first appears in history as one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria. ... Location of Perugia in Italy Coordinates: , Country Region Province Province of Perugia Government  - Mayor Renato Locchi Area  - City 449 km²  (1,165 sq mi) Elevation 493 m (1,617 ft) Population (July 2006)[1]  - City 161,390  - Density 359/km² (929. ... Sicyon was an ancient Greek city situated in the northern Peloponnesus between Corinth and Achaea. ... Sextus Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet born about 50 BC in or near Bevagna, who died between 15 BC and 2 BC. Propertius was a post-neoteric era Roman poet. ...


Sextus Pompeius, son of the first Triumvir and still a renegade general following Caesar's victory over Pompey, was established in Sicily and Sardinia as part of an agreement reached with the Second Trimvirate in 39 BC.[66] Both Antony and Octavian were vying for an alliance with Pompeius, who was ironically a member of the republican party, not the Caesarian faction.[65] Octavian succeeded in a temporary alliance when in 40 BC he married Scribonia, a daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo; the latter was a follower of Pompeius as well as his father-in-law.[65] Scribonia conceived Octavian's only natural child, Julia, who was born the same day that he divorced Scribonia to marry Livia Drusilla, little more than a year after his marriage began to Scribonia.[65] Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ... Scribonia (70 BC/68 BC-16) was the daughter of Lucius Scribonius Libo and Cornelia Sulla, the granddaughter of Pompey the Great and Lucius Cornelius Sulla. ... There were three Lucius Scribonius Libo in the Roman Republic, all member of the gens Scribonia: Lucius Scribonius Libo was apart of a senatorial family. ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris Julia the Elder (October 39 BC - AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA[1]) was the daughter and only natural child of Augustus. ... Livia Drusilla, after 14 AD called Livia Augusta (Classical Latin: LIVIA•DRVSILLA, later LIVIA•AVGVSTA[1]) (58 BC-AD 29) was the wife of Caesar Augustus (also known as Octavian) and the most powerful woman in the early Roman Empire, acting several times as regent and being Augustus faithful advisor. ...


While in Egypt, Antony had been engaged in an affair with Cleopatra VII of Egypt that resulted in three children, Alexander Helios, Cleopatra Selene II and Ptolemy Philadelphus. Aware of his deteriorating relationship with Octavian, Antony left Cleopatra; he sailed to Italy in 40 BC with a large force to oppose Octavian, laying siege to Brundisium. However, this new conflict proved untenable for both Octavian and Antony. Their centurions, who had become important figures politically, refused to fight due to their Caesarian cause, while the legions under their command followed suit.[67][68] Meanwhile in Sicyon, Antony's wife Fulvia died of a sudden illness while Antony was en route to meet her. Fulvia's death and the mutiny of their centurions allowed for the two triumvirs to effect a reconciliation.[67][68] In the autumn of 40 BC, Octavian and Antony approved the Treaty of Brundisium. Lepidus would remain in Africa, Antony in the East, Octavian in the West, while the Italian peninsula was supposedly open to all for the recruitment of soldiers. In reality, this provision was useless for Antony who was in the East.[67] To further cement relations of alliance with Mark Anthony, Octavian gave his sibling sister, Octavia Minor, in marriage to Anthony in late 40 BC.[67] During their marriage, Octavia gave birth to two daughters (known as Antonia Major and Antonia Minor). Cleopatra redirects here. ... Alexander Helios (25 December 40 BC – ? ) was the son of Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Mark Antony, and the twin brother of Cleopatra Selene. ... Cleopatra Selene II (Greek:η Κλεοπάτρα Σελήνη, 25 December 40 BC-6), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt was a Ptolemaic Princess and was the only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony. ... Ptolemy Philadelphus (Greek: ο Πτολεμαίος Φιλάδελφος, August/September 36 BC - 29 BC) was a Ptolemaic Prince and was the youngest child of Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman Triumvir Mark Antony. ... Brundisium (Gr. ... Centurion can mean: In the military: Centurion (Roman army), a professional officer of the Roman army who commanded a large amount of men. ... Octavia Minor (69 - 11 BC), also known as Octavia the Younger or simply Octavia, was the sister of the first Roman Emperor, Augustus, and half sister of Octavia Thurina Major. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Major (Latin for “the elder”) (b. ... Julia Antonia Cretica Minor (the younger) (31 January 36 BC - September/October 37 AD) or Antonia the Younger or simply known as Antonia. ...


War with Pompeius

A denarius of Sextus Pompeius, minted for his victory over Octavian's fleet. On the obverse the Pharus of Messina, on the reverse monster Scylla, who defeated Octavian.
A denarius of Sextus Pompeius, minted for his victory over Octavian's fleet. On the obverse the Pharus of Messina, on the reverse monster Scylla, who defeated Octavian.

Sextus Pompeius threatened Octavian in Italy by denying the peninsula shipments of grain through the Mediterranean; Pompeius' own son was put in charge as naval commander in the effort to cause widespread famine in Italy.[68] Unsurprisingly, Pompeius' control over the sea prompted him to take on the name Neptuni filius, "son of Neptune."[69] A temporary peace agreement was reached in 39 BC with the treaty of Misenum; the blockade on Italy was lifted once Octavian granted Pompeius Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, the Peloponnese, and an ensured future position as consul for the year 35 BC.[69][68] The territorial agreement amongst the triumvirs and Sextus Pompeius began to crumble once Octavian divorced Scribonia and married Livia on January 17, 38 BC.[70] One of Pompeius' naval commanders betrayed him and handed over Corsica and Sardinia to Octavian; however, Octavian needed Antony's support to attack Pompeius, so an agreement was reached with the Second Triumvirate's extension for another five year period beginning in 37 BC.[71][72] The main motivation for Antony in supporting Octavian was gaining support for his own campaign against Parthia in the Middle East, desiring to avenge Rome's defeat at Carrhae in 53 BC.[72] In the agreement at Tarentum, Antony provided 120 ships for Octavian to use against Pompeius, while Octavian was to send 20,000 legionaries to Antony for use against Parthia.[73] However, Octavian sent only one-tenth the number of those promised, an intentional provocation that Antony would not forget six years later when they faced each other in battle.[73] Sextus Pompeius. ... Sextus Pompeius. ... First row : c. ... Sextus Pompeius Magnus Pius, in English Sextus Pompey, was a Roman general from the late Republic (1st century BC). ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Three of Scyllas heads as portrayed in The Odyssey (1997) TV miniseries; the film depicts each head striking with snake-like speed and accuracy and devouring men whole. ... Neptune is usually depicted with a trident, as seen here in this statue by Jean de Boulogne in Bologna, Italy. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 43 BC 42 BC 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC... Combatants Roman Republic Parthia Commanders Marcus Licinius Crassus †, Publius Crassus † Surena Strength 35,000 Roman legionaries, 4,000 cavalry, 4,000 light infantry 10,000 cavalry Casualties 20,000 dead, 10,000 captured, 4,000 wounded Reportedly very light The Battle of Carrhae was a decisive battle fought in 53... Taranto is a coastal city in Apulia, southern Italy. ... Roman legionaries, 1st century. ...


Octavian and Lepidus launched a joint operation against Sextus in Sicily in 36 BC.[74] Despite setbacks for Octavian, the naval fleet of Sextus Pompeius was almost entirely destroyed on September 3, 36 BC by General Agrippa at the naval battle of Naulochus.[75] Sextus fled with his remaining forces to the east, yet was captured and executed in Miletus by one of Antony's generals in 35 BC.[75] Both Lepidus and Octavian gathered the surrendered troops of Pompeius, yet Lepidus felt empowered enough to claim Sicily for himself, ordering Octavian to leave.[75] However, Lepidus' troops deserted him and defected to Octavian since they were weary of fighting and found Octavian's promises of money to be enticing.[75] Lepidus surrendered to Octavian and was permitted to retain the office of pontifex maximus (head of the college of priests), but was ejected from the Triumvirate, his public career at an end, and was effectively exiled to a villa at Cape Circei in Italy.[76][75] The Roman dominions were now divided between Octavian in the West and Antony in the East. To maintain peace and stability in his portion of the Empire, Octavian ensured Rome's citizens of their rights to property. This time he settled his discharged soldiers outside of Italy while returning 30,000 slaves to former Roman owners that had previously fled to Pompeius to join his army and navy.[77] To ensure his own safety and that of Livia and Octavia once he returned to Rome, Octavian had the Senate grant him, his wife, and his sister tribunal immunity, or sacrosanctitas.[78] is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 41 BC 40 BC 39 BC 38 BC 37 BC 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC... The naval Battle of Naulochus was fought on 3 September 36 BC between the fleets of Sextus Pompeius and Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, near Naulochus, Sicily. ... The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... Sovereign immunity or crown immunity is a type of immunity that, in common law jurisdictions traces its origins from early English law. ...


War with Antony

Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.

Meanwhile, Antony's campaign against Parthia turned out to be a disastrous loss for Antony, tarnishing his image as a leader, while the mere 2,000 legionaries sent with Octavia to Antony was hardly enough to replenish his forces.[79] On the other hand, Cleopatra could restore his army to full strength, and since he was already engaged in a romantic affair with her, decided to send Octavia back to Rome.[80] Although Antony had the interests of rebuilding his military in mind, this act played right into the hands of Octavian, who spread propaganda implying that Antony was becoming less than Roman because he rejected a legitimate Roman spouse for an "Oriental paramour."[81] In 36 BC, Octavian used a political ploy to make himself look less autocratic and Antony more the villain by proclaiming that the civil wars were coming to an end, and that he would step down as triumvir if only Antony would do the same; Antony refused.[82] After Roman troops captured Armenia in 34 BC, Antony made his son Alexander Helios the ruler of Armenia; he also awarded the title "Queen of Kings" to Cleopatra, acts which Octavian used to convince the Roman Senate that Antony had ambitions to diminish the preeminence of Rome.[81] When Octavian became consul once again on January 1, 33 BC, he opened the following session in the Senate with a vehement attack on Antony's grants of titles and territories to his relatives and to his queen.[83] Defecting consuls and senators rushed over to the side of Antony in disbelief of the propaganda (which turned out to be true), yet so did able ministers desert Antony for Octavian in the autumn of 32 BC.[84] These defectors, Munatius Plancus and Marcus Titius, gave Octavian the information he needed to confirm with the Senate all the accusations he made against Antony.[85] By storming the sanctuary of the Vestal Virgins, Octavian forced their chief priestess to hand over Antony's secret will, which would have given away Roman-conquered territories as kingdoms for his sons to rule, alongside plans to build a tomb in Alexandria for him and his queen to reside upon their deaths.[86][87] In late 32 BC, the Senate officially revoked Antony's powers as consul and declared war on Cleopatra's regime in Egypt.[88][89] Image File history File links Lawrence_Alma-Tadema-_Anthony_and_Cleopatra. ... Image File history File links Lawrence_Alma-Tadema-_Anthony_and_Cleopatra. ... Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, OM, RA (January 8, 1836, Dronrijp, the Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... An intimate relationship is a interpersonal relationship where there is a great deal of physical or emotional intimacy. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...

