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Encyclopedia > Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet
Augusto Pinochet

In office
September 11, 1973 – March 11, 1981
Succeeded by José Toribio Merino

In office
June 27, 1974 – March 11, 1990
Preceded by Salvador Allende
Succeeded by Patricio Aylwin

Born November 25, 1915(1915-11-25)
Valparaíso
Died December 10, 2006 (aged 91)
Santiago, Chile
in the Military Hospital
Nationality Chilean
Political party None, military
Spouse Lucía Hiriart
Religion Roman Catholic

Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990, and was the President of the military junta from 1973 to 1981. His regime instituted a highly controversial campaign against leftist political parties, including mass murder and the repression of the civil liberties. At the same time he implemented classical liberal economic policies including privatization and rollback of state welfare institutions. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 350 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 773 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augusto Pinochet ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... The statue of José Toribio Merino in Valparaísos Naval Museum. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Lucía Hiriart de Pinochet, nee Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, is the wife (1943) of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Flag of the President of Chile The President of Chile is both the chief of state and the head of government. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


On September 11, 1973, Pinochet, recently appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army, was part of, along with the Navy, Air Force and National Police, a coup d'état against Socialist President Salvador Allende and established a military government. Pinochet implemented a series of military operations in which (according to the 1993 Rettig Report) approximately 3,000 people were killed [2], while (according to the 2004 Valech Report) 27,000 were incarcerated without trials and subjected to torture [3]. Thousands more fled in exile, in particular to Argentina, as political refugees; however, they were followed in their exile by the DINA secret police, in the frame of Operation Condor which linked South American dictatorships together against political opponents. is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... The Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile in Spanish) is the land arm of the Military of Chile. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance committed in Chile during the years of military rule under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990. ... Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ... A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... Dina may refer to: A villBold textge in India where the Zafarnama was written A Sanskrit word meaning day An English spelling variation of Dinah, a Hebrew name. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South...


In 1974, the junta appointed Pinochet president by a joint decree, later confirmed by a plebiscite in 1980. He remained in power until 1990, after his attempt to continue to rule was defeated in the 1988 plebiscite. After stepping down, he remained a life-senator, in accord with the 1980 Constitution. He was also Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army until March 10, 1998. A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... The National Plebiscite of 1980 in Chile was a referendum held on September 11, 1980 in order to approve the 1980 Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile as a replacement for Chiles 1925 constitution. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The Chilean transition to democracy (colloquially known in Chile as the Transición) began in 1988, with Augusto Pinochets defeat in the October 5, 1988 plebiscite. ... The Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile in Spanish) is the land arm of the Military of Chile. ... March 10 is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


At the time of his death in December 2006, around 300 criminal charges were still pending against him in Chile for human rights abuses (torture, forced disappearance, assassination, etc.), tax evasion and embezzlement under his rule and afterwards [4] — in 2006, Pinochet's total wealth was estimated at $28 million or more [5]. Pinochet remains a controversial figure in many parts of the world, dividing people who condemn him for his human rights abuses from those who credit him with bringing order and economic stability to Chile. General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Disappear redirects here. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ...


Pinochet is a "Famous Rotarian" Honorary Member of the Rotary International.

Contents

Early career

Augusto Pinochet was born in Valparaíso on November 25, 1915, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera (descendant of Breton immigrants who arrived in Chile during the 18th century) and Avelina Ugarte Martínez. He went to primary and secondary school at the San Rafael Seminary of Valparaíso, the Rafael Ariztía Institute (Marist Brothers) in Quillota, the French Fathers' School of Valparaíso, and to the Military School, which he entered in 1933. After four years of study, in 1937 he graduated with the rank of alférez (Second Lieutenant) in the infantry. For other places with the same name, see Valparaiso (disambiguation). ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Historical province of Brittany, showing the main areas with their name in Breton language The traditional flag of Brittany (the Gwenn-ha-du), formerly a Breton nationalist symbol but today used as a general civic flag in the region. ... For other uses, see Society of Mary (disambiguation). ... The city of Quillota is located in the Aconcagua river valley, in the Valparaiso region of Chile. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize...


In September 1937, he was assigned to the "Chacabuco" Regiment, in Concepción. Two years later, in 1939, then with the rank of sub-lieutenant, he moved to the "Maipo" Regiment, garrisoned in Valparaíso. He returned to Infantry School in 1940. On January 30, 1943 , he married Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, with whom he had five children: three daughters (Inés Lucía, María Verónica, Jacqueline Marie) and two sons (Augusto Osvaldo and Marco Antonio)[citation needed]. City motto: La Capital del Sur de Chile The Capital of the South of Chile Also called Biobios Pearl Founded October 5, 1550, Original Name La Concepción de María Purísima del Nuevo Extremo Region Bío-Bío Region Area  - City Proper  222 km² Population  - City... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Lucía Hiriart de Pinochet, nee Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez, is the wife (1943) of former Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet. ... Inés Lucía Pinochet Hiriart (b. ...


At the end of 1945, he was assigned to the "Carampangue" Regiment in the northern city of Iquique. In 1948, he entered the War Academy, but he had to postpone his studies, because, being the youngest officer, he had to carry out a service mission in the coal zone of Lota. The following year, he returned to his studies in the Academy. After obtaining the title of Officer Chief of Staff, in 1951, he returned to teach at the Military School. At the same time, he worked as a teachers' aide at the War Academy, giving military geography and geopolitics classes. In addition to this, he was active as editor of the institutional magazine Cien Águilas ("One Hundred Eagles"). At the beginning of 1953, with the rank of major, he was sent for two years to the "Rancagua" Regiment in Arica. While there, he was appointed professor of the War Academy, and he returned to Santiago to take up his new position. Walk Baquedano Iquique (IPA /ikike/) is a city in northern Chile, capital of Tarapacá Region, on the Pacific coast, just west of the Atacama Desert. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal (pronounced ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Lota is a city located in the center of the Republic of Chile on the Gulf of Arauco. ... Arica, Chile 2005 Arica is a port city in northern Chile, located only 18 km (11 miles) south of the border with Peru. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ...


In 1956, Pinochet was chosen, together with a group of other young officers, to form a military mission that would collaborate in the organization of the War Academy of Ecuador in Quito, which forced him to suspend his law studies. He remained with the Quito mission for three-and-a-half years, during which time he dedicated himself to the study of geopolitics, military geography and intelligence. During his time there, he was known in diplomatic circles as an exceptional poker player. For other uses, see Quito (disambiguation). ... Geopolitics is the study that analyzes geography, history and social science with reference to spatial politics and patterns at various scales (ranging from home, city, region, state to international and cosmopolitics). ... ...


At the end of 1959, he returned to Chile and was sent to General Headquarters of the I Army Division, based in Antofagasta. The following year, he was appointed Commander of the "Esmeralda" Regiment. Due to his success in this position, he was appointed Sub-director of the War Academy in 1963. In 1968, he was named Chief of Staff of the II Army Division, based in Santiago, and at the end of that year, he was promoted to Brigadier General and Commander in Chief of the VI Division, garrisoned in Iquique. In his new function, he was also appointed Intendant of the Tarapacá Province. For the copper-mining company named after the region, see Antofagasta plc. ... Location of Santiago commune in Greater Santiago Coordinates: , Region Province Foundation February 12, 1541 Government  - Mayor Raúl Alcaíno Lihn Area 1  - City 22. ... Tarapacá may refer to Tarapacá Region, Chile Tarapacá Province (a former province of Peru, now Tarapacá Region, Chile) Tarapacá, Colombia (Municipality) Both the former province/ nowadays region and the municipality were involved in wars between Peru and his neighbors. ...


In January 1971, Pinochet rose to Division General, and was named General Commander of the Santiago Army Garrison. At the beginning of 1972, he was appointed General Chief of Staff of the Army. With rising domestic strife in Chile, Pinochet was appointed Army Commander in Chief on August 23, 1973 by President Salvador Allende just the day after the Chamber of Deputies of Chile approved the August 22, 1973 Resolution asserting that Allende was not respecting the Constitution. Less than a month later, the Chilean military deposed Allende. For the television series, see Commander in Chief (TV series). ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his death during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... Congress building The Chamber of Deputies of the Republic of Chile (Spanish: Cámara de Diputados) is the lower house of Chiles bicameral Congress. ...

