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Encyclopedia > Augustinians

The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. Prominent Augustinians include the only English Pope Adrian IV[1], Italian Pope Eugene IV, mystic Thomas à Kempis, Dutch Christian humanist Desiderius Erasmus, the German Reformer Martin Luther, the Spanish navigator Andrés de Urdaneta, Italian composer Vittoria Aleotti, German mystic Anne Catherine Emmerich and the Czech geneticist Gregor Mendel. The order has made a very significant missionary contribution to Christianity as well as establishing educational and charitable institutions throughout the world. Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1072 KB)Tiffany stained-glass window of St. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1072 KB)Tiffany stained-glass window of St. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and... Tower detail of the Lightner Museum in St. ... Five flags have flown over the city since 1565. ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Detail of St. ... Pope Adrian IV (c. ... Eugenius IV, né Gabriel Condulmer (1383 - February 23, 1447) was pope from March 3, 1431 to his death. ... Thomas à Kempis Monument on Mount Saint Agnes in Zwolle. ... Desiderius Erasmus in 1523 as portrayed by Hans Holbein the Younger Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus (sometimes known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam) (October 27, 1466/1469 – July 12, 1536) was a Dutch humanist and theologian. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Andrés de Urdaneta (b. ... Augustinian nun Vittoria Aleotti (1575–after 1620), believed to be one in the same as Raffaella Aleotti ( 1570–after 1646) was an Italian composer and organist. ... Blessed Anne Catherine Emmerich (8 September 1774 - 9 February 1824) was a Catholic Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic. ... Gregor Johann Mendel (July 20, 1822[1] – January 6, 1884) was a Moravian[2] Augustinian priest and scientist often called the father of modern genetics for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants. ... Two Mormon missionaries A missionary is traditionally defined as a propagator of religion who works to convert those outside that community; someone who proselytizes. ...

Contents

The five main branches of the order internationally

The Augustinian family worldwide is made up of five main branches

  1. The Order of the Hermit Friars of Saint Augustine; the friars subject to the jurisdiction of the Prior General (International leader)
  2. Augustinian nuns or sisters of contemplative life (enclosed nuns)
  3. other Augustinian orders not under the jurisdiction of the Prior General of the pope
  4. religious congregations of apostolic life (active congregations of men or women)
  5. lay fraternities and societies established under the name and teaching of Saint Augustine.

Some of the most visible contemporary groups of Augustinians include: Augustinian nuns are the most ancient and continuous segment of the Roman Catholic Augustinian religious order under the canons of contemporary historical method. ...


The Order of the Hermit Friars of Saint Augustine The Hermits of St. ...


The O.S.A.'s, formerly called Augustinian Hermits, but today known as Augustinian Friars or Austin Friars, are a mendicant order. Being friars, they pray the Liturgy of the Hours throughout every day. This Latin Rite branch is active in society (ie. not enclosed), and it is counted comprehensively in the article below. It is headed by the international Prior-General in Rome, and while spiritually and historically connected is now canonically separate from the other Independent Augustinian Communities such as the Canons Regular, Discalced Augustinians, Augustinian nuns, Premontres, Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception, Augustinian Recollects and the Dominicans. A hermit, also known as an anchorite or anchoress, is a person living in voluntary seclusion, often for religious reasons. ... A friar is a member of a religious order of men. ... The mendicant orders are religious orders which depend directly on begging, or the charity of the people for their livelihood. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... These are Roman Catholic religious communities that follow the Augustinian Rule, but are not under the jurisdiction if the Prior General of the Augustinian hermits in Rome. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... The Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo (died AD 430), are several Roman Catholic monastic orders and congregations of both men and women living according to a guide to religious life known as the Rule of Saint Augustine. ... Augustinian nuns are the most ancient and continuous segment of the Roman Catholic Augustinian religious order under the canons of contemporary historical method. ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians and in England, as the White Canons (from the color of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception are a Roman Catholic congregation which follows the Augustinian Rule, and is therefore part of the wider Order of Canons Regular of St. ... The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ...


The modern order of friars (Under the Prior General in Rome) is associated with the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization and maintains a full-time representative to the United Nations. Worldwide there are nearly 2,800 Augustinian friars working in: The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization that is not part of a government and was not founded by states. ...

  • Algeria
  • Argentina
  • Austria
  • Australia
  • Belgium
  • Benin
  • Bolivia
  • Brazil
  • Canada
  • Chile
  • China
  • Colombia
  • Costa Rica
  • Czech Republic
  • Dominican Republic
  • England
  • Ecuador
  • France
  • Germany
  • Guinea
  • India
  • Indonesia
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Japan
  • Kenya
  • Madagascar
  • Malta
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • Nicaragua
  • Nigeria
  • Panama
  • Papua
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Poland
  • Portugal
  • Puerto Rico
  • Scotland
  • Spain
  • South Korea
  • Tanzania
  • Togo
  • U.S.A.
  • Uruguay
  • Vatican City
  • Venezuela
  • Zaire

Around 1,500 women live in Augustinian enclosed convents in:

  • Bolivia
  • Chile
  • Ecuador
  • Italy
  • Kenya
  • Malta
  • Mexico
  • Netherlands
  • Panama
  • Peru
  • Philippines
  • Spain
  • Switzerland
  • U.S.A

Augustinian lay societies

The lay societies are voluntary groups, generally made up of people who are either married or single and have sympathy with, and interest in, the Augustinian approach to life. These lay people do not take the monastic vows, but offer support to the work of the Augustinian order through voluntary work, gifts of money and goods, and the study and promotion of Augustine and Augustinian teaching. The Brotherhood of the Virgin Mary of the Belt in Italy, the Friends of Augustine in the Philippines, the Augustinian Lay community and the Augustinian Friends in Australia are some examples of Augustinian lay societies.