The Battle of Actium, by Lorenzo Castro, painted 1672, National Maritime Museum, London.

Octavian gained a preliminary victory in early 31 BC when the navy under command of Agrippa successfully ferried their troops across the Adriatic Sea.[90] While Agrippa cut off Antony and Cleopatra's main force from their supply routes at sea, Octavian landed on the mainland opposite the island of Corcyra (modern Corfu) and marched south.[90] Trapped on land and sea, deserters of Antony's army fled to Octavian's side daily while Octavian's forces were comfortable enough to make preparations.[90] In a desperate attempt to break free of the naval blockade, Antony's fleet sailed through the bay of Actium on the western coast of Greece. It was there that Antony's fleet faced the much larger fleet of smaller, more maneuverable ships under commanders Agrippa and Gaius Sosius in the battle of Actium on September 2, 31 BC.[91] Antony and his remaining forces were only spared due to a last-ditch effort by Cleopatra's fleet that had been waiting nearby.[92] Octavian pursued them, and after another defeat in Alexandria on August 1, 30 BC, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide; Antony fell on his own sword and into Cleopatra's arms, while she let a poisonous snake bite her.[93] Having exploited his position as Caesar's heir to further his own political career Octavian was only too well aware of the dangers in allowing another to do so and, reportedly commenting that "two Caesars are one too many", he ordered Caesarion to be killed whilst sparing Cleopatra's children by Antony.[94][95] Image File history File linksMetadata Battle_of_actium. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Battle_of_actium. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Actium (mod. ... Gaius Sosius, was a Roman general and politician. ... Combatants Octavian Mark Antony, Cleopatra VII of Egypt Commanders Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Mark Antony Strength 260 warships, mostly liburnian vessels 220 warships, mostly quinqueremes and 60 egyptian warships Casualties Unknown Almost all of Antonys fleet The Battle of Actium was a naval battle of the Roman Civil War between... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Octavian becomes Roman Consul for the fourth time. ...


Although his methods were cruel, it was Mark Antony who flaunted the child as the legitimate heir of the deified Julius Caesar, hence weakening the credibility of Octavian to hold that entitlement legitimately.[96] Octavian had previously shown little mercy to military combatants and acted in ways that had proven unpopular with the Roman people, yet he was given credit for pardoning many of his opponents after the Battle of Actium.[97]


Octavian becomes Augustus

After Actium and the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra, Octavian was in a position to rule the entire Republic under an unofficial principate.[98] However, Octavian would have to achieve this through incremental gaining of power, courting the Senate and people, while upholding republican traditions of Rome to appear that he was not aiming for dictatorship or monarchy.[99][100] Marching into Rome, Octavian and Marcus Agrippa were elected as dual consuls by the Senate.[101] Years of civil war had left Rome in a state of near-lawlessness, but the Republic was not prepared to accept the control of Octavian as a despot. At the same time, Octavian could not simply give up his authority without risking further civil wars amongst the Roman generals, and even if he desired no position of authority whatsoever, his position demanded that he look to the well-being of the city of Rome and the Roman provinces. Octavian's aims from this point forward were to return Rome to a state of stability, traditional legality, and civility by lifting the overt political pressure imposed upon the courts of law and ensuring free elections, in name at least.[102] The Principate is, according to its etymological derivation from the Latin word princeps, meaning chief or first, the political regime dominated by such a political leader, whether or not he is formally head of state and/or head of government. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Despotes (Greek Despotēs, feminine Despoina, Bulgarian and Serbian Despot, feminine Despotica, sometimes Anglicized Despot), is a Byzantine court title, also granted in the Latin Empire, Bulgaria, Serbia, and the Empire of Trebizond. ...


First settlement

Augustus as a magistrate; the statue's marble head was made c. 30–20 BC, the body sculpted in the 2nd century AD.
Augustus as a magistrate; the statue's marble head was made c. 30–20 BC, the body sculpted in the 2nd century AD.

In 27 BC, Octavian officially returned democratic power to the Roman Senate and relinquished his control of the Roman provinces and their armies.[101] However, under the consulship of Octavian, the Senate had little power in initiating legislation by introducing bills for senatorial debate.[101] Although Octavian was no longer in direct control of the provinces and their armies, he retained the loyalty of active duty soldiers and veterans alike.[101] The careers of many clients and adherents depended on his patronage, as his financial power in the Roman Republic was unrivaled.[101] The historian Werner Eck states of Augustus: Caesar Augustus - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Caesar Augustus - statue in the Louvre, Paris File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A bill is a proposed new law introduced within a legislature that has not been ratified, adopted, or received assent. ...

The sum of his power derived first of all from various powers of office delegated to him by the Senate and people, secondly from his immense private fortune, and thirdly from numerous patron-client relationships he established with individuals and groups throughout the Empire. All of them taken together formed the basis of his auctoritas, which he himself emphasized as the foundation of his political actions.[103]

To a large extent, the public was aware of the vast financial resources Augustus commanded. When Augustus failed to encourage enough senators to finance the building and maintenance of networks of roads in Italy, he took over direct responsibility of building roads in 20 BC.[104] His construction of roads was publicized on the Roman currency issued in 16 BC, after he donated vast amounts of money to the aerarium Saturni, the public treasury.[104] Aerarium (from Latin aes, in its derived sense of money) was the name (in full, aerarium stabulum - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances. ...


According to Scullard, however, Augustus' power was based on the exercise of "…a predominant military power and that the ultimate sanction of his authority was force, however much the fact was disguised."[105]


The Senate proposed to Octavian, the cherished victor of Rome's civil wars, to once again assume command of the provinces. The senate proposal was a ratification of Octavian's extra-constitutional power. Through the senate, Octavian was able to continue to appearance of a still-functional constitution of the Roman Republic. Whilst putting on the appearance of reluctance he accepted a ten year responsibility of overseeing provinces that were considered to be in a somewhat chaotic state.[106][107] The provinces ceded to him to pacify within the promised ten year period comprised much of the conquered Roman world, including all of Hispania and Gaul, Syria, Cilicia, Cyprus, and Egypt.[106][108] Moreover, command over these provinces provided Octavian with control over the majority of Rome's legions.[108][109] While Octavian acted as consul in Rome, he dispatched senators to the provinces under his command as his representatives to manage provincial affairs and ensure his orders were carried out.[109] On the other hand, the provinces not under Octavian's control were overseen by governors chosen by the Roman Senate.[109] Octavian became the most powerful political figure in the city of Rome and in most of its provinces, yet he did not have a sole monopoly on political and martial power.[110] The Senate still controlled North Africa, an important regional producer of grain, as well as Illyria and Macedonia, two martially strategic regions with several legions.[110] However, with control of only five or six legions distributed amongst three senatorial proconsuls, compared to the 20 legions under the control of Augustus, the Senate's control of these regions did not amount to any political or martial challenge to Octavian.[99][111] The Senate's control over some of the Roman provinces helped maintain a republican facade for the autocratic Principate.[99] Also, Octavian's control of entire provinces for the objective of securing peace and creating stability followed a Republican era precedence, with prominent Romans such as Pompey being granted similar military powers in times of crisis and instability.[99] Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus Roman provinces on the eve of the assassination of Julius Caesar, c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given,in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... The percentages and figures displayed below represent possible theoretical values. ... Location of Illyria Illyria (Albanian Iliria Land of the Free; Ancient Greek ; Latin Illyria [1] (see also Illyricum) was in Classical antiquity a region in the western part of todays Balkan Peninsula, founded by the tribes and clans of Illyrians, an ancient people who spoke the Illyrian languages. ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ...

Bust of Augustus, wearing the Civic Crown. Glyptothek, Munich.
Bust of Augustus, wearing the Civic Crown. Glyptothek, Munich.

In January of 27 BC, the Senate gave Octavian the new titles of Augustus and Princeps.[112] Augustus, from the Latin word Augere (meaning to increase), can be translated as "the illustrious one".[97] It was a title of religious rather than political authority.[97] According to Roman religious beliefs, the title symbolized a stamp of authority over humanity—and in fact nature—that went beyond any constitutional definition of his status. After the harsh methods employed in consolidating his control, the change in name would also serve to demarcate his benign reign as Augustus from his reign of terror as Octavian. His new title of Augustus was also more favorable than Romulus, the previous one he styled for himself in reference to the story of Romulus and Remus (founders of Rome), which would symbolize a second founding of Rome.[97] However, the title of Romulus was associated too strongly with notions of monarchy and kingship, an image Octavian tried to avoid.[97] Princeps, comes from the Latin phrase primum caput, "the first head", originally meaning the oldest or most distinguished senator whose name would appear first on the senatorial roster; in the case of Augustus it became an almost regnal title for a leader who was first in charge.[113][2] Princeps had also been a title under the Republic for those who had served the state well; for example, Pompey had held the title. Augustus also styled himself as Imperator Caesar divi filius, "Commander Caesar son of the deified one".[112] With this title he not only boasted his familial link to deified Julius Caesar, but the use of Imperator signified a permanent link to the Roman tradition of victory.[112] The word Caesar was merely a cognomen for one branch of the Julian family, yet Augustus transformed Caesar into a new family line that began with him.[112] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 415 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1529 × 2209 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 415 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1529 × 2209 pixel, file size: 1. ... The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. ... The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve). ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Latin word Princeps (plural: principes) means the first. This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, by far the most important of which follows first. ... This page describes the ancient heroes who founded the city of Rome. ... Category: ... For other meanings see Pompey (disambiguation). ... The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... The cognomen (name known by in English) was originally the third name of a Roman in the Roman naming convention. ... Julius (fem. ...