Military coup of 1973

Main article: Chilean coup of 1973
La Moneda Presidential Palace being bombed during the coup (1973)

On September 11, 1973; the Armed Forces, with US support, overthrew Allende's government in a coup, during which the presidential palace, La Moneda, was shelled, while Allende committed suicide. The coup put an end to the Presidential Republic period of Chile (1924-1973). Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Image File history File linksMetadata MonedaBombing. ... Image File history File linksMetadata MonedaBombing. ... Front view of La Moneda The Palacio de La Moneda, or La Moneda, the actual seat of the President of the Republic of Chile, is one of the most notable buildings constructed by the Spanish crown in its American colonies. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Front view of La Moneda The Palacio de La Moneda, or La Moneda, the actual seat of the President of the Republic of Chile, is one of the most notable buildings constructed by the Spanish crown in its American colonies. ... Republics with presidential systems are shown in blue A presidential system, or a congressional system, is a system of government of a republic where the executive branch is elected separately from the legislative. ...


In his memoirs, Pinochet affirmed that he was the leading plotter of the coup, and used his position as Commander-in-chief of the Army to coordinate a far-reaching scheme with the other two branches of the military and the national police[citation needed]. In recent years, however, high military officials from the time have said that Pinochet reluctantly got involved only a few days before it was scheduled to occur and followed the lead of other branches (especially the Navy, under Merino) as they triggered the coup.[citation needed] There is some doubt as to whether Pinochet's declarations are true, because they give rise to the question as to why Pinochet was at first reluctant to become supreme head of the junta if, as he claimed, he was one of the main characters who planned it. As a literary genre, a memoir (from the French: mémoire from the Latin memoria, meaning memory) forms a subclass of autobiography, although it is an older form of writing. ...

Original members of the Government Junta of Chile (1973).
Original members of the Government Junta of Chile (1973).

In the months that followed the coup, the junta published a book titled El Libro Blanco del cambio de gobierno en Chile (commonly known as El Libro Blanco", The White Book of Change of Government in Chile), where they attempted to justify the coup by claiming that they were in fact anticipating a self-coup (the alleged Plan Zeta, or Plan Z) that Allende's government and/or its associates were purportedly preparing. United States intelligence agencies believed the plan to be simple propaganda[6]. Some Chilean historians, however, point to the similarities between Plan Z and other existing paramilitary plans of the Popular Unity parties in support of its legitimacy . [7]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ...


Military junta

A military junta was established immediately following the coup, made up of General Pinochet representing the Army, Admiral José Toribio Merino representing the Navy, General Gustavo Leigh representing the Air Force, and General César Mendoza representing the Carabineros (national police). As established the junta as executive and legislative branch of the government, suspended the Constitution and the Congress, imposed strict censorship and curfew, proscribed the left-wing parties and halted all political activities. This military junta governed until December 17, 1974, after which it functioned strictly as a legislative body. Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... The Chilean Army (Ejército de Chile in Spanish) is the land arm of the Military of Chile. ... The statue of José Toribio Merino in Valparaísos Naval Museum. ... Chilean Naval Ensign Chilean Navy Jack The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile. ... General Gustavo Leigh Guzmán (September 19, 1920-September 29, 1999) represented the Air Force in the junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990 He was born in Santiago, son of Hernán Leigh Bañados and Laura Guzmán Cea. ... Air Force Flag The Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aérea de Chile, FACH) is the national Air Force or aviation branch of the armed forces of Chile. ... General César Mendoza Durán (September 11, 1918-September 13, 1996) was a member of the military junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, representing the carabineros. ... Carabineros patrolling a street in Santiago Carabineros de Chile are the uniformed Chilean national police force and gendarmery, created on April 27, 1927. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Congress building The National Congress (Spanish: Congreso Nacional) is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Chile. ... This article is about the restrictions and constraints of particular movements. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


Regime

Main article: Chile under Pinochet

The junta members originally planned for the presidency to rotate among the commanders-in-chief of the four military branches. However, Pinochet soon consolidated his control, first retaining sole chairmanship of the military junta, and then proclaiming himself "Supreme Chief of the Nation" (de facto provisional president) on June 27, 1974. He officially changed his title to "President" on December 17, 1974. General Leigh, head of the Air Force, became increasingly opposed to Pinochet's policies and was forced into retirement on July 24, 1978. He was replaced by General Fernando Matthei. Original members of the Government Junta (1977). ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... General Fernando Matthei Aubel represented the Air Force in the junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990 after Gustavo Leigh was destituted on 1978. ...


Pinochet organized a plebiscite on September 11, 1980. The Chilean people was asked to ratify a new Constitution, replacing the 1925 Constitution drafted by President Arturo Alessandri. The new Constitution, partly drafted by Jaime Guzmán, a close adviser to Pinochet and future founder of the right-wing Independent Democrat Union (UDI), gave the position of President of the Republic, held by Pinochet, a large amount of power. It created some new institutions, such as the Constitutional Tribunal and the controversial National Security Council (COSENA). It also prescribed a single-candidate presidential referendum in 1988, and a return to civilian rule in 1990. The referendum was approved by 67.04% against 30.19% [8], although the Opposition denounced various irregularities. Headed by the ex-senator Patricio Aylwin and more than 46 others, they argued that this result did not tally with electoral records. One objection was that voters were only marked by ink on the thumb, which came off rapidly, making electoral fraud easy. These criticisms were rejected by the Scrutiny Association, and the Constitution was promulgated on October 21, 1980, taking effect on March 11, 1981. Pinochet replaced as President of the Junta that day by Adm. Merino. The National Plebiscite of 1980 in Chile was a referendum held on September 11, 1980 in order to approve the 1980 Political Constitution of the Republic of Chile as a replacement for Chiles 1925 constitution. ... Arturo Fortunato Alessandri Palma (December 20, 1868–August 24, 1950) was a Chilean political figure and reformer. ... Jaime Jorge Guzmán Errázuriz (June 28, 1946 - April 1, 1991) was a Chilean lawyer and senator, member and ideological founder of the right-wing Independent Democrat Union party. ... The Independent Democrat Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente, UDI) is a Chilean conservative political party. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Electoral fraud is illegal interference with the process of an election. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


This same year, Pinochet was promoted to the rank of Captain General previously borne by colonial governors and by Bernardo O'Higgins, a hero of Chile's war of independence. The rank has been subsequently reserved only for those who were simultaneously heads of Government and of the Army. Captain General is a rank and a title. ... Bernardo OHiggins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 – October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders – together with José de San Martín – of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. ... Combatants Chile Argentina Spain Commanders José Miguel Carrera Bernardo OHiggins José de San Martín Antonio Pareja Gabino Gaínza Mariano Osorio Casualties Unknown 1,000 Killed or Wounded, 2,000 Prisoners The independence of Chile from Spain was officially achieved on February 12, 1818. ...


In May 1983, the opposition and labor movements began to organize demonstrations and strikes against the regime, provoking violent responses from government officials. The beheading of professor José Manuel Parada, journalist Manuel Guerrero, and Santiago Nattino by the uniformed police (carabineros) led to the resignation of junta member General César Mendoza in 1985 (Caso Degollados, or Slit Throat Case). In a 1985 report, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights stated that it hoped that “the case now under way will lead to the identification and punishment of the persons responsible for the execution of so culpable an act.”[9] Eventually six members of the police secret service were given life sentence. General César Mendoza Durán (September 11, 1918-September 13, 1996) was a member of the military junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, representing the carabineros. ... The Caso Degollados (Spanish: Case of the Slit Throats) was a politically motivated crime and political scandal that took place in Chile. ... The Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (the IACHR or, in Spanish, CIDH) is one of the two bodies that comprise the inter-American system for the promotion and protection of human rights. ... Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ...