Aggregated communities

Other orders and groups belong within the Augustinian family either because they follow the Rule of Augustine or have been formally aggregated through their constitutions into the worldwide Augustinian Order. These are not counted comprehensively in this article only because the Catholic church's system of governance and accounting makes only the numbers of ordained priests relatively accessible and verifiable. Some of these include:

Hieronymites, a common name for several congregations of hermits living according to the rule of St Augustine with supplementary regulations taken from St Jeromes writings. ... the Sisters of Saint Rita are a Roman Catholic religious order. ... The Assumptionists (more properly called Augustinians of the Assumption) are a Roman Catholic religious order of brothers and priests. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Rite particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Alexians, Alexian Brothers or Cellites are a Catholic religious institute or congregation specifically devoted to caring for the sick which has its origin in Europe at the time of the Black Death. ... The Congregation of Our Lady of the Missions are a Roman Catholic religious congregation of women. ... the Congregation of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word is a Roman Catholic religious order of women begun in 1866, following the Augustinian Rule. ... The University of the Incarnate Word (UIW) is located in San Antonio, Texas. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... The Canons Regular of the New Jerusalem is a clerical institute of consecrated life in the Catholic Church, founded in 2002 in the Diocese of La Crosse, and currently located in Chesterfield, Missouri, in the Archdiocese of Saint Louis. ... The Tridentine Mass (Pontifical High Mass) being celebrated at Our Lady of Mount Carmel Church in Wyandotte, Michigan - 1949. ...

The Augustinian Rule

The ancient Rule of life formally constituted for the hermits around 1243, had its origins established soon after St. Augustine was converted by Ambrose in Milan around the year 384 AD. He and some friends returned to his native Thagaste in North Africa, gave away their possessions and began a life of prayer and study. Probably, Augustine didn't compose a formal monastic rule despite the extant Augustinian Rule [3]. Augustine's hortatory letter to the nuns at Hippo Regius (Epist., ccxi, Benedictine ed.) is not considered a formal Monastic rule by some scholars [4]. However, the present rule has strong consonance with the existing writings and teaching of Augustine of Hippo. For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... The city of Tagaste, now the present Souk Ahras in Algeria, was situated in the northeast highlands of Numidia. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Munichs city symbol celebrates its founding by Benedictine monks—the origin of its name A Benedictine is a person who follows the Rule of St Benedict. ...


Three sets of the "Augustinian Rule" have been attributed to Augustine's authorship (texts in Holstenius-Brockie, Codex regularum monasticarum, ii, Augsburg, 1759, 121–127), the longest of which, a medieval compilation from certain pseudo-Augustinian sermons in 45 chapters, is the one commonly known as the regula Augustini, and served as the constitution of the Augustinian Canons and many societies imitating them, as, for example, the Dominicans and Arrouaisians. Lucas Holstenius, the Latinized name of Lukas Holste (1596–February 2. ... Peter Geoffrey Brock AM (February 26, 1945 – September 8, 2006) otherwise known as Peter Perfect, The King of the Mountain or simply as Brocky was one of Australias best-known and most successful motor racing drivers. ... Augsburg is a city in south-central Germany. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Abbey of Arrouaise was the centre of a form of the Augustinian monastic rule, the Arrouaisian Order, which was popular among the founders of abbeys during the decade of the 1130s. ...