Augustus was granted the right to hang the corona civica, the "civic crown" made from oak, above his door and have laurels drape his doorposts.[110] This crown was usually held above the head of a Roman general during a triumph, with the individual holding the crown charged to continually repeat "memento mori," or "Remember, you are mortal," to the triumphant general. Additionally, laurel wreaths were important in several state ceremonies, and crowns of laurel were rewarded to champions of athletic, racing, and dramatic contests. Thus, both the laurel and the oak were integral symbols of Roman religion and statecraft; placing them on Augustus's doorposts was tantamount to declaring his home the capital. However, Augustus renounced flaunting insignia of power such as holding a scepter, wearing a diadem, or wearing the golden crown and purple toga of his predecessor Julius Caesar.[114] If he refused to symbolize his power by donning and bearing these items on his person, the Senate nonetheless awarded him with a golden shield displayed in the meeting hall of the Curia, bearing the inscription virtus, pietas, clementia, iustitia—"valor, piety, clemency, and justice."[110][2] The Civic Crown (Latin: corona civica) was a chaplet of common oak leaves woven to form a crown. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... For other uses, see Memento mori (disambiguation). ... A sceptre or scepter is an ornamental staff held by a ruling monarch, a prominent item of kingly regalia. ... This article is about a type of crown called a diadem; for alternate meanings, see Diadem. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ...


Second settlement

Portrait of Augustus wearing a gorgoneion on a three layered sardonyx cameo, 14–20 AD.
Portrait of Augustus wearing a gorgoneion on a three layered sardonyx cameo, 14–20 AD.

In 23 BC, there was a political crisis that involved Augustus' co-consul Terentius Varro Murena, who was part of a conspiracy against Augustus. The exact details of the conspiracy are unknown, yet Murena did not serve a full term as consul before Calpurnius Piso was elected to replace him.[115][116] Piso was a well known member of the republican faction, and serving as co-consul with him was another means by Augustus to show his willingness to make concessions and cooperate with all political parties.[117] In the late spring Augustus suffered a severe illness, and on his supposed deathbed made arrangements that would put in doubt the senators' suspicions of his anti-republicanism.[115][118] Augustus prepared to hand down his signet ring to his favored general Agrippa.[115][118] However, Augustus handed over to his co-consul Piso all of his official documents, an account of public finances, and authority over listed troops in the provinces while Augustus' supposedly favored nephew Marcus Claudius Marcellus came away empty-handed.[115][118] This was a surprise to many who believed Augustus would have named an heir to his position as an unofficial emperor.[119] Augustus bestowed only properties and possessions to his designated heirs, as a system of institutionalized imperial inheritance would have provoked resistance and hostility amongst the republican-minded Romans fearful of monarchy.[100] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 3200 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2400 × 3200 pixel, file size: 3. ... Apotropaic magic is a ritual observance that is intended to turn away evil. ... Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz. ... This article is about the authentication means. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (42-23 BC) was the eldest son of Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus, and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, a former consul. ...


Soon after his bout of illness subsided, Augustus gave up his permanent consulship.[118] The only other times Augustus would serve as consul would be in the years 5 and 2 BC.[118][120] Although he had resigned as consul, Augustus retained his consular imperium, leading to a second compromise between him and the Senate known as the Second Settlement.[121] This was a clever ploy by Augustus; by stepping down as one of two consuls, this allowed aspiring senators a better chance to fill that position, while at the same time Augustus could "exercise wider patronage within the senatorial class."[122] Augustus was no longer in an official position to rule the state, yet his dominant position over the Roman provinces remained unchanged as he became a proconsul.[118][123] As an earlier consul he had the power to intervene, when he deemed necessary, with the affairs of provincial proconsuls appointed by the Senate.[124] As a proconsul Augustus did not want this authority of overriding provincial governors to be stripped from him, so imperium proconsulare maius, or "power over all the proconsuls" was granted to Augustus by the Senate.[121] Imperium can, in a broad sense, be translated as power. ... For the Miocene ape, see Proconsul (genus) Under the Roman Empire a proconsul was a promagistrate filling the office of a consul. ...


Augustus was also granted the power of a tribune (tribunicia potestas) for life, though not the official title of tribune.[121] Legally it was closed to patricians, a status that Augustus had acquired years ago when adopted by Julius Caesar.[122] This allowed him to convene the Senate and people at will and lay business before it, veto the actions of either the Assembly or the Senate, preside over elections, and the right to speak first at any meeting.[120][125] Also included in Augustus' tribunician authority were powers usually reserved for the Roman censor; these included the right to supervise public morals and scrutinize laws to ensure they were in the public interest, as well as the ability to hold a census and determine the membership of the Senate.[126] With the powers of a censor, Augustus appealed to virtues of Roman patriotism by banning all other attire besides the classic toga while entering the Forum.[127] There was no precedent within the Roman system for combining the powers of the tribune and the censor into a single position, nor was Augustus ever elected to the office of censor.[128] Julius Caesar had been granted similar powers, wherein he was charged with supervising the morals of the state, however this position did not extend to the censor's ability to hold a census and determine the Senate's roster. The office of the tribune plebis began to lose its prestige due to Augustus' amassing of tribunal powers, so he revived its importance by making it a mandatory appointment for any plebeian desiring the praetorship.[129] Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law A Censor was a magistrate of high rank in the ancient Roman Republic. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected...

The Via Labicana Augustus - Augustus as Pontifex Maximus.
The Via Labicana Augustus - Augustus as Pontifex Maximus.

In addition to tribunician authority, Augustus was granted sole imperium within the city of Rome itself: all armed forces in the city, formerly under the control of the prefects and consuls, were now under the sole authority of Augustus.[130] With maius imperium proconsulare, Augustus was the only individual able to receive a triumph as he was ostensibly the head of every Roman army.[131] In 19 BC, Lucius Cornelius Balbus, governor of Africa who defeated the Garamantes, was the first man of provincial origin to receive this award, as well as the last.[131] For every following Roman victory the credit was given to Augustus, due to the fact that Rome's armies were commanded by the legatus, who were deputies of the princeps in the provinces.[131] Augustus' eldest son by marriage to Livia, Tiberius, was the only exception to this rule when he received a triumph for victories in Germania in 7 BC.[132] Ensuring that his status of maius imperium proconsulare was renewed in 13 BC, Augustus stayed in Rome during the renewal process and provided veterans with lavish donations to gain their support.[120] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1536 × 2048 pixel, file size: 840 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... The Via Labicana statue of Augustus. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... A Roman Triumph was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly honour the military commander (dux) of a notably successful foreign war or campaign and to display the glories of Roman victory. ... Lucius Cornelius Balbus (called Minor to distinguish from his uncle), received the Roman citizenship at the same time as his uncle. ... The Garamantes were a Saharan Berber-speaking people who used an elaborate underground irrigation system, and founded a kingdom in the Fezzan area of modern-day Libya, in the Sahara desert. ... A legatus (often anglicized as legate) was equivalent to a modern general officer in the Roman army. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ...


Many of the political subtleties of the Second Settlement seem to have evaded the comprehension of the Plebeian class. When Augustus failed to stand for election as consul in 22 BC, fears arose once again that Augustus was being forced from power by the aristocratic Senate. In 22, 21, and 19 BC, the people rioted in response, and only allowed a single consul to be elected for each of those years, ostensibly to leave the other position open for Augustus.[133] In 22 BC there was a food shortage in Rome which sparked panic, while many urban plebs called for Augustus to take on dictatorial powers to personally oversee the crisis.[120] After a theatrical display of refusal before the Senate, Augustus finally accepted authority over Rome's grain supply "by virtue of his proconsular imperium", and ended the crisis almost immediately.[120] It was not until 8 AD that a food crisis of this sort prompted Augustus to establish a praefectus annonae, a permanent prefect who was in charge of procuring food supplies for Rome.[134] In 19 BC, the Senate voted to allow Augustus to wear the consul's insignia in public and before the Senate,[130] as well as sit in the symbolic chair between the two consuls and hold the fasces, an emblem of consular authority.[135] Like his tribune authority, the granting of consular powers to him was another instance of holding power of offices he did not actually hold.[135] This seems to have assuaged the populace; regardless of whether or not Augustus was actually a consul, the importance was that he appeared as one before the people. On March 6 12 BC, after the death of Lepidus, he additionally took up the position of pontifex maximus, the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most important position in Roman religion.[136][137] On February 5, 2 BC, Augustus was also given the title pater patriae, or "father of the country".[138][139] Roman fasces. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (Latin: M·AEMILIVS·M·F·Q·N·LEPIDVS),[1] d. ... Alternate meanings: see Pontifex (disambiguation) In Ancient Rome, the Pontifex Maximus was the high priest of the collegium of the Pontifices, the most august position in Roman religion, open only to a patrician, until 254 BC, when a plebeian first occupied this post. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC - 0s BC - 0s 10s 20s 30s 40s 7 BC 6 BC 5 BC 4 BC 3 BC 2 BC 1 BC 1 2 3 4 Events Births Deaths Gaius and... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Later Roman Emperors would generally be limited to the powers and titles originally granted to Augustus, though often, to display humility, newly-appointed Emperors would often decline one or more of the honorifics given to Augustus. Just as often, as their reign progressed, Emperors would appropriate all of the titles, regardless of whether they had actually been granted them by the Senate. The civic crown, which later Emperors took to actually wearing, consular insignia, and later the purple robes of a Triumphant general (toga picta) became the imperial insignia well into the Byzantine era. Roman clad in toga The toga was a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


War and expansion under Augustus

Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus; the yellow legend represents the extent of the Empire in 31 BC, the shades of green represent gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas on the map represent client states.
Extent of the Roman Empire under Augustus; the yellow legend represents the extent of the Empire in 31 BC, the shades of green represent gradually conquered territories under the reign of Augustus, and pink areas on the map represent client states.
Further information: Roman relations with the Parthians and Sassanids