In 1986, security forces discovered 80 tons of weapons smuggled into the country by the Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (FPMR), the armed branch of the outlawed Communist Party, created in 1983. The shipment of Carrizal Bajo included C-4 plastic explosives, RPG-7 and M72 LAW rocket launchers as well as more than three thousand M-16 rifles. The operation was overseen by Cuban intelligence, and also involved East Germany and the Soviet Union. The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (Spanish: Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez) (FPMR) is a Communist guerrilla organization in Chile, named for a figure in Chiles independence movement, Manuel Rodríguez. ... The Communist Party of Chile YOU MOTHERFUCKING COMMUNISTS GO TO HELL! (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party that advocates communism. ... A C-4 plastic explosive. ... The RPG-7 (Russian: ) is a widely-produced, portable, shoulder-launched, anti-tank rocket propelled grenade weapon. ... The M72 LAW (Light Anti-Tank Weapon, also referred to as the Light Anti-Armor Weapon or LAW) is a portable one-shot 66 mm anti-tank weapon, designed in the United States by Talley Defense Systems, produced by Nammo Raufoss AS in Norway. ... M16 is the U.S. Military designation for a family of rifles derived from the ArmaLite AR-15. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


In September, weapons from the same source were used in an unsuccessful assassination attempt against Pinochet by the FPMR. Taken by surprise, five of his military bodyguards were killed. Although Pinochet's armored car was struck by a rocket, it did not explode, and Pinochet suffered only minor injuries, managing to escape [10] Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... A Rolls Royce armoured car 1920 pattern Railway shop workers built this vehicle for use by the Danish resistance movement near the end of World War II. For tracked, armored military vehicles, see Armored fighting vehicle. ...


Suppression of opposition

Further information: Operation Condor and Augusto Pinochet's arrest and trial

Almost immediately after the military's seizure of power, the junta banned all the leftist parties that had constituted Allende's UP coalition. All other parties were placed in "indefinite recess," and were later banned outright. The dictatorship's violence was directed not only against dissidents, but also against their families and other civilians. For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ...


The Rettig Report concluded that 2,279 persons who disappeared during the military government were killed for political reasons, and approximately 30,000 tortured according to the later Valech Report, while several thousand were exiled. The latter were chased all over the world in the frame of Operation Condor, a cooperation plan between the various intelligence agencies of South American countries, assisted by a US communication base in Panama. Pinochet believed these operations were necessary in order to "save the country from communism"[11]. The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance committed in Chile during the years of military rule under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990. ... Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South...


Some political scientists have ascribed the relative bloodiness of the coup to the stability of the existing democratic system, which required extreme action to overturn. Some of the most famous cases of human rights violation occurred during the early period: in October 1973, at least 70 people were killed by the Caravan of Death, to which Manuel Contreras, later head of the DINA intelligence service, participated. Charles Horman, a US journalist, "disappeared", as did Víctor Olea Alegría, a member of the Socialist Party, and many others, in 1973. Generals Sergio Arellano Stark and Augusto Pinochet a few hours before the departure of the Caravan of Death (September 1973) The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army squad that, following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between September 30 and October... General Juan Manuel Guillermo Contreras Sepúlveda (born May 4, 1929) was the head of Augusto Pinochets National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) and one of the most powerful men in Chile during Pinochets rule. ... Dina may refer to: A villBold textge in India where the Zafarnama was written A Sanskrit word meaning day An English spelling variation of Dinah, a Hebrew name. ... Charles Horman (May 15, 1942 – September 20, 1973), an American journalist, was one of the victims of the coup détat led by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile on September 11, 1973 which deposed the democratically-elected socialist president, Salvador Allende. ... Disappear redirects here. ... Víctor Olea Alegría (b. ... Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile, PSC) is a political party in Chile, and part of the...


Furthermore, many other important officials of Allende's government were tracked down by the DINA in the frame of Operation Condor. Thus, General Carlos Prats, Pinochet's predecessor and army commander under Allende, who had resigned rather than support the moves against Allende's government, was assassinated in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 1974. A year later, the murder of 119 opponents abroad was disguised as an internal conflict, the DINA setting up a propaganda campaign to accredit this thesis (Operation Colombo). General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... For other uses, see Buenos Aires (disambiguation). ... Operation Colombo design a disinformation plan by the DINA ,chileans secret police, in july 1976, to cover up the murder of 119 leftist opponents. ...


Other victims of Condor included, among hundreds of less famous persons, Juan José Torres, the former President of Bolivia, assassinated in Buenos Aires on 2 June, 1976; Carmelo Soria, a UN diplomat working for the CEPAL, assassinated in July 1976; Orlando Letelier, a former Chilean ambassador to the United States and minister in Allende's cabinet, assassinated after his release from internment and exile in Washington, D.C. by a car bomb on September 21, 1976. This led to strained relations with the US and to the extradition of Michael Townley, a US citizen who worked for the DINA and had organized Letelier's assassination. Other targeted victims, who escaped assassination, included Christian-Democrat Bernardo Leighton, who escaped an assassination attempt in Rome in 1975 by the Italian terrorist Stefano delle Chiaie; Carlos Altamirano, the leader of the Chilean Socialist Party, targeted for murder in 1975 by Pinochet, along with Volodia Teitelboim, member of the Communist Party; Pascal Allende, the nephew of Salvador Allende and president of the MIR, who escaped an assassination attempt in Costa Rica in March 1976; US Congressman Edward Koch, who became aware in 2001 of relations between death threats and his denounciation of Operation Condor, etc. Furthermore, according to current investigations, Eduardo Frei Montalva, the Christian Democrat President of Chile from 1964 to 1970, may have been poisoned in 1982 by toxin produced by DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios [12]. Juan Jose Torres Gonzales (1921— 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader. ... Carmelo Soria (Madrid, 5 November 1921 – Santiago de Chile, 16 July 1976) was a Spanish diplomat. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UNECLAC or ECLAC) was established in 1948 (then as the UN Economic Commission for Latin America, or UNECLA) to encourage economic cooperation among its member states. ... Letelier case (September 21, 1976) refers to the murder of Orlando Letelier, a Chilean political figure and, later, United States-based activist, who was assassinated in Washington, D.C. along with his American assistant, Ronni Moffitt, by Chilean agents of the DINA, the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (National Intelligence... For other uses, see Ambassador (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ... Bernardo Leighton (born on August 16, 1909 - died on January 26, 1995) was a Chilean Christian Democrat who has been targeted by Operation Condor. ... Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 1934) was a figure on the far right of Italian politics who went on to become a wanted man worldwide. ... Carlos Altamirano Orrego (December 18, 1922, Santiago de Chile) is a lawyer and one of the most influential politicians of Chilean socialism. ... Volodia Teitelboim Volosky is a Chilean-Jewish lawyer, politician and literary figure, born in the city of Chillan on 17th of March, 1916. ... Andrés Pascal Allende is a Chilean Marxist revolutionary and nephew of former President Salvador Allende. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ... Ed Koch, a Democrat, speaks at the 2004 Republican National Convention in support of the re-election of President George W. Bush. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Eugenio Berríos Sagredo (died in April 1995) was a Chilean biochemist who worked for the DINA intelligence agency. ...


Protests continued, however, during the 1980s, leading to several scandals. In March 1985, the savage murder of three Communist Party members led to the resignation of César Mendoza, head of the Carabineros and member of the junta since its formation. During a 1986 protest against Pinochet, 18 years-old student Carmen Gloria Quintana was burnt alive. The Communist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party that advocates communism. ... General César Mendoza Durán (September 11, 1918-September 13, 1996) was a member of the military junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990, representing the carabineros. ... Carabineros patrolling a street in Santiago Carabineros de Chile are the uniformed Chilean national police force and gendarmery, created on April 27, 1927. ... Carmen Gloria Quintana Arancibia (born c. ... The Burnt Alive Case (Spanish: Caso quemados) was a politically motivated crime and political scandal in that took place in Chile. ...