Imperator Caesar Divi Filius Augustus chose Imperator, "victorious commander" to be his first name, since he wanted to make the notion of victory associated with him emphatically clear.[140] By the year 13, Augustus boasted 21 occasions where his troops proclaimed imperator as his title after a successful battle.[140] Almost the entire fourth chapter in his publicly-released memoirs of achievements known as the Res Gestae was devoted to his military victories and honors.[140] Pandering to Roman patriots, Augustus promoted the ideal of a superior Roman civilization with a task of ruling the world (the extent to which the Romans knew it), embodied in the phrase tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento—"Roman, remember by your strength to rule the earth's peoples!"[127] This fit well with the Roman elite and the wider public opinion of the day which favored expansionism, reflected in a statement by the famous Roman poet Virgil who said that the gods had granted Rome imperium sine fine, "sovereignty without limit."[141] There was public disappointment and regret for not avenging Crassus' captured battle standards when Augustus decided that the Middle Eastern power of Parthia should not be invaded.[142] However, there were many other viable lands to be conquered. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 1181 pixel, file size: 402 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image:Augusto 31BC-6AD File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 554 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 1181 pixel, file size: 402 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Image:Augusto 31BC-6AD File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 80s BC 70s BC 60s BC 50s BC 40s BC - 30s BC - 20s BC 10s BC 0s 10s 20s Years: 36 BC 35 BC 34 BC 33 BC 32 BC 31 BC 30 BC 29 BC 28 BC 27 BC... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... Parthias greatest extent in 60 BCE The Parthian Empire had risen to power after defeating the Seleucids. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Marcus Licinius Crassus (Latin: M·LICINIVS·P·F·P·N·CRASSVS[1]) (c. ... Parthia[1] (Middle Persian: اشکانیان Ashkâniân) was a civilization situated in the northeast of modern Iran, but at its height covering all of Iran proper, as well as regions of the modern countries of Armenia, Iraq, Georgia, eastern Turkey, eastern Syria, Turkmenistan, Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Pakistan, Kuwait, the Persian Gulf...

Bust of Tiberius, a successful military commander under Augustus before he was designated as his heir and successor.
Bust of Tiberius, a successful military commander under Augustus before he was designated as his heir and successor.

By the end of his reign, the armies of Augustus had conquered northern Hispania (modern Spain),[143] the Alpine regions of Raetia and Noricum (modern Switzerland, Bavaria, Lombardy, Austria, Slovenia),[143] Illyricum and Pannonia (modern Albania, Croatia, Hungary, Serbia, Slovakia, etc.),[143] and extended the borders of the Africa Province to the east and south.[143] After the reign of the client king Herod the Great (73–4 BC), Judea was added to the province of Syria when Augustus deposed his successor Herod Archelaus.[143] Like Egypt which had been conquered after the defeat of Antony in 30 BC, Syria was governed not by a proconsul or legate of Augustus, but a high prefect of the equestrian class.[143] Again, no military effort was needed in 25 BC when Galatia (modern Turkey) was converted to a Roman province shortly after Amyntas of Galatia was killed by an avenging widow of a slain prince from Homonada.[143] When the rebellious tribes of Cantabria in modern-day Spain were finally quelled in 19 BC, the territory fell under the provinces of Hispania and Lusitania.[144] This region proved to be a major asset in funding Augustus' future military campaigns, as it was rich in mineral deposits that could be fostered in Roman mining projects.[144] Conquering the peoples of the Alps in 16 BC was another important victory for Rome since it provided a large territorial buffer between the Roman citizens of Italy and Rome's enemies in Germania to the north.[145] The poet Horace dedicated an ode to the victory, while the monument Trophy of Augustus near Monaco was built to honor the occasion.[146] The capture of the Alpine region also served the next offensive in 12 BC, when Tiberius began the offensive against the Pannonian tribes of Illyricum and his brother Nero Claudius Drusus against the Germanic tribes of the eastern Rhineland.[147] Both campaigns were successful, as Drusus' forces reached the Elbe River by 9 BC, yet he died shortly after by falling off his horse.[147] It was recorded that the pious Tiberius walked in front of his brother's body all the way back to Rome.[148] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 2256 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 440 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1656 × 2256 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Iberian Peninsula. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Noricum in ancient geography was a celtic kingdom in Austria and later a province of the Roman Empire. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... Herod the Great. ... Iudaea Province in the 1st century Iudaea (Hebrew: יהודה, Standard Yehuda Tiberian , praise God; Greek: Ιουδαία; Latin: Iudaea) was a Roman province that extended over the region of Judea proper, later Palestine. ... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Coin of Herod Archelaus Herod Archelaus (23 BC – c. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Amyntas was a king of Galatia and several of the adjacent countries, mentioned by Strabo[1] as contemporary with himself. ... For the Mesozoic island Cantabria, see Cantabria (Mesozoic island). ... In red is the province of Lusitania within the Roman Empire, 120 AD Lusitania was an ancient Roman province approximately including current Portugal, except for the area between the rivers Douro and Minho (part of Hispania Tarraconensis), and part of modern day western Spain, the present autonomous communities of Extremadura... Chuquicamata, the second largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Map of the Roman Empire and the free Germania, Magna Germania, in the early 2nd century For other uses, see Germania (disambiguation). ... The Trophy of Augustus, with the church of St Michel (left middle ground) Detail The Trophy of the Alps or Trophy of Augustus was built by the Roman emperor Augustus to celebrate his definitive victory over the ancient Celto-Ligurian tribes who populated the region and who had harassed merchants... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nero Claudius Drusus, in the Musée du Cinquantinaire, Brussels Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus, born Decimus Claudius Drusus and variously called Drusus, Drusus I, Drusus Claudius Nero, or Drusus the Elder (14 January 38 - 9 BC) was the youngest son of Livia, wife of Augustus, and her first... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ...


To protect the eastern areas of the Empire from the Parthian threat, Augustus relied on the client states of the east to act as territorial buffers and areas which could raise their own troops for defense.[149] To ensure security of the Empire's eastern flank, Augustus stationed a Roman army in Syria just in case, while his skilled stepson Tiberius negotiated with the Parthians as Rome's diplomat to the East.[149] One of Tiberius' greatest diplomatic achievements was negotiating for the return of Crassus' battle standards, a symbolic victory and great boost of morale for Rome.[149][148] Tiberius was also responsible for restoring Tigranes V to the throne of Armenia.[148] According to the notion of client states, just as a client of a corporation remains dependent on the corporation for a continued supply of products, and just as it is in the companys interest to make expendable products which need to be replaced regularly, client states of the two... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... Tigranes V was installed by Augustus as King of Armenia. ...


Although Parthia always posed a threat to Rome in the east, the real battlefront was along the Rhine and Danube rivers.[149] Before the final fight with Antony, Octavian's campaigns against the tribes in Dalmatia was the first step in expanding Roman dominions to the Danube.[150] Victory in battle was not always a permanent success, as newly conquered territories were constantly retaken by Rome's enemies in Germania.[149] A prime example of Roman loss in battle was the Battle of Teutoburg Forest in the year 9 AD, where three out of nine legions led by Publius Quinctilius Varus were destroyed with few survivors by Arminius, leader of the Cherusci.[151] Augustus retaliated by dispatching Tiberius and Drusus to the Rhineland to pacify it, which was a huge success in the year 13.[152][153] The Roman general Germanicus took advantage of a Cherusci civil war between Arminius and Segestes; they defeated Arminius, who fled that battle but was killed four years later in 19 due to treachery.[154] It has been suggested that River Rhine Pollution: November 1986 be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... Dalmatia, highlighted, on a map of Croatia. ... Battle of the Teutoburg Forest Conflict Roman-Germanic wars Date 9 Place Teutoburg Forest Result German victory In the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest (AD 9) an alliance of Germanic tribes led by Arminius (also known in German as Hermann), the son of Segimerus of the Cherusci, ambushed and wiped...   This article is about the year 9. ... The Defeated Varus (2003), a sculpture by Wilfried Koch in Haltern am See, Germany. ... The Hermannsdenkmal Arminius (also Armin, 18 BC/17 BC - 21 AD) was a chieftain of the Cherusci who defeated a Roman army in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... Segestes was a noble of the Germanic tribe of the Cherusci who played an ignoble role during the events surrounding the Roman attempts to conquer northern Germany during the reign of Augustus. ...


Death and succession

Roman aureus struck under Augustus, c. 13–14 AD. The reverse shows Tiberius riding on a quadriga, celebrating the fifteenth renewal of his tribunician power. At least six potential heirs, including Agrippa and his sons, had expired or proven incapable of succeeding Augustus, before he finally settled on Tiberius in 9 AD.
Roman aureus struck under Augustus, c. 13–14 AD. The reverse shows Tiberius riding on a quadriga, celebrating the fifteenth renewal of his tribunician power. At least six potential heirs, including Agrippa and his sons, had expired or proven incapable of succeeding Augustus, before he finally settled on Tiberius in 9 AD.

The illness of Augustus in 23 BC brought the problem of succession to the forefront of political issues and the public. To ensure stability, he needed to designate an heir to his unique position in Roman society and government. This was to be achieved in small, undramatic, and incremental ways that did not stir senatorial fears of monarchy.[155] If someone was to succeed his unofficial position of power, they were going to have to earn it through their own publicly-known merits.[155] Some Augustan historians argue that indications pointed toward his sister's son Marcellus, who had been quickly married to Augustus' daughter Julia the Elder.[156] Other historians dispute this due to Augustus' will read aloud to the Senate while he was seriously ill in 23 BC,[157] instead indicating a preference for Marcus Agrippa, who was Augustus' second in charge and arguably the only one of his associates who could have controlled the legions and held the Empire together.[158] After the death of Marcellus in 23 BC, Augustus married his daughter to Agrippa. This union produced five children, three sons and two daughters: Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Vipsania Julia, Agrippina the Elder, and Postumus Agrippa, so named because he was born after Marcus Agrippa died. Shortly after the Second Settlement, Agrippa was granted a five-year term of administering the eastern half of the Empire with the imperium of a proconsul and the same tribunicia potestas granted to Augustus (although not trumping Augustus' authority), his seat of governance stationed at Samos in the Cyclades.[159][158] Although this granting of power would have shown Augustus' favor for Agrippa, it was also a measure to please members of his Caesarian party by allowing one of their members to share a considerable amount of power with him.[159] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Aureus minted in 193 by Septimius Severus to celebrate XIIII Gemina Martia Victrix, the legion that proclamed him emperor. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... A quadriga (from the Latin language quadri-, four, and jungere, to yoke) is a four-horse chariot, raced in the Olympic Games and other sacred games, and represented in profile as the usual chariot of gods and heroes on Greek vases and bas-reliefs. ... Marcus Claudius Marcellus (42-23 BC) was the eldest son of Octavia Minor, sister of Augustus, and Gaius Claudius Marcellus Minor, a former consul. ... For other Roman women named Julia Caesaris, see Julia Caesaris Julia the Elder (October 39 BC - AD 14), known to her contemporaries as Julia Caesaris filia or Julia Augusti filia (Classical Latin: IVLIA•CAESARIS•FILIA or IVLIA•AVGVSTI•FILIA[1]) was the daughter and only natural child of Augustus. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (c. ... Gaius Julius Caesar Vipsanianus (20 BC - AD 4), most commonly known as Gaius Caesar, was the oldest son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Lucius Julius Caesar (17 BC-2 AD), most commonly known as Lucius Caesar, was the second son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Julia the Younger (?), granddaughter of Augustus Vipsania Julia Agrippina (19 BC – AD 28 or early 29) also known as Julia the Younger or Julilla, was the eldest daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder (Augustus daughter). ... Agrippina the Elder, wife of Germanicus (Vipsania) Agrippina (PIR1 V 463) 14 BC – 18 October AD 33), most commonly known as Agrippina Major or Agrippina the Elder, was one of the most prominent women in the Roman Empire in the early 1st century AD. She was the daughter of Marcus... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, (12 BC-14 AD) also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ... Samos (Greek Σάμος; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is an island in southeastern Greece in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Turkey. ... The Cyclades (Greek Κυκλάδες) are a Greek island group in the Aegean Sea, south-east of the mainland of Greece; and an administrative prefecture of Greece. ...


Augustus' intent to make Gaius and Lucius Caesar his heirs was apparent when he adopted them as his own children, and personally ushered them into their political careers by serving as consul with each in 5 and 2 BC.[118] Augustus also showed favor to his stepsons, Livia's children from her first marriage, Nero Claudius Drusus Germanicus and Tiberius Claudius, granting them military commands and public office, and seeming to favor Drusus. However, Drusus' marriage to Antonia, Augustus' niece, was a relationship far too embedded within the family to disturb over succession issues.[160] After Agrippa died in 12 BC, Livia's son Tiberius was ordered to divorce his own wife Vipsania and marry Agrippa's widow, Augustus' daughter Julia—as soon as a period of mourning for Agrippa had ended.[160] While Drusus' marriage to Antonia was considered an unbreakable affair, Vipsania was "only" the daughter of the late Agrippa from his first marriage.[160] Decimus or Nero Claudius Drusus, usually called simply Drusus or Drusus I (38 - 9 BC) was the younger son of Livia, wife of Augustus Caesar, and her first husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero. ... For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ...

Tiberius shared in Augustus' tribune powers as of 6 BC, but shortly thereafter went into retirement, reportedly wanting no further role in politics while he exiled himself to Rhodes.[132][161] Although no specific reason is known for his departure, it could have been a culmination of reasons, including a failing marriage with Julia.[132][161] It could very well have been from feelings of jealousy and being left out since Augustus' young grandchildren-turned-sons, Gaius and Lucius, joined the college of priests at an early age, were presented to spectators in a more favorable light, and were introduced to the army in Gaul.[162][163] After the early deaths of both Lucius and Gaius in 2 and 4 respectively, and the earlier death of his brother Drusus (9 BC), Tiberius was recalled to Rome in June of 4, where he was adopted by Augustus on the condition that he, in turn, adopt his nephew Germanicus.[164] This continued the tradition of presenting at least two generations of heirs.[160] In that year, Tiberius was also granted the powers of a tribune and proconsul, emissaries from foreign kings had to pay their respects to him, and by 13 was awarded with his second triumph and equal level of imperium with that of Augustus.[165] The only other possible claimant as heir was Postumus Agrippa, who had been exiled by Augustus in the year 7, his banishment made permanent by senatorial decree, and Augustus officially disowned him.[166] He certainly fell out of Augustus' favor as an heir; historian Erich S. Gruen notes various contemporary sources that state Postumus Agrippa was a "vulgar young man, brutal and brutish, and of depraved character."[166] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... Rhodes (Greek: Ρόδος Rhódhos; Italian Rodi; [[Ladino language| ) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands in terms of both land area and population, situated in eastern Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see 2 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 4 (disambiguation). ... Germanicus Julius Caesar Claudianus (24 May 15 BC–October 10, 19) was a member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire. ... Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa Postumus, (12 BC-14 AD) also known as Agrippa Postumus or Postumus Agrippa, was a son of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa and Julia the Elder. ...


On August 19, AD 14, Augustus died while visiting the place of his father's death at Nola, and Tiberius—who was present alongside Livia at Augustus' deathbed—was named his heir.[167] Augustus' famous last words were "Did you like the performance?"-referring to the play-acting and regal authority that he had put on as emperor. An enormous funerary procession of mourners traveled with Augustus' body from Nola to Rome, and on the day of his burial all public and private businesses closed for the day.[167] Tiberius and his son Drusus delivered the eulogy while standing atop two rostra.[3] Augustus' body inside a coffin was cremated on a pyre close to his mausoleum, and it was proclaimed that Augustus joined the company of the gods as a member of the Roman pantheon.[3] In 410 during the Sack of Rome the mausolem was despoiled by the Goths and his ashes scattered. is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tiberius succeeds his stepfather Augustus as Emperor of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ... The Rostra can be seen in the middle left of the photo. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... A pantheon (from Greek Πάνθειον, temple of all gods, from πᾶν, all + θεός, god) is a set of all the gods of a particular religion or mythology, such as the gods of Hinduism, Norse, Egyptian, Shintoism, Greek, vodun, Yoruba Mythology and Roman mythology. ... The city of Rome has been sacked on several occasions. ...


Augustus' legacy

Further information: Augustus in popular culture

Augustus' reign laid the foundations of a regime that lasted hundreds of years until the ultimate decline of the Roman Empire. Both his borrowed surname, Caesar, and his title Augustus became the permanent titles of the rulers of Roman Empire for fourteen centuries after his death, in use both at Old Rome and New Rome. In many languages, caesar became the word for emperor, as in the German Kaiser and in the Bulgarian and subsequently Russian Tsar. The cult of Divus Augustus continued until the state religion of the Empire was changed to Christianity in 391 by Theodosius I. Consequently, there are many excellent statues and busts of the first emperor. He had composed an account of his achievements, the Res Gestae Divi Augusti, to be inscribed in bronze in front of his mausoleum.[168] Copies of the text were inscribed throughout the Empire upon his death.[169] The inscriptions in Latin featured translations in Greek beside it, and were inscribed on many public edifices, such as the temple in Ankara dubbed the Monumentum Ancyranum, called the "queen of inscriptions" by historian Theodor Mommsen.[170] There are a few other written works by Augustus that have not survived. This includes his poems Sicily, Epiphanus, and Ajax, an autobiography of 13 books, a philosophical treatise, and his written rebuttal to Brutus' Eulogy of Cato.[171] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1646, 1850 KB) Description: Die Statue Kaiser Augustus in den Vatikanischen Museen, Rom Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra am 17. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1090x1646, 1850 KB) Description: Die Statue Kaiser Augustus in den Vatikanischen Museen, Rom Fotografiert von Andreas Wahra am 17. ... Augustus of Prima Porta Augustus of Prima Porta is a statue of Augustus Caesar, discovered on April 20th, 1863 in Prima Porta, Rome. ... Augustus (63 BC–AD 14) was the first and among the most important of the Roman Emperors. ... This article is about the historiography of the decline of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (November 30, 1817–November 1, 1903) was a Danish/German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist[1] and writer[2], generally regarded as the greatest classicist of the 19th century. ...


Many consider Augustus to be Rome's greatest emperor; his policies certainly extended the Empire's life span and initiated the celebrated Pax Romana or Pax Augusta. He was intelligent, decisive, and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar, and was influenced on occasion by his third wife, Livia (sometimes for the worse). Nevertheless, his legacy proved more enduring. The city of Rome was utterly transformed under Augustus, with Rome's first institutionalized police force, fire fighting force, and the establishment of the municipal prefect as a permanent office.[172] The police force was divided into cohorts of 500 men each, while the units of firemen ranged from 500 to 1,000 men each, with 7 units assigned to 14 divided city sectors.[172] A praefectus vigilum, or "Prefect of the Watch" was put in charge of the vigiles, Rome's fire brigade and police.[173] With Rome's civil wars at an end, Augustus was also able to create a standing army for the Roman Empire, fixed at a size of 28 legions of about 170,000 soldiers.[174] This was supported by numerous auxiliary units of 500 soldiers each, often recruited from recently conquered areas.[175] With his finances securing the maintenance of roads throughout Italy, Augustus also installed an official courier system of relay stations overseen by a military officer known as the praefectus vehiculorum.[176] Besides the advent of swifter communication amongst Italian polities, his extensive building of roads throughout Italy also allowed Rome's armies to march swiftly and at an unprecedented pace across the country.[177] In the year 6 Augustus established the aerarium militare, donating 170 million sesterces to the new military treasury that provided for both active and retired soldiers.[178] One of the most lasting institutions of Augustus was the establishment of the Praetorian Guard in 27 BC, originally a personal bodyguard unit on the battlefield that evolved into an imperial guard as well as an important political force in Rome.[179] They had the power to intimidate the Senate, install new emperors, and depose ones they disliked; the last emperor they served was Maxentius, as it was Constantine I who disbanded them in the early 4th century and destroyed their barracks, the Castra Praetoria.[180] For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Throughout the history of criminal justice, evolving forms of punishment, added rights for offenders and victims, and policing reforms have reflected changing customs, political ideals, and economic conditions. ... A repair locker hose team aboard USS John F. Kennedy (CV 67) combats a controlled fire on the mobile aircraft firefighting training device May 2, 2006. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... The Vigiles or more properly the Vigiles Urbani (watchmen of the City) or Cohortes Vigilum (cohorts of the watchmen) were the firefighters and police of Ancient Rome. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... Auxiliary may mean: a backup system an auxiliary verb In sailing, the term is used for the motor, if a sailboat has one, or can be used to describe a motorized sailboat, as in an auxiliary sailboat. Auxiliary police Armed Forces auxiliary This is a disambiguation page, a list of... For other uses, see Courier (disambiguation). ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Marcus Aurelius Valerius Maxentius ( 278-28 October 312) was Western Roman Emperor from 306 to 312. ... For other uses, see Constantine I (disambiguation). ... Castra Praetoria are the ancient barracks (castra) of the Praetorian Guard of Imperial Rome. ...