In August 1989, Marcelo Barrios Andres, a 21 years-old member of the FPMR (the armed wing of the PCC, created in 1983, which had attempted to assassinate Pinochet on September 7, 1986), was assassinated by a group of militaries, supposed to arrest him on orders of Valparaíso's public prosecutor. However, they simply executed him — this case was included in the Rettig Report [13]. The Manuel Rodríguez Patriotic Front (Spanish: Frente Patriótico Manuel Rodríguez) (FPMR) is a Communist guerrilla organization in Chile, named for a figure in Chiles independence movement, Manuel Rodríguez. ... is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


Further scandals emerged after the return to democracy, such as the allegations that an ex-Nazi, Paul Schäfer, who had set up in Pinochet's Chile an enclave, Colonia Dignidad, had worked with the DINA. The Chilean transition to democracy (colloquially known in Chile as the Transición) began in 1988, with Augusto Pinochets defeat in the October 5, 1988 plebiscite. ... Ex-Nazis are those who were once Nazis and resigned from the party. ... Paul Schäfer Paul Schäfer Schneider (born December 4, 1921) is the founder and former leader of a sect and agricultural commune of German immigrants called Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony)—later renamed Villa Baviera—located in central Chile, about 340 km south of Santiago. ... Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony, now known as Villa Baviera, Bavaria Village), is a settlement located in an isolated area in the Maule Region of southern Chile, near the village of Parral. ...


Economic policy

Main article: Chile under Pinochet#Economy and Free Market reforms

By mid 1975, Pinochet set forth an economic policy of neo-liberal, free-market reform. He declared that he wanted "to make Chile not a nation of proletarians, but a nation of proprietors."[citation needed] To formulate his economic policy, Pinochet relied on the so-called Chicago Boys, who were economists trained at the University of Chicago and heavily influenced by the monetarist ideas of Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger. Original members of the Government Junta (1977). ... For the school of international relations, see Neoliberalism in international relations. ... A free market is a market where prices of goods and services are arranged completely by the mutual non-coerced consent of sellers and buyers, determined generally by the supply and demand law with no government interference in the regulation of costs, supply and demand. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is called a proletarian. ... A proprietary colony is a colony in which the king gave land to one or more people called proprietors. ... The Chicago Boys (c. ... For other uses, see University of Chicago (disambiguation). ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... Economist responsible for Harbergers Triangle, used largely in welfare economics. ...


Pinochet launched an era of deregulation of business and privatization. To accomplish these objectives, his government abolished the minimum wage, removed artificially lowered food prices, rescinded trade union rights, privatized the pension system, and reprivatized state-owned industries, and banks, and lowered taxes on income and profits. However, the large copper industry, nationalized by Allende, remained under control of the government owned Codelco. Parts of its benefits were attributed to the Chilean Armed Forces' budget. Deregulation is the process by which governments remove, reduce, or simplify restrictions on business and individuals in order to (in theory) encourage the efficient operation of markets. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The minimum wage is the minimum rate a worker can legally be paid (usually per hour) as opposed to wages that are determined by the forces of supply and demand in a free market. ... A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The nationalization of the Chilean copper industry, (Chilenization) during the Salvador Allende government was the espoused basis for a later international boycott, which further isolated Chile from the world economy, worsening the state of political polarization. ... CODELCO (full name in Spanish: Corporación Nacional del Cobre de Chile; in English: Chilean National Copper Corporation) is a state-owned company in Chile and the worlds largest copper producer with estimated 200 years of copper reserves. ... Chiles armed forces are subject to civilian control exercised by the president through the Minister of Defense. ...


Supporters of these policies (most notably the late nobel laureate from the University of Chicago School of Economics, Milton Friedman himself), have dubbed them "The Miracle of Chile," due to the country's sustained economic growth since the late 1980s. Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... The Miracle of Chile is a phrase coined by Milton Friedman in 1982 to describe the liberal, monetarist economic reforms implemented in Chile under the government of President Augusto Pinochet. ...


Pinochet's neoliberal economic policies' benefits have been sharply contested. In 1973, unemployment was only 4.3%. Following ten years of junta rule in 1983, unemployment skyrocketed to 22%. Real wages declined by more than 40%. In 1970, 20% of Chile's population lived in poverty, but by 1990, the last year of Pinochet's dictatorship, poverty had doubled to 40%.[14] Between 1982 and 1983, the GDP dropped 19%. In 1970, the daily diet of the poorest 40 percent of the population contained 2,019 calories. By 1980 this had fallen to 1,751, and by 1990 it was down to 1,629. Furthermore, the percentage of Chileans without adequate housing increased from 27 to 40 percent between 1972 and 1988, despite the government's boast that the new economy would solve homelessness.[14] Meanwhile, inequality of wealth increased. In 1970, the richest one-fifth of the population controlled 45% of the wealth compared to 7.6% for the poorest one-fifth. In 1989, the richest one-fifth controlled 55% of the wealth while the poorest one-fifth controlled only 4.4%.[15]


1988 referendum and transition to democracy

Pinochet, 1995
Pinochet, 1995
Further information: Chilean transition to democracy

According to the transitional provisions of the 1980 Constitution, a referendum was scheduled for October 5, 1988, to vote on a new eight-year presidential term for Pinochet. Confronted to increasing opposition, notably at the international level, Pinochet legalized political parties in 1987 and called for a plebiscite to determine whether or not he would remain in power until 1997. If the "YES" won, Pinochet would have to implement the dispositions of the 1980 Constitution, mainly the call for general elections, while he would himself remain in power as President. If the "NO" won, Pinochet would remain President for another year, and a joint Presidential and Parliamentary election then be scheduled. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 350 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 773 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augusto Pinochet ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 350 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (451 × 773 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augusto Pinochet ... The Chilean transition to democracy (colloquially known in Chile as the Transición) began in 1988, with Augusto Pinochets defeat in the October 5, 1988 plebiscite. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


Beside the softening of the Cold War and the initiating of reforms by Gorbachev, which tended to make Pinochet's anti-Communism discourse less audible among the international community, Pinochet appeared at the time as one of the last dictators of South America. Successively, Latin American dictatorships were toppled, opening the way for long period of uneven democratic transitions. Thus, Argentina had returned to civilian rule in 1983 as well as Bolivia, Uruguay in 1984, Brazil in 1985, etc. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ; Pronunciation: mih-kha-ILL ser-GHE-ye-vich gor-bah-CHOFF) (born March 2, 1931), was leader of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991. ... Democratization (British English: Democratisation) is the transition from an authoritarian or a semi-authoritarian political system to a democratic political system. ... This article is about the history of Argentina. ...


Another alleged reason of Pinochet's decision to call for elections was the April 1987 visit of Pope John Paul II to Chile. According to the US Catholic author George Weigel, he held a meeting with Pinochet during which they treated of the theme of the return to democracy. John Paul II would have allegedly pushed Pinochet to accept a democratic opening of the regime, and would even have called for his resignation.[16] This has been contested however by critics, who claimed John Paul II never said a word concerning human right violations in Chile during his visit. The Polish Pope was known as a supporter of anti-Communists, and during his reign the Vatican had harshly condemned the Liberation theology, by the voice of Cardinal Ratzinger (current Pope Benedict XVI), then head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... George Weigel (Baltimore, 1951 - ) is an American Catholic author, and political and social activist. ... Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Liberation theology is a school of theology within the Catholic Church that focuses on Jesus Christ as not only the Redeemer but also the Liberator of the oppressed. ... Pope John Paul II with Cardinal Ratzinger in 1978. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ...


Whatever the case, political advertisement was legalized on September 5, 1987, and became a key element of the campaign for the "NO" to the referendum, which countered the official campaign which presaged a return to a Popular Unity government in case of a defeat of Pinochet. The Opposition, gathered into the Concertación de Partidos por el NO ("Coalition of Parties for NO") organized a colorful and cheerful campaign under the slogan La alegría ya viene ("Joy is coming"). On October 5, 1988, the "NO" vote won with a 55.00% majority [17]. It was formed by the Christian Democracy, the Socialist Party and the Radical Party, gathered in the Alianza Democrática (Democratic Alliance). In 1988, several more parties, including the Humanist Party, the Ecologist Party, the Social Democrats, and several Socialist Party splinter groups added their support, despite fears of election fraud by Pinochet. is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... The Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Spanish: Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia), more often known as the Concertación, is an alliance of center-left political parties in Chile, founded in 1988. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Christian Democrat Party of Chile (Partido Demócrata Cristiano de Chile) is a political party in Chile and governs as part of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Social Democrat Radical Party (Partido Radical Socialdemócrata) is a social democratic, left wing and liberal party in Chile. ... The Humanist Party (Partido Humanista) is a progressive left-wing political party in Chile, founded in 1984. ... The Green Party of Chile is one of South Americas few members of the global green movement. ...


Finally, the "NO" to Pinochet won with 55.99% of the votes, against 44.1% of the votes. According to several sources, Pinochet thought of not recognizing the results, but finally decided to adhere to them and continue with the Constitutional process. Presidential and legislative elections were called for the next year.


The Coalition changed their name to Concertación de Partidos por la Democracia (Coalition of Parties for Democracy) and put forward Patricio Aylwin, the Christian Democrat leader, as a presidential candidate, as well as launching a common list for the parliamentary elections. The opposition and the Pinochet government made several negotiations to amend the Constitution and they both agreed to 54 modifications, changing the way the Constitution would be modified in the future, restriction of state of emergency dispositions, the affirmation of political pluralism, the strengthening of constitutional rights as well as of the democratic principle and participation to the political life. In July 1989, a referendum on these proposed changes took place, supported by all the parties in the political spectrum except the right-wing Avanzada Nacional. The Constitutional changes were approved by 91.25% of the voters. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... In the social sciences, pluralism is a framework of interaction in which groups show sufficient respect and tolerance of each other, that they fruitfully coexist and interact without conflict or assimilation. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation). ... The 1989 Chilean referendum took place on 30 July 1989, and opened up the way for the transition to democracy. ...


Thereafter, Aylwin won the December 1989 presidential election with 55.17% of the votes [17], against less than 30% for the right-wing candidate, Hernan Buchi, who had been Pinochet's Minister of Finances since 1985 (there was also a third-party candidate, Francisco Javier Errázuriz, who garnered the remaining 15%[17]. Pinochet thus left the presidency on March 11, 1990 and transferred power to the new democratically elected president. Politics of Chile Politics of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: President: 1970 - 1989 - Chile on 14 December 1989. ... Francisco Javier Errázuriz Talavera (b. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


The Concertación also gained the majority of votes for the Parliament. However, due to the binomial system, the appointed senators, and the necessary quorums to pass certain laws, they had no complete majority in Parliament, a situation they found themselves in constantly for over 15 years. This forced them to negotiate all law projects with the Alliance for Chile (originally called "Democracy and Progress" and then "Union for Chile"), a center-right coalition involving the Unión Demócrata Independiente (UDI) and Renovación Nacional (RN), parties composed of many of Pinochet's supporters. The Alliance for Chile (Spanish Alianza por Chile), also known as La Alianza (The Alliance), is a coalition of right wing Chilean political parties. ... The Independent Democrat Union (Unión Demócrata Independiente, UDI) is a Chilean conservative political party. ... National Renewal (RN) (Spanish: Renovación Nacional), is a center-right liberal conservative political party belonging to the Chilean right-wing political coalition Alliance for Chile in conjunction with the Independent Democratic Union (UDI). ...


Due to the transitional provisions of the constitution, Pinochet remained as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, until March 1998. He was then sworn in as a senator-for-life, a privilege first granted to former presidents with at least six years in office by the constitution. His senatorship and consequent immunity from prosecution protected him from deposed complaints against him, and legal challenges began only after Pinochet had been arrested in 1998 in the United Kingdom, on order of an arrest warrant issued by the Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón —allegations of abuses had been made numerous times before his arrest, but never acted upon [18]. A senator for life is a member of the Italian Senate appointed by the President of the Italian Republic for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. ... Immunity, also known as transactional immunity, confers a status on a person or body that places them beyond the law and makes that person or body free from otherwise legal obligations such as, for example, liability for torts or damages or prosecution under criminal law for criminal acts. ... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ...


Arrest and trial

Pinochet's regime has been accused of systematic and widespread human rights violations both in Chile and abroad, including mass-murder, torture, kidnapping, illegal detention, and censorship of the press. At the end of his life, he was also criticized for using his position to enrich himself and his family — a fact which wasn't known to the general public, as he had always tried to present a rather modest style of life. General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Censor. ...


On October 17, 1998, while visiting the United Kingdom for medical treatment, Pinochet was arrested on a Spanish provisional warrant for the murder in Chile of Spanish citizens while he was president.[19] Five days later, Pinochet was served with a second provisional arrest warrant from the Spanish judge Baltasar Garzón, charging him with systematic torture, murder, illegal detention, and forced disappearances. The case was a watershed event in judicial history, as it was the first time that a dictator was arrested on the principle of universal jurisdiction (See Augusto Pinochet's arrest and trial:The principle of universal jurisdiction for further details.) is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ... A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from public view, either by murder or by simple sequestration. ... Universal jurisdiction or universality principle is a controversial principle in international law whereby states claim criminal jurisdiction over persons whose alleged crimes were committed outside the boundaries of the prosecuting state, regardless of nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting country. ... General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ...


After having been placed under house arrest in Britain and initiating a judicial battle, he was eventually released in March 2000 on medical grounds by the then Home Secretary Jack Straw without facing trial [20]. In justice and law, house arrest is the situation where a person is confined (by the authorities) to his or her residence. ... John Whitaker Straw (born August 3, 1946) is a British Labour Party politician. ...


Henceforth, on 3 March 2000, Pinochet returned to Chile. His first act when landing in Santiago de Chile's airport was to triumphally sit up from his chair to acclaim his supporters [21][22]. He was first greeted by his successor as head of the Chilean armed forces, General Ricardo Izurieta [22]. President Ricardo Lagos, who had just sworn in on March 11, said the retired general's televised arrival had damaged the image of Chile, while thousands demonstrated against him.[23] is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ... Ricardo Froilán Lagos Escobar (born March 2, 1938) is a lawyer, economist and social democrat politician, who served as president of Chile from 2000 to 2006 . ...


In March 2000, the Congress approved a constitutional amendment creating the status of "ex-president," which granted its owner immunity from prosecution and guaranteed him a financial allowance. In exchange, it required him to resign his seat of senator-for-life. 111 legislators voted for, and 29 (mostly, if not all, from the Left) against [24]. Chiles current constitution, approved by a referendum in the year 1980, replaced the earlier constitution from 1925. ... A senator for life is a member of the Italian Senate appointed by the President of the Italian Republic for outstanding merits in the social, scientific, artistic or literary field. Former Presidents of the Republic are ex officio life senators. ...


In Chile, judge Juan Guzmán Tapia (who had been during the dictatorship a supporter of Pinochet) initiated a procedure against him, requesting three days after his return to Chile the suspension of his parliamentary immunity. Pinochet's legal team was headed by Pablo Rodríguez, the former leader of the far-right paramilitary group Fatherland and Liberty (Patria y Libertad). Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia was born on April 22, 1939 in Salvador, in a Chilean diplomat family, which acclaimed Augusto Pinochets coup détat in 1973. ... Parliamentary immunity is a system in which members of the parliament are granted partial immunity from prosecution. ... Pablo Rodríguez Grez (20 December 1937, Santiago de Chile) is a Chilean lawyer and politician. ... The Fatherland and Liberty Nationalist Front (Spanish: Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad or simply Patria y Libertad, PyL) was a neo-fascist paramilitary group in Chile formed on 1 April 1971 by Jaime Guzmán and Pablo Rodríguez Grez. ...


The Supreme Court acceeded to Juan Guzmán's request in August 2000, and Pinochet was indicted on December 1, 2000 for the "kidnapping" of 75 opponents in the Caravan of Death case — Guzmán advanced the charge of "kidnapping" as they were officially "disappeared:" even though they were all most likely dead, the absence of their corpses made any charge of "homicide" difficult [25]. Supreme Court building in Santiago The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court in Chile. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Generals Sergio Arellano Stark and Augusto Pinochet a few hours before the departure of the Caravan of Death (September 1973) The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army squad that, following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between September 30 and October... Disappear redirects here. ...