Augustus in an Egyptian-style depiction, a stone carving of the Kalabsha Temple in Nubia.
Augustus in an Egyptian-style depiction, a stone carving of the Kalabsha Temple in Nubia.

Although the most powerful individual in the Roman Empire, Augustus wished to embody the spirit of Republican virtue and norms. He also wanted to relate to and connect with the concerns of the plebs and lay people. He achieved this through various means of generosity and a cutting back of lavish excess. In the year 29 BC, Augustus paid 400 sesterces each to 250,000 citizens, 1,000 sesterces each to 120,000 veterans in the colonies, and spent 700 million sesterces in purchasing land for his soldiers to settle upon.[181] He also restored 82 different temples to display his care for the Roman pantheon of deities.[181] If the latter examples displayed his generosity, then a grand act of his modest frugality came in the following year of 28 BC, when he melted down 80 silver statues erected in his likeness and in honor of him.[181] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 341 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1146 × 2016 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) / Other versions hu:Kép:Augustus-in-Kalabsha. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 341 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1146 × 2016 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) / Other versions hu:Kép:Augustus-in-Kalabsha. ... The area known as New Kalabsha is located by the Aswan High Dam, south of Aswan in Egypt. ... Nubia (not to be confused with Nuba, a collective term used for the peoples who inhabit the Nuba Mountains, in Kordofan province, Sudan, Africa) is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... The sestertius was an ancient Roman coin. ... A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ...


The longevity of Augustus' reign and its legacy to the Roman world should not be overlooked as a key factor in its success. As Tacitus wrote, the younger generations alive in AD 14 had never known any form of government other than the Principate.[182] Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters might have turned out differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican oligarchy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a de facto monarchy in these years. Augustus' own experience, his patience, his tact, and his political acumen also played their parts. He directed the future of the Empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus' ultimate legacy was the peace and prosperity the Empire enjoyed for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor. Every emperor of Rome adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, which gradually lost its character as a name and eventually became a title.[3] For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ...


Revenue reforms

Coin of Augustus found at the Pudukottai hoard, eastern India. British Museum.
Coin of Augustus found at the Pudukottai hoard, eastern India. British Museum.
Indian imitation of a coin of Augustus. 1st century. British Museum.
Indian imitation of a coin of Augustus. 1st century. British Museum.
Coin of the Himyarite Kingdom, southern coast of the Arabian peninsula. This is also an imitation of a coin of Augustus. 1st century.
Coin of the Himyarite Kingdom, southern coast of the Arabian peninsula. This is also an imitation of a coin of Augustus. 1st century.

Augustus's public revenue reforms had a great impact on the subsequent success of the Empire. Augustus brought a far greater portion of the Empire's expanded land base under consistent, direct taxation from Rome, instead of exacting varying, intermittent, and somewhat arbitrary tributes from each local province as Augustus's predecessors had done.[183] This reform greatly increased Rome's net revenue from its territorial acquisitions, stabilized its flow, and regularized the financial relationship between Rome and the provinces, rather than provoking fresh resentments with each new arbitrary exaction of tribute.[183] The measures of taxation in the reign of Augustus were determined by population census, with fixed quotas for each province.[184] Citizens of Rome and Italy paid indirect taxes, while direct taxes were exacted from the provinces.[184] Indirect taxes included a 4% tax on the price of slaves, a 1% tax on goods sold at auction, and a 5% tax on the inheritance of estates valued at over 100,000 sesterces by persons other than the next of kin.[184] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 606 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1496 × 1479 pixel, file size: 735 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 606 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1496 × 1479 pixel, file size: 735 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 611 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1431 × 1403 pixel, file size: 605 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 611 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1431 × 1403 pixel, file size: 605 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 610 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1698 × 1670 pixel, file size: 653 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 610 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1698 × 1670 pixel, file size: 653 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A state in ancient Yemen dating from 115 BCE. Conquered neighbouring Saba in 25 BCE, Qataban in 50 CE and Hadramaut 100 CE. It was the dominant state in Arabia until the sixth century. ... Arabia redirects here. ... Look up revenue in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


An equally important reform was the abolition of private tax farming, which was replaced by salaried civil service tax collectors. Private contractors that raised taxes had been the norm in the Republican era, and some had grown powerful enough to influence the amount of votes for politicians in Rome.[183] The tax farmers had gained great infamy for their depredations, as well as great private wealth, by winning the right to tax local areas.[183] Rome's revenue was the amount of the successful bids, and the tax farmers' profits consisted of any additional amounts they could forcibly wring from the populace with Rome's blessing. Lack of effective supervision, combined with tax farmers' desire to maximize their profits, had produced a system of arbitrary exactions that was often barbarously cruel to taxpayers, widely (and accurately) perceived as unfair, and very harmful to investment and the economy.


The use of Egypt's immense land rents to finance the Empire's operations resulted from Augustus's conquest of Egypt and the shift to a Roman form of government.[185] As it was effectively considered Augustus's private property rather than a province of the Empire, it became part of each succeeding emperor's patrimonium.[186] Instead of a legate or proconsul, Augustus installed a prefect from the equestrian class to administer Egypt and maintain its lucrative seaports; this position became the highest political achievement for any equestrian besides becoming Prefect of the Praetorian Guard.[187] The highly productive agricultural land of Egypt yielded enormous revenues that were available to Augustus and his successors to pay for public works and military expeditions,[185] as well as bread and circuses for the population of Rome. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ...


Month of August

The month of August (Latin: Augustus) is named after Augustus; until his time it was called Sextilis (named so because it had been the sixth month of the original Roman calendar and the Latin word for six was sex). Commonly-repeated lore has it that August has 31 days because Augustus wanted his month to match the length of Julius Caesar's July, but this is an invention of the 13th century scholar Johannes de Sacrobosco. Sextilis in fact had 31 days before it was renamed, and it was not chosen for its length (see Julian calendar). According to a senatus consultum quoted by Macrobius, Sextilis was renamed to honour Augustus because several of the most significant events in his rise to power, culminating in the fall of Alexandria, fell in that month.[188] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sextilis was the Latin name for the sixth month in the Roman calendar. ... The Roman calendar changed its form several times in the time between the foundation of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Johannes de Sacrobosco or Sacro Bosco (John of Holywood, c. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, Roman grammarian and Neoplatonist philosopher, flourished during the reigns of Honorius and Arcadius (395–423). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Building projects

Further information: Category:Augustan building projects
Close up on the sculpted detail of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), 13 BC to 9 BC.
Close up on the sculpted detail of the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace), 13 BC to 9 BC.

On his deathbed, Augustus boasted "I found Rome of clay; I leave it to you of marble;" although there is some truth in the literal meaning of this, Cassius Dio asserts that it was a metaphor for the Empire's strength.[189] Marble could be found in buildings of Rome before Augustus, but it was not extensively used as a building material until the reign of Augustus.[190] Although this did not apply to the Subura slums, which were still as rickety and fire-prone as ever, he did leave a mark on the monumental topography of the centre and of the Campus Martius, with the Ara Pacis (Altar of Peace) and monumental sundial, whose central gnomon was an obelisk taken from Egypt.[191] The relief sculptures decorating the Ara Pacis visually augmented the written record of Augustus' triumphs in the Res Gestae.[192] Its reliefs depicted the imperial pageants of the praetorians, the Vestals, and the citizenry of Rome.[192] He also built the Temple of Caesar, the Baths of Agrippa, and the Forum of Augustus with its Temple of Mars Ultor. Other projects were either encouraged by him, such as the Theatre of Balbus, and Agrippa's construction of the Pantheon, or funded by him in the name of others, often relations (eg Portico of Octavia, Theatre of Marcellus). Even his Mausoleum of Augustus was built before his death to house members of his family.[193] To celebrate his victory at the Battle of Actium, the Arch of Augustus was built in 29 BC near the entrance of the Temple of Castor and Pollux, and widened in 19 BC to include a triple-arch design.[190] There are also many buildings outside of the city of Rome that bear Augustus' name and legacy, such as the Theatre of Merida in modern Spain, the Maison Carrée built at Nîmes in today's southern France, as well as the Trophy of Augustus at La Turbie, located near Monaco. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 621 pixel, file size: 744 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Roma, Ara Pacis, particolare con la decorazione vegetale sul recinto esterno (da it. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 547 pixelsFull resolution (908 × 621 pixel, file size: 744 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Roma, Ara Pacis, particolare con la decorazione vegetale sul recinto esterno (da it. ... Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... Cassius Dio Cocceianus (ca. ... For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... The Suburra is the modern Italian name for a neighborhood of Rome; in Antiquity, the word was usually spelled Subura, and was a red-light district. ... The Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about 2 km² (600 acres) in extent. ... Ara Pacis:Detail of the processional frieze showing members of the Julio-Claudian family (north face) The Ara Pacis Augustae (Latin, Altar of Majestic Peace; commonly shortened to Ara Pacis) is an altar to Peace, envisioned as a Roman goddess. ... The cantilever spar of this cable-stay bridge, the Sundial Bridge at Turtle Bay, forms the gnomon of a large garden sundial The gnomon is the part of a sundial that casts the shadow. ... There are eight ancient Egyptian and five ancient Roman obelisks in Rome, together with a number of more modern obelisks. ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Praetor was a title granted by the government of Ancient Rome to men acting in one of two official capacities: the commander of an army, either before it was mustered or more typically in the field, or an elected... Temple of Caesar (Aedes Divus Iulius) The Temple of Caesar (Aedes Divus Iulius or Templum Divi Iulii) was begun by Augustus in 42 BC after the senate deified Julius Caesar posthumously. ... The Baths of Agrippa (Thermae Agrippae) in ancient Rome, built by Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, were the first of the great thermae constructed in Rome. ... Forum built by Augustus in Rome, including Temple of Mars Ultor. ... Roman temple to Mars as Mars Ultor (the avenger) in Rome, in the Forum of Augustus Categories: | | ... Lucius Cornelius Balbus (called Minor to distinguish from his uncle), received the Roman citizenship at the same time as his uncle. ... Facade of the Pantheon The Pantheon (Latin Pantheon[1], from Greek Πάνθεον Pantheon, meaning Temple of all the gods) is a building in Rome which was originally built as a temple to the seven deities of the seven planets in the state religion of Ancient Rome. ... The Porticus Octaviae was built ostensibly by Octavia, the sister of Augustus, but really by Augustus and dedicated in the name of Octavia at some time after 27 B.C. , in place of the Porticus Metelli around the temples of Jupiter Stator and Juno. ... Theater of Marcellus in the Via del Teatro di Marcello, Rome Theater of Marcellus by night. ... The entryway to the Mausoleum of Augustus. ... Today I cooked lots of chocolate chippie cookies. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... See Merida for the disambiguation page Mérida is the capital of the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain. ... The Maison Carrée at Nimes, France, is one of the best preserved temples to be found anywhere in the territory of the former Roman Empire. ... Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes in both classical and Mistralian norms) is a city and commune of southern France. ... The Trophy of Augustus, with the church of St Michel (left middle ground) Detail The Trophy of the Alps or Trophy of Augustus was built by the Roman emperor Augustus to celebrate his definitive victory over the ancient Celto-Ligurian tribes who populated the region and who had harassed merchants... La Turbie or the Trophy of the Alps is a Roman monument on the Côte dAzur. ...

The Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne, late 1st century BC.
The Temple of Augustus and Livia in Vienne, late 1st century BC.

After the death of Agrippa in 12 BC, a solution had to be found in maintaining Rome's water supply system. This came about because it was overseen by Agrippa when he served as aedile, and was even funded by him afterwards when he was a private citizen paying at his own expense.[172] In that year, Augustus arranged a system where the Senate designated three of its members as prime commissioners in charge of the water supply and to ensure that Rome's aqueducts did not fall into disrepair.[172] In the late Augustan era, the commission of five senators called the curatores locorum publicorum iudicandorum was put in charge of maintaining public buildings and temples of the state cult.[172] Augustus created the senatorial group of the curatores viarum for the upkeep of roads; this senatorial commission worked with local officials and contractors to organize regular repairs.[176] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article is about the French département. ...


The Corinthian order of architectural style originating from ancient Greece was the dominant architectural style in the age of Augustus and the imperial phase of Rome.[190] Suetonius once commented that Rome was unworthy of its status as an imperial capital, yet Augustus and Agrippa set out to dismantle this sentiment by transforming the appearance of Rome upon the classical Greek model.[190] The Corinthian order as used for the portico of the Pantheon, Rome provided a prominent model for Renaissance and later architects, through the medium of engravings. ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ...


See also

Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... The Julio-Claudian dynasty of the early Roman Empire has a family tree complicated by multiple marriages between the members of the gens Julia and the gens Claudia. ... Villa of Maecenas in Tivoli, Italy, Jacob Philipp Hackert, 1783. ... Augustan literature is a style of English literature whose origins correspond roughly with the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II. In contemporary critical parlance, it refers to the literature of 1700 up to approximately 1760 (or, for some, 1789). ... Augustan poetry is named for Caesar Augustus. ... Roman trade with India according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, 1st century CE. A Greco-Roman gladiator on a glass vessel, Begram, 2nd century AD Roman trade with India started around the beginning of the Common Era (CE) following the reign of Augustus and his conquest of Egypt...

Notes

^  a:  Fully Imperator Caesar, Divi Filius, Augustus which means Imperator Caesar, Son of the Divus (Divus Julius), Augustus.
  1. ^ CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 35.
  2. ^ a b c Eck, 3.
  3. ^ a b c d Eck, 124.
  4. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 5–6.
  5. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 1–4.
  6. ^ Rowell, 14.
  7. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 7
  8. ^ Chisholm, 23.
  9. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 4–8; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus 3.
  10. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 8.1; Quintilian, 12.6.1.
  11. ^ a b Suetonius, Augustus 8.1
  12. ^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus 4.
  13. ^ a b c Rowell, 16.
  14. ^ Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus 6.
  15. ^ Velleius Paterculus 2.59.3.
  16. ^ Suetonius, Julius 83.
  17. ^ a b c Eck, 9.
  18. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3.9–11.
  19. ^ Rowell, 15.
  20. ^ Mackay, 160.
  21. ^ a b c d e f Eck, 10.
  22. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 68, 71.
  23. ^ a b Eck, 9–10.
  24. ^ a b Rowell, 19.
  25. ^ Rowell, 18.
  26. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 18.
  27. ^ Appian, Civil Wars 3.11–12.
  28. ^ Chisholm, 24.
  29. ^ Chisholm, 27.
  30. ^ Rowell, 20.
  31. ^ Eck, 11.
  32. ^ Syme, 114–120.
  33. ^ Chisholm, 26.
  34. ^ Rowell, 30.
  35. ^ Eck, 11–12.
  36. ^ Rowell, 21.
  37. ^ Syme, 123–126.
  38. ^ a b c d Eck, 12.
  39. ^ a b c Rowell, 23.
  40. ^ Rowell, 24.
  41. ^ Chisholm, 29.
  42. ^ Chisholm, 30.
  43. ^ Rowell, 19–20.
  44. ^ Syme, 167.
  45. ^ Syme, 173–174
  46. ^ Scullard, 157.
  47. ^ Rowell, 26–27.
  48. ^ a b c Rowell, 27.
  49. ^ Chisholm, 32–33.
  50. ^ Eck, 14.
  51. ^ Rowell, 28.
  52. ^ Syme, 176–186.
  53. ^ Sear, David R. Common Legend Abbreviations On Roman Coins. Retrieved on 2007-08-24.
  54. ^ a b Eck, 15.
  55. ^ Scullard, 163.
  56. ^ a b c d Eck, 16.
  57. ^ Scullard, 164.
  58. ^ a b Eck, 17.
  59. ^ Syme, 202.
  60. ^ a b Eck, 17–18.
  61. ^ a b Eck, 18.
  62. ^ Eck, 18–19.
  63. ^ a b c d Eck, 19.
  64. ^ a b Rowell, 32.
  65. ^ a b c d e Eck, 20.
  66. ^ Scullard, 162
  67. ^ a b c d Eck 21.
  68. ^ a b c d CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 19.
  69. ^ a b Eck, 22.
  70. ^ Eck, 23.
  71. ^ Scullard, 163
  72. ^ a b Eck, 24.
  73. ^ a b Eck, 25.
  74. ^ Eck, 25–26.
  75. ^ a b c d e Eck, 26.
  76. ^ Scullard, 164
  77. ^ Eck, 26–27.
  78. ^ Eck, 27–28.
  79. ^ Eck, 29.
  80. ^ Eck, 29–30.
  81. ^ a b Eck, 30.
  82. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 20.
  83. ^ Eck, 31.
  84. ^ Eck, 32–34.
  85. ^ Eck, 34.
  86. ^ Eck, 34–35
  87. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 21–22.
  88. ^ Eck, 35.
  89. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 22.
  90. ^ a b c Eck, 37.
  91. ^ Eck, 38.
  92. ^ Eck, 38–39.
  93. ^ Eck, 39.
  94. ^ Green, 697.
  95. ^ Scullard, 171.
  96. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 21.
  97. ^ a b c d e Eck, 49.
  98. ^ CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 34–35.
  99. ^ a b c d CCAA, 24–25.
  100. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 38–39.
  101. ^ a b c d e Eck, 45.
  102. ^ Eck, 44–45.
  103. ^ Eck, 113.
  104. ^ a b Eck, 80.
  105. ^ Scullard, 211.
  106. ^ a b Eck, 46.
  107. ^ Scullard, 210.
  108. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 34.
  109. ^ a b c Eck, 47.
  110. ^ a b c d CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 24.
  111. ^ Scullard, 211.
  112. ^ a b c d Eck, 50.
  113. ^ Eck, 149
  114. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 13.
  115. ^ a b c d CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 25.
  116. ^ Eck, 55.
  117. ^ Eck, 55–56.
  118. ^ a b c d e f g Eck, 56.
  119. ^ CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 38.
  120. ^ a b c d e CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 26.
  121. ^ a b c Eck, 57.
  122. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 36.
  123. ^ CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 37.
  124. ^ Eck, 56–57.
  125. ^ Eck, 57–58.
  126. ^ Eck, 59.
  127. ^ a b CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 30.
  128. ^ Bunson, 80.
  129. ^ Bunson, 427.
  130. ^ a b Eck, 60.
  131. ^ a b c Eck, 61.
  132. ^ a b c Eck, 117.
  133. ^ Dio 54.1, 6, 10.
  134. ^ Eck, 78.
  135. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 43.
  136. ^ Bowersock, p. 380. The date is provided by inscribed calendars; see also Augustus, Res Gestae 10.2. Dio 27.2 reports this under 13 BC, probably as the year in which Lepidus died (Bowersock, p. 383).
  137. ^ CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 28.
  138. ^ Mackay, 186.
  139. ^ Eck, 129.
  140. ^ a b c Eck, 93.
  141. ^ Eck, 95.
  142. ^ Eck, 95–96.
  143. ^ a b c d e f g Eck, 94.
  144. ^ a b Eck, 97.
  145. ^ Eck, 98.
  146. ^ Eck, 98–99.
  147. ^ a b Eck, 99.
  148. ^ a b c Bunson, 416.
  149. ^ a b c d e Eck, 96.
  150. ^ Rowell, 13.
  151. ^ Eck, 101–102.
  152. ^ Eck, 103.
  153. ^ Bunson, 417.
  154. ^ Bunson, 31.
  155. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 50.
  156. ^ Eck, 114–115.
  157. ^ Eck, 115.
  158. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 44.
  159. ^ a b Eck, 58.
  160. ^ a b c d Eck, 116.
  161. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 46.
  162. ^ Eck, 117–118.
  163. ^ CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 46–47.
  164. ^ Eck, 119.
  165. ^ Eck, 119–120.
  166. ^ a b CCAA, Erich S. Gruen, Augustus and the Making of the Principate, 49.
  167. ^ a b Eck, 123.
  168. ^ Suetonius, Augustus 101.4.
  169. ^ Eck, 1–2
  170. ^ Eck, 2.
  171. ^ Bunson, 47.
  172. ^ a b c d e Eck, 79.
  173. ^ Bunson, 345.
  174. ^ Eck, 85–87.
  175. ^ Eck, 86.
  176. ^ a b Eck, 81.
  177. ^ Chisholm, 122.
  178. ^ Bunson, 6.
  179. ^ Bunson, 341.
  180. ^ Bunson, 341–342.
  181. ^ a b c CCAA, Walter Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition, 23.
  182. ^ Tacitus, Annals I.3
  183. ^ a b c d Eck, 83–84.
  184. ^ a b c Bunson, 404.
  185. ^ a b Bunson, 144.
  186. ^ Bunson, 144–145.
  187. ^ Bunson, 145.
  188. ^ Macrobius, Saturnalia 1.12.35.
  189. ^ Dio 56.30.3
  190. ^ a b c d Bunson, 34.
  191. ^ Eck, 122.
  192. ^ a b Bunson, 32.
  193. ^ Eck, 118–121