However, in July 2002, the Supreme Court dismissed Pinochet's indictment in the various human rights abuse cases, for medical reasons (an alleged "vascular dementia"). The debate concerned Pinochet's mental faculties, his legal team claiming that he was senile and could not remember, while others (including several physicians) claimed that he was only physically affected but retained all control of his faculties. The same year, the prosecuting attorney Hugo Guttierez, in charge of the Caravan of Death case, declared that "Our country has the degree of justice that the political transition permits us to have.[26]" For other uses, see Dementia (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... 2006 student protests. ...


Pinochet resigned his senatorial seat shortly after the Supreme Court's July 2002 ruling. In May 2004, the Supreme Court overturned its precedent decision, and ruled that he was capable of standing trial. In arguing their case, the prosecution presented a recent television interview Pinochet had given for a Miami-based television network, which raised doubts about the mental incapacity of Pinochet. He was charged with several crimes in December of that year (including the 1974 assassination of General Prats, the Operation Colombo case (119 dead), etc., and again placed under house arrest, on the eve of his 90th birthday. Questioned by his judges in order to know if, as President, he was the direct head of DINA, he answered: "I don't remember, but it's not true. And if it were true, I don't remember." [27] General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Operation Colombo design a disinformation plan by the DINA ,chileans secret police, in july 1976, to cover up the murder of 119 leftist opponents. ... Dina may refer to: A villBold textge in India where the Zafarnama was written A Sanskrit word meaning day An English spelling variation of Dinah, a Hebrew name. ...


In January 2005, the Chilean Army accepted institutional responsibility for past human rights abuses. Other institutions also accept that abuses took place, but blame them on individuals, rather than official policy. Lucía Pinochet Hiriart, Augusto Pinochet's eldest daughter, said the use of torture during his 1973–90 regime was "barbaric and without justification", after seeing the Valech Report[citation needed]. Much of the torture was carried out at secret prison facilities like Villa Grimaldi, Chacabuco, and Pisagua. Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ... Villa Grimaldi was a torture and detention center used by the DINA (Direccion de Inteligencia Nacional), Chilean secret police, under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship. ... Chacabuco may refer to Argentina Chacabuco, Buenos Aires Chacabuco Partido Chile Chacabuco Province This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pisagua is a city in Tarapaca Region, Chile. ...


The same year, the US revealed that Pinochet had a large network of secret bank accounts abroad (See below). On November 22, 2005, he was indicted on tax evasion charges and placed again under house arrest for an alleged $27 million hidden in secret accounts under false names. That figure was later reduced to $11 million. Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile as a military dictator [2] from 1974 to 1990, and head of the military junta from 1973 to 1974. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article contrasts tax evasion, tax avoidance, tax resistance and tax mitigation. ...


Furthermore, Pinochet was indicted in 2006 for kidnappings and tortures at Villa Grimaldi detention center by the judge Alejandro Madrid (Guzmán's successor) [28], as well as for the 1995 assassination of the DINA biochemist Eugenio Berrios (himself involved in the Letelier case) [29]. Berrios, who had worked with Michael Townley, had produced sarin gas, anthrax and botulism in the Bacteriological War Army Laboratory for Pinochet (used against political opponents). The DINA biochemist was also alleged of having created black cocaine, which Pinochet then sold in Europe and the United States [30]. The money for the drug trade was allegedly put directly into Pinochet's bank accounts [31]. Pinochet's son Marco Antonio, who had been accused of participating in the drug tradem, has denied claims of drug trafficking in his father's administration and announced a lawsuit for libel against Manuel Contreras, who had also claimed Pinochet sold cocaine[32]. Villa Grimaldi was a torture and detention center used by the DINA (Direccion de Inteligencia Nacional), Chilean secret police, under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship. ... Eugenio Berríos Sagredo (died in April 1995) was a Chilean biochemist who worked for the DINA intelligence agency. ... Letelier case (September 21, 1976) refers to the murder of Orlando Letelier, a Chilean political figure and, later, United States-based activist, who was assassinated in Washington, D.C. along with his American assistant, Ronni Moffitt, by Chilean agents of the DINA, the Dirección de Inteligencia Nacional (National Intelligence... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ... Sarin, also known by its NATO designation of GB (O-Isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate) is an extremely toxic substance whose sole application is as a nerve agent. ... Botulism (Latin, botulus, sausage) is a rare, but serious paralytic illness caused by a nerve toxin, botulin, that is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons), off the coast of Panama. ... General Juan Manuel Guillermo Contreras Sepúlveda (born May 4, 1929) was the head of Augusto Pinochets National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) and one of the most powerful men in Chile during Pinochets rule. ...


On October 30, 2006, Pinochet was charged with 36 counts of kidnapping, 23 counts of torture, and one of murder for the torture and disappearance of opponents of his regime at Villa Grimaldi. is the 303rd day of the year (304th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


On November 25, 2006, Pinochet marked his 91st birthday by having his wife pronounced a statement written by him, and read to his admirers present for his birthday: "I assume the political responsibility of all what has been done." [33]" Two days later, he was again ordered to house arrest for the kidnapping and murder of two bodyguards of Salvador Allende who were arrested the day of the 1973 coup and executed by a firing squad during the Caravan of Death episode.[34][35] is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, Pinochet died a few days later, on 10 December, 2006, without having been convicted of any crimes committed during his dictatorship.


Secret bank accounts, tax evasion and arms deal

In 2004, a United States Senate money laundering investigation led by Sen. Carl Levin (D-MI) and Norm Coleman (R-MN) — ordered in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks — uncovered a network of over 125 securities and bank accounts at Riggs Bank and other U.S. financial institutions used by Pinochet and his associates for twenty-five years to secretly move millions of dollars.[36] Though the subcommittee was charged only with investigating compliance of financial institutions under the USA PATRIOT Act, and not the Pinochet regime, Sen. Coleman noted: Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Money laundering is the practice of engaging in financial transactions in order to conceal the identity, source and destination of the money in question. ... Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ... See Norman Jay Coleman for the former secretary of Agriculture. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Riggs Bank was a Washington, DC-based commercial bank with branches located in the surrounding metropolitan area and offices around the world. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...

This is a sad, sordid tale of money laundering involving Pinochet accounts at multiple financial institutions using alias names, offshore accounts, and close associates. As a former General and President of Chile, Pinochet was a well-known human rights violator and violent dictator.[37]

Over several months in 2005, Chilean judge Sergio Muñoz indicted Augusto Pinochet's wife, Lucia Hiriart; four of his children --Marco Antonio, Jacqueline, Veronica and Lucia Pinochet; secretary Monica Ananias; and former aide Oscar Aitken on tax evasion and falsification charges stemming from the Riggs Bank investigation. In January 2006, daughter Lucia Pinochet was detained at Washington DC-Dulles airport and subsequently deported while attempting to evade the tax charges in Chile.[38] In January 2007, the Santiago Court of Appeals revoked most of the indictement from Judge Carlos Cerda against the Pinochet family [39]. But Pinochet's five children, his wife Lucia Hiriart, and 17 other persons (including two generals, one of his ex-lawyer and his ex-secretary) were arrested in October 2007 on charges of embezzlement and use of false passports. They are accused of having illegally transferred $27m (£13.2m) to foreign bank accounts during Pinochet's rule [40][41]. Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ... Lucía Hiriart de Pinochet (2005) María Lucía Hiriart Rodríguez (b. ...


In September 2005, a joint-investigation by The Guardian and La Tercera revealed that the British arms firms BAE Systems had been identified as paying more than £1m to Pinochet, through a front company in the British Virgin Islands, which BAE has used to channel commission on arms deals [42]. The payments began in 1997 and lasted until 2004 [42][43]. For other uses, see Guardian. ... La Tercera (formerly Las Tercera de la Hora) is a Chilean newspaper owned by Copesa. ... , BAE Systems plc (BAE) is a British defence and aerospace company headquartered at Farnborough, UK, which has worldwide interests, particularly in North America through its subsidiary BAE Systems Inc. ...


Furthermore, in 2007, fifteen years of investigation led to the conclusion that the 1992 assassination of DINA Colonel Gerardo Huber was most probably related to various illegal arms traffic carried out, after Pinochet's resignation from power, by military circles very close to himself. [5]. Huber had been assassinated a short time before he was due to testify in the case concerning the 1991 illegal export of weapons to Croatian paramilitaries. The deal involved 370 tons of weapons, sold to Croatia by Chile on 7 December 1991, when the former country was under a United Nations' embargo because of the war against Serbia.[44]. In January 1992, the judge Hernán Correa de la Cerda wanted to hear Gerardo Huber in this case, but the latter may have been silenced to avoid implicating Pinochet in this new case [45][46][5] — although the latter was not anymore President, he remained at the time Commander-in-Chief of the Army. Pinochet was at the center of this illegal arms trade, receiving money through various offshores and front companies, including the Banco Coutts International in Miami [47]. Gerardo Huber Olivares (disappeared 29 January 1992) was a Chilean Army Colonel and agent of the DINA Chilean intelligence agency, in charge of buying weapons abroad for the Chilean Army [1] [2]. He was assassinated a short time before he was due to testify before the magistrate Hernán Correa... In law and in religion, testimony is a solemn attestation as to the truth of a matter. ... The AK-47 has been produced in greater numbers than any other assault rifle and has been used in conflicts all over the world. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ... Combatants Croatian military Paramilitary organisations Republic of Serb Krajina Army Yugoslav Peoples Army Bosnian Serb Army Republic of Serbia Paramilitary organisations Commanders Franjo TuÄ‘man (President of Croatia) Anton Tus (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1991-1992) Janko Bobetko (Chief of Staff of Croatian Army 1992-1995) Atif... General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ... Offshore has three principal meanings: Physical - in the sea away from the shore; not on the shoreline but out to sea. ... A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, criminal organizations, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations. ... This article is about the city in Florida. ...


Death and funeral

Pinochet inside his coffin at the time of the funeral.
Pinochet inside his coffin at the time of the funeral.

Pinochet suffered a heart attack on the morning of December 3, 2006, and subsequently the same day he was given the last rites. On December 4, 2006, the Chilean Court of Appeals ordered the release of his house arrest. On December 10, 2006 at 13:30 local time (16:30 UTC) he was taken to the ICU .[48] He died of congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema,[49] surrounded by family members, at the Military Hospital at 14:15 local time (17:15 UTC).[50] His last word was Lucy, the name of his wife (Lucia Hiriart). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 800 pixel, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augusto Pinochet Metadata This file contains... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 399 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (533 × 800 pixel, file size: 81 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augusto Pinochet Metadata This file contains... Heart attack redirects here. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Anointing of the Sick is one of the sacraments of the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and some Protestant churches. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ... Pulmonary edema is swelling and/or fluid accumulation in the lungs. ... The Last Words - Malcolm Baxter (vocals), Andy Groome (guitar), Leigh Kendall (bass), John Gunn (drums) - were one of the first Australian punk bands. ...


Massive spontaneous street demonstrations[citation needed] broke out throughout the country upon the learning of his death. In Santiago, opponents celebrated at the Alameda avenue, while supporters grieved outside the Military Hospital. Pinochet's corpse was publicly exhibited on December 11, 2006 at the Military School in Las Condes, and viewed by hundred of thousands. During this ceremony, the grandson of murdered general Carlos Prats spat on the coffin, in a moment he was surrounded by thousands of followers of the dead dictator.[51] Pinochet's funeral took place the following day on the same venue. is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kennedy Avenue Las Condes is a municipality (comuna) of Chile located in the northeastern part of the province of Santiago in the Santiago Metropolitan Region, at the foot of the Andes mountains. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ...


In a government decision, he was not granted a state funeral, as is normally given to former presidents, but a military funeral, as former commander-in-chief of the Army. The government also refused to declare an official national day of mourning, but it did authorize flags at military barracks to fly at half staff. Socialist President Michelle Bachelet, whose father Alberto Bachelet was temporarily imprisoned and tortured after the 1973 coup, dying shortly after heart complications, said it would be "a violation of [her] conscience" to attend a state funeral for Pinochet[52]. The only government authority present at the funeral was the Defense Minister, Vivianne Blanlot. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... A caisson bearing a coffin, with military escort. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (born September 29, 1951) is a center-left politician and the current President of Chile—the first woman to hold this position in the countrys history. ... Alberto Arturo Miguel Bachelet Martínez (c. ...


Pinochet's body was cremated in "Parque del Mar" cemetery, Concón on December 12, 2006, on his request to "avoid vandalism of his tomb", according to his son Marco Antonio.[53] His remains were delivered to his family later that day. The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... Concón is a city and commune of Valparaíso Province, in Valparaíso Region, Chile. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


See also

Map of Chile This is the history of Chile. ... A presidential election was held in Chile on 4 September 1970. ... Original members of the Junta shortly after taking power. ... Original members of the Government Junta (1977). ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... General Augusto Pinochet was indicted in 1998 by the Spanish magistrate Baltasar Garzón, arrested in London and finally released by the British government in 2000. ... The United States on several occasions sought to influence the policies or government of Chile. ... For other uses, see Missing. ... Charles Horman (May 15, 1942 – September 20, 1973), an American journalist, was one of the victims of the coup détat led by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile on September 11, 1973 which deposed the democratically-elected socialist president, Salvador Allende. ...