The Latin word imperator was a title originally roughly equivalent to commander during the period of the Roman Republic. ... Caesar (plural Caesars), Latin: Cæsar (plural Cæsares), is a title of imperial character. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ... Latin for god or divine figure. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus ( 69/75 - after 130), also known as Suetonius, was a prominent Roman historian and biographer. ... Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ... Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. ... Appian (c. ... The Twelve Caesars is a set of twelve biographies of Julius Caesar and the first 11 emperors of the Roman Empire. ... Appian (c. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 236th day of the year (237th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Res Gestae Divi Augusti, (Latin: The Deeds of the Divine Augustus) is the funerary inscription of the first Roman emperor, Augustus, giving a first-person record of his life and accomplishments. ... The Annals, or, in Latin, Annales, is a history book by Tacitus covering the reign of the 4 Roman Emperors succeeding to Caesar Augustus. ... Ambrosius Theodosius Macrobius, Roman grammarian and Neoplatonist philosopher, flourished during the reigns of Honorius and Arcadius (395–423). ...

References

  • Bowersock, G. W. (1990). "The Pontificate of Augustus", in Kurt A. Raaflaub and Mark Toher (eds.): Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate. Berkeley: University of California Press, 380–394. ISBN 0-520-08447-0. 
  • Bunson, Matthew (1994). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire. New York: Facts on File Inc. ISBN 0-8160-3182-7
  • Chisholm, Kitty and John Ferguson. (1981). Rome: The Augustan Age; A Source Book. Oxford: Oxford University Press, in association with the Open University Press. ISBN 0-19-872108-0.
  • Eck, Werner; translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider; new material by Sarolta A. Takács. (2003) The Age of Augustus. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing (hardcover, ISBN 0-631-22957-4; paperback, ISBN 0-631-22958-2).
  • Eder, Walter. (2005). "Augustus and the Power of Tradition," in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge Companions to the Ancient World), ed. Karl Galinsky, 13-32. Cambridge, MA; New York: Cambridge University Press (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-80796-4; paperback, ISBN 0-521-00393-8).
  • Green, Peter (1990). Alexander to Actium: The Historical Evolution of the Hellenistic Age, Hellenistic Culture and Society. Berkeley, CA; Los Angeles; London: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-05611-6 (hbk.); ISBN 0-520-08349-0 (pbk.). 
  • Gruen, Erich S. (2005). "Augustus and the Making of the Principate," in The Cambridge Companion to the Age of Augustus (Cambridge Companions to the Ancient World), ed. Karl Galinsky, 33-51. Cambridge, MA; New York: Cambridge University Press (hardcover, ISBN 0-521-80796-4; paperback, ISBN 0-521-00393-8).
  • Mackay, Christopher S. (2004). Ancient Rome: A Military and Political History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521809185. 
  • Scullard, H. H. [1959] (1982). From the Gracchi to Nero: A History of Rome from 133 B.C. to A.D. 68, 5th edition, London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-02527-3 (pbk.). 
  • Syme, Ronald (1939). The Roman Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280320-4 (pbk.).  The classic revisionist study of Augustus
  • Rowell, Henry Thompson. (1962). The Centers of Civilization Series: Volume 5; Rome in the Augustan Age. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-0956-4

Ronald Syme Sir Ronald Syme (11 March 1903 – 4 September 1989), New Zealand-born historian, was the preeminent classicist of the 20th century. ...

Further reading

  • Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and His Principate, edited by Kurt A. Raaflaub and Mark Toher. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993 (paperback, ISBN 0-520-08447-0).
  • Everitt, Anthony. Augustus: The Life of Rome's First Emperor. New York: Random House, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4000-6128-8). As The First Emperor: Caesar Augustus and the Triumph of Rome. London: John Murray, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0719554942).
    • Reviewed by Alex Butterworth in The Guardian, December 23, 2006.
  • Galinsky, Karl. Augustan Culture. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-691-05890-3).
  • Jones, A.H.M. "The Imperium of Augustus", The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 41, Parts 1 and 2. (1951), pp. 112–119.
  • Jones, A.H.M. Augustus. London: Chatto & Windus, 1970 (paperback, ISBN 0-7011-1626-9).
  • Osgood, Josiah. Caesar's Legacy: Civil War and the Emergence of the Roman Empire. New York: Cambridge University Press (USA), 2006 (hardback, ISBN 0-521-85582-9; paperback, ISBN 0-521-67177-9).
  • Reinhold, Meyer. The Golden Age of Augustus (Aspects of Antiquity). Toronto, ON: Univ of Toronto Press, 1978 (hardcover, ISBN 0-89522-007-5; paperback, ISBN 0-89522-008-3).
  • Southern, Pat. Augustus (Roman Imperial Biographies). New York: Routledge, 1998 (hardcover, ISBN 0-415-16631-4); 2001 (paperback, ISBN 0-415-25855-3).
  • Zanker, Paul. The Power of Images in the Age of Augustus (Thomas Spencer Jerome Lectures). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1989 (hardcover, ISBN 0-472-10101-3); 1990 (paperback, ISBN 0-472-08124-1).

External links

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Primary sources

Nicolaus of Damascus (Nikolāos Damaskēnos) was a Greek historical and philosophical writer who lived in the Augustan Age. ...

Secondary source material

Augustus
Julio-Claudian dynasty
Born: 23 September 63 BC Died: 19 August AD 14
Political offices
Preceded by
Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Vibius Pansa Caetronianus
Consul (Suffect.) of the Roman Republic
without colleague
43 BC
Succeeded by
Marcus Aemilius Lepidus and Lucius Munatius Plancus
Preceded by
Marcus Antonius and Lucius Scribonius Libo and Aemilius Lepidus Paullus (Suffect.)
Consul of the Roman Republic
with Lucius Volcatius Tullus
33 BC
Succeeded by
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius
Preceded by
Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus and Gaius Sosius
Consul of the Roman Empire
31 BC23 BC
Succeeded by
Marcus Claudius Marcellus Aeserninus and Lucius Arruntius
Preceded by
Decius Laelius Balbus and Gnaeus Antistius Vetus
Consul of the Roman Empire
5 BC
Succeeded by
Gaius Calvisius Sabinus and Lucius Passienus Rufus
Preceded by
Lucius Cornelius Lentulus and Marcus Valerius Messalla Messallinus
Consul of the Roman Empire
2 BC
Succeeded by
Cossus Cornelius Lentulus and Lucius Calpurnius Piso
Preceded by
Julius Caesar
Julio-Claudian dynast
27 BC – AD 14
Succeeded by
Tiberius
Preceded by
none
Roman Emperor
27 BC – AD 14
Persondata
NAME Augustus
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus; Octavian
SHORT DESCRIPTION first Roman Emperor
DATE OF BIRTH September 23, 63 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH Rome
DATE OF DEATH August 19, 14
PLACE OF DEATH Nola

A head of Minerva found in the ruins of the Roman baths in Bath Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... In Roman mythology, Ceres was the goddess of growing plants (particularly cereals) and of motherly love. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Fortuna governs the circle of the four stages of life, the Wheel of Fortune, in a manuscript of Carmina Burana In Roman mythology, Fortuna (equivalent to the Greek goddess Tyche) was the personification of luck, hopefully of good luck, but she could be represented veiled and blind, as modern depictions... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... For the planet see Jupiter. ... Lares (pl. ... Mars was the Roman god of war, the son of Juno and either Jupiter or a magical flower. ... A sculpture of the Roman god Mercury by 17th-century Flemish artist Artus Quellinus. ... Head of Minerva by Elihu Vedder, 1896 For other uses, see Minerva (disambiguation). ... Neptune is usually depicted with a trident, as seen here in this statue by Jean de Boulogne in Bologna, Italy. ... Pluto, lord of the underworld. ... In Roman mythology, Quirinus was an early god of the Roman state. ... Coin of Emperor Probus, circa 280, with Sol Invictus riding a quadriga, with legend SOLI INVICTO, to the Unconquered Sun. Note how the Emperor (on the left) wears a radiated solar crown, worn also by the god (to the right). ... Marble Venus of the Capitoline Venus type, Roman (British Museum) Venus was a major Roman goddess principally associated with love and beauty, the rough equivalent of the Greek goddess Aphrodite. ... Vesta was the virgin goddess of the hearth, home, and family in Roman mythology. ... The Forge of Vulcan by Diego Velasquez, (1630). ... Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law This article discusses the nature of the imperial dignity, and its dynastic development throughout the history of the Empire. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century Decades: 110s BC 100s BC 90s BC 80s BC 70s BC - 60s BC - 50s BC 40s BC 30s BC 20s BC 10s BC Years: 68 BC 67 BC 66 BC 65 BC 64 BC 63 BC 62 BC 61 BC 60... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... For other uses, see Nola (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
BBC - History - Augustus (63 BC - AD 14) (399 words)
Augustus was born Gaius Octavius on 23 September 63 BC in Rome.
Augustus also ensured that his image was promoted throughout his empire by means of statues and coins.
Augustus was determined to be succeeded by someone of his own blood, but he had no sons, only a daughter, Julia, the child of his first wife.
Capri Hotel Caesar Augustus (91 words)
Il Caesar Augustus riaprirà per la stagione 2007 il 18 aprile.
The Caesar Augustus will open for the summer season 2007 on April 18th.
Capri Hotel Caesar Augustus Baia di Napoli :: Isola di Capri, Italia :: [email protected] :: Hotel Reservations: ++39 081 8373395 - Fax ++39 081 8371444 - P.Iva IT03567240639
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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