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Pinochet pronounced his own name with a silent t (although it is not uncommon for the t to be pronounced by local Spanish speakers.)
  2. ^ English translation of the Rettig Report
  3. ^ 2004 Commission on Torture (Valech Report) (Spanish)
  4. ^ Chang, Jack; Yulkowski, Lisa. "Vocal minority praises Pinochet at his funeral", Bradenton Herald, December 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-19. 
  5. ^ a b c Larry Rohter, Colonel's Death Gives Clues to Pinochet Arms Deals, The New York Times, 19 June 2006 (English)
  6. ^ El fin de un mito en Chile: el Plan Zeta, Clarin, 5 July 1999 (Spanish)
  7. ^ Vial Correa, Gonzalo. "Carlos Altamirano, el Plan Z y la "Operación Blanqueo"", La Segunda, September 23, 2003. 
  8. ^ Hudson, Rex A., ed. "Chile: A Country Study". GPO for the Library of Congress. 1995. March 20, 2005 http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cltoc.html
  9. ^ Inter-American Commission on human rights Report 1986
  10. ^ Flash presentation depicting the September 1986 assassination attempt (Spanish)
  11. ^ Eduardo Gallardo, Pinochet Was Unrepentant to the End, ABC News (Associated Press), December 11, 2006 (English)
  12. ^ Ex-Chilean leader 'was murdered', BBC, 23 January 2007
  13. ^ Capítulos desconocidos de los mercenarios chilenos en Honduras camino de Iraq, La Nación, September 25, 2005 - URL accessed on February 14, 2007 (Spanish)
  14. ^ a b James Petras and Fernando Ignacio Leiva, Democracy and Poverty in Chile: The Limits to Electoral Politics,
  15. ^ http://www.huppi.com/kangaroo/L-chichile.htm
  16. ^ George Weigel, Biografía de Juan Pablo II - Testigo de Esperanza, Editorial Plaza & Janés (2003), ISBN 8401013046
  17. ^ a b c Tribunal Calificador, Chilean governmental website (Spanish)
  18. ^ See Juan Guzmán Tapia's autobiography
  19. ^ Amnesty International: "Universal Jurisdiction and Absence of Immunity for Crimes Against Humanity," Report, 1 January 1999
  20. ^ Pinochet set free, BBC, 2 March 2000 (English)
  21. ^ Alex Bellos and Jonathan Franklin, Pinochet receives a hero's welcome on his return, The Guardian, 4 March, 2000 (English)
  22. ^ a b Pinochet arrives in Chile, BBC, 3 March 2000 (English)
  23. ^ Thousands march against Pinochet, BBC, March 4, 2000
  24. ^ Chile offers Pinochet new immunity, BBC, 25 March 2000 (English)
  25. ^ Pinochet charged with kidnapping, BBC, 1st December 2000 (English)
  26. ^ "The Appeals Court Ruling Is Negotiated Out for Pinochet", Interview with Attorney Hugo Gutierrez, by Memoria y Justicia, February 21, 2002 (English)
  27. ^ 16 November 2005. Spanish: “No me acuerdo, pero no es cierto. Y si es cierto, no me acuerdo”. Quoted in Las frases para el bronce de Pinochet, La Nacion, 11 December 2006 (Spanish)
  28. ^ Court 'lifts Pinochet immunity', BBC, September 8, 2006.
  29. ^ Levée de l'immunité de Pinochet pour le meurtre d'un chimiste, news agency cable, 12 October 2006 (French)
  30. ^ Jonathan Franklin, Pinochet 'sold cocaine to Europe and US', The Guardian, July 11, 2006 (English)
  31. ^ General (r) Manuel Contreras: Eugenio Berríos está vivo, Radio Cooperativa, 10 July 2006 (Spanish)
  32. ^ Hijo de Pinochet acusa de "mentiroso y canalla" a ex jefe DINA, Los Tiempos, 10 July 2006 (Spanish)
  33. ^ Las frases para el bronce de Pinochet, La Nacion, 11 December 2006 (Spanish)
  34. ^ Eduardo Gallardo: "Pinochet indicted for 1973 executions," Associated Press, 27 November 2006.
  35. ^ Procesan a Pinochet y ordenan su arresto por los secuestros y homicidios de la "Caravana de la Muerte", 20minutos, 28 November 2006.
  36. ^ United States Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs: "Levin-Coleman Staff Report Discloses Web of Secret Accounts Used by Pinochet", Press Release. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, http://www.senate.gov/~levin/newsroom/release.cfm?id=233631 March 16, 2005
  37. ^ United States Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Committee on Governmental Affairs: "Levin-Coleman Staff Report Discloses Web of Secret Accounts Used by Pinochet", Press Release. US Senate Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, http://www.senate.gov/~levin/newsroom/release.cfm?id=233631 March 16, 2005
  38. ^ "U.S. Sends Back Pinochet Daughter," CNN, 28 January 2006
  39. ^ Corte revoca mayoría de procesamientos en caso Riggs, El Mercurio, 3 January 2007 (Spanish)
  40. ^ Pinochet family arrested in Chile, BBC, 4 October 2007 (English)
  41. ^ Cobertura Especial: Detienen a familia y principales colaboradores de Pinochet, La Tercera, 4 October 2007 (Spanish)
  42. ^ a b David Leigh and Rob Evans, Revealed: BAE's secret £1m to Pinochet, The Guardian, 15 September 2005 (English)
  43. ^ David Leigh, Jonathan Franklin and Rob Evans, Detective story that linked £1m Pinochet cash to BAE, The Guardian, 15 September 2005 (English)
  44. ^ Biographical notice on Memoria viva NGO website (Spanish)
  45. ^ Jorge Molina Sanhueza, Gerardo Huber sabía demasiado, pero no alcanzó a contarlo. El coronel que le pena al ejército, La Nación, 25 September 2005 (Spanish)
  46. ^ Andrea Chaparro, CDE insiste en unir caso Huber con tráfico de armas a Croacia, La Nación, 15 August 2005 (Spanish)
  47. ^ Andrea Chaparro Solís, Generales (R) y civiles de Famae procesados en caso armas a Croacia, La Nación, 13 June 2006 (Spanish)
  48. ^ Muere el ex dictador Chileno Augusto Pinochet EFE
  49. ^ Augusto Pinochet falleció en el Hospital Militar tras sufrir recaída ";El Mercurio"
  50. ^ Chile's General Pinochet 'dead' BBC News
  51. ^ Con alusiones al golpe de Estado, despiden a Pinochet con honores La Nación
  52. ^ "Clashes Break out after Pinochet's death", Yahoo!News, 11 December 2006
  53. ^ Family Wants Pinochet Cremation

The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance committed in Chile during the years of military rule under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990. ... Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Lawrence Rohter, Jr. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Clarin can refer to a number of things: In Argentina Clarín (Newspaper), one of the major newspapers of the country. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper partly owned by the government, but editorially independent. ... George Weigel (Baltimore, 1951 - ) is an American Catholic author, and political and social activist. ... Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia was born on April 22, 1939 in Salvador, in a Chilean diplomat family, which acclaimed Augusto Pinochets coup détat in 1973. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper created in 1917 by Eliodoro Yañez Ponce de Leon and presided until 1927 by Carlos Dávila. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Radio Cooperativa is a radio station in Chile. ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper created in 1917 by Eliodoro Yañez Ponce de Leon and presided until 1927 by Carlos Dávila. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 20 minutoss logo. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... El Mercurio is a conservative Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... La Tercera (formerly Las Tercera de la Hora) is a Chilean newspaper owned by Copesa. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... This article, image, template or category should belong in one or more categories. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper partly owned by the government, but editorially independent. ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper partly owned by the government, but editorially independent. ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper partly owned by the government, but editorially independent. ... EFE is a Spanish news agency created in 1939 by Ramón Serrano Súñer and Manuel Aznar Zubigaray while the former was Spains minister of the press and propaganda. ... El Mercurio is a conservative Chilean newspaper with editions in Valparaíso and Santiago. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... La Nación is a Chilean newspaper partly owned by the government, but editorially independent. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Augusto Pinochet
  • France 24 coverage – Augusto Pinochet's Necrology on France 24
  • BBC coverage (special report)
  • Chile before and during Pinochet's presidency
  • Documentary Film on Chilean Concentration Camp from Pinochet's Regime: Chacabuco
  • Chile under Allende and Pinochet
  • Human rights violation under Pinochet
  • The Times obituary
  • Analysis of economic policy under Pinochet by economist Jim Cypher in Dollars & Sense magazine
  • Policzer, Pablo (January 2007). Chile: The Price of Democracy. New English Review. Retrieved on 2007-01-09. “... if Pinochet had had his way in the mid-1970s, his dictatorship would have ended only on December 10, when he died.”
Political offices
Preceded by
None
President of Government Junta
1973 - 1981
Succeeded by
José Toribio Merino
Preceded by
Salvador Allende
President of Chile
1974 - 1990
Succeeded by
Patricio Aylwin
Military offices
Preceded by
Carlos Prats
Army Commander-in-chief
1973 - 1998
Succeeded by
Ricardo Izurieta
History of Chile
Persondata
NAME Pinochet, Augusto
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Pinochet Ugarte, Augusto José Ramón (full name)
SHORT DESCRIPTION Chilean General and Politician
DATE OF BIRTH 25 November 1915(1915-11-25)
PLACE OF BIRTH Valparaíso, Chile
DATE OF DEATH 10 December 2006
PLACE OF DEATH Santiago de Chile

  Results from FactBites:
 
Augusto Pinochet - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6539 words)
Pinochet transferred power to Patricio Aylwin, the new democratically elected president, in 1990; however, he retained his post as commander-in-chief of the army until 1998, when he assumed a seat in the Chilean Senate, which was intended to be his for the duration of his life, according to the constitutional amendments of 1980.
Pinochet was born in Valparaíso on November 25, 1915, the son of Augusto Pinochet Vera (descendant of Breton immigrants who arrived in Chile during the 18th century) and Avelina Ugarte Martínez.
In his memoirs, Pinochet affirms that he was the leading plotter of the coup, and used his position as Commander of the Army to coordinate a far-reaching scheme with the other two branches of the military and the national police.
Augusto Pinochet - Wikipedia (2454 words)
Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte [pinoˈʧεt] (* 25.
Parallel zu seinen repressiven politischen Maßnahmen leitete Pinochet eine Reihe neoliberaler Wirtschaftsreformen ein.
Der spanische Untersuchungsrichter Báltasar Garzón hatte schon seit längerem gegen Pinochet wegen Völkermord, Staatsterrorismus und Folter ermittelt, da auch spanische Staatsbürger unter den Opfern der Militärdiktatur waren.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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