The extant Augustinian orders claim lineage from the communities founded by Augustine of Hippo, and while the history of ideas is evident, historic continuity is not conclusively proven according to the standards of contemporary historical method. The most likely process of transmission occurred between the years 430 and 570 as the Roman empire collapsed - rapidly in Roman North Africa. Augustine's style of communal living was carried into Europe by monks and clergy fleeing the onslaught of the Vandal tribes under Geiseric. Around 440 Quodvultdeus of Carthage established communities in Naples. St. Fulgentius of Ruspe arrived in Sardinia by 502 and introduced Augustinian teaching there. The 5th century Donatus and his monks probably brought a form of it to Southern Spain around the year 570 when he established the Monasterium Servitanum [5]. A form of Augustine's Rule was later used as a basis for the reform of monasteries and cathedral chapters during the 11th century. Clare of Montefalco was one of the first abbesses to adopt the formally constituted Augustinian rule in her monastery in 1291. The rule was also adopted by the Dominicans, Canons Regular of the Abbey of St. Victor in Marseilles (before its suppression), the Abbey of St Victor, Paris (a precursor to the University of Paris) as well as the Premonstratensians and Lateran Canons. The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century and created a state in North Africa, centered on the city of Carthage. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... Saint Quodvultdeus (died c. ... Saint Fulgentius of Ruspe (Thelepte, 467–1 January 533) was bishop of the city of Ruspe, North-Africa, in the 5th and 6th century. ... The name Donatus can refer to the following people: Aelius Donatus, a Roman grammarian and teacher of rhetoric Donatus Magnus, a bishop of Carthage who founded the heretic Donatist sect Saint Donatus of Libya Saint Donatus, an Irish monk who became bishop of Fiesole in 824 - Catholic Encyclopedia article Category... Clare of Montefalco (c. ... Montefalco is a town and comune in the central part of the Italian province of Perugia, (Umbria), 42°54N 12°39E; at 473 m (1552 ft) above sea-level on an outcrop of the Colli Martani above the flood plain of the Clitunno river, 7 km (4 mi) SE of... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... The Abbey of St. ... The Royal Abbey and School of St. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... The Premonstratensians, also called Norbertines, and in England the White Canons (from the color of their habit) are a Christian religious order of Augustinian Canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ...


History of the Grand Union

The year 1256 is usually quoted as the date of the Grand Union that brought the modern order into existence, but there is some scholarly discussion over the exact date of the formal constitution of the Augustinian order, as it occurred in stages. By the 11th century there had appeared historically identifiable groups of clerics in various part of Europe who renounced private property and lived together in community following the Rule of St. Augustine described above. The consolidation of this movement can be connected to the changes proposed by the Gregorian Reform. In 1243 the decree, Incumbit Nobis was issued by Pope Innocent IV, and it called together a number of monastic communities in Tuscany. The Augustinians owed their formal existence to the policy of Popes Innocent IV (12411254) and Pope Alexander IV (12541261), who wished to counterbalance the influence of the powerful Franciscans and Dominicans by means of a similar order under more direct papal authority and devoted to papal interests. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... The Gregorian Reform was a series of reforms initiated by Pope Gregory VII and the circle he formed in the papal curia, circa 1050–1080, which dealt with the moral integrity and independence of the clergy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Pope Innocent IV (Manarola, 1180/90 – Naples, December 7, 1254), born Sinibaldo de Fieschi, Pope from 1243 to 1254, belonged to the feudal nobility of Liguria, the Fieschi, counts of Lavagna. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Alexander IV, né Rinaldo Conti (Anagni, ca. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Events July 25 - Constantinople re-captured by Nicaean forces under the command of Michael VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Empire re-formed August 29 - Urban IV becomes Pope, the last man to do so without being a Cardinal first Bela IV of Hungary repels Tatar invasion Charles of Anjou given rule of... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ...


The Augustinian Hermits (who are generally meant by the name "Augustinians", one branch of which Martin Luther belonged to) became the last of the great mendicant orders to be formally constituted in the thirteenth century. It is historically verifiable that Innocent IV, by the bull issued 16 December 1243 united a number of small hermit societies with Augustinian rule, especially the Williamites, the John-Bonites, and the Brictinans. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... The term mendicant refers to begging or otherwise relying on charitable donations, and is most widely used for religious followers or ascetics who rely exclusively on charity to survive. ... Catholic religious orders are organizations of laity and/orclergy in the Roman Catholic Church who live under a common rule. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events Innocent IV was elected pope. ... Williamites was the name of two minor Roman catholic religious orders or congregations. ...


Alexander IV (admonished, it was said, by an appearance of Saint Augustine) called a general assembly of the members of the new united order under the presidency of Cardinal Richard of Saint Angeli at the monastery of Santa Maria del Popolo in Rome in March, 1256, when the head of the John-Bonites, Lanfranc Septala, of Milan, was chosen general prior of the united orders. Alexander's bull Licet ecclesiae catholicae[6], confirmed this choice. The new order was thus finally constituted with Italian, Hungarian, French, English, Belgian, Spanish, Portuguese, Swiss, Austrian and German Augustinian friars united into one international order. Pope Alexander IV afterward allowed some houses of the Williamites, who were dissatisfied with the new arrangement, to withdraw from the union, and they adopted the Benedictine rule. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official, usually a bishop, of the Roman Catholic Church, a member of the College of Cardinals which as a body elects a new pope. ... The facade of Santa Maria del Popolo Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable church located in Rome. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ...


Several general chapters in the thirteenth century (1287 and 1290) and toward the end of the sixteenth (1575 and 1580), after the severe crisis occasioned by Luther's reformation, developed the statutes to their present form (text in Holstenius-Brockie, ut sup., iv, 227–357; cf. Kolde, 17–38), which was confirmed by Pope Gregory XIII. A bull of Pius V in 1567 had already assigned to the Hermits of Saint Augustine the place next to the last (between Carmelites and Servites) among the five chief mendicant orders. Construction of the Uppsala Cathedral began in 1287. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Events March 1 - Michel de Montaigne signs the preface to his most significant work, Essays. ... Gregory XIII, born Ugo Boncompagni (January 7, 1502 – April 10, 1585) was pope from 1572 to 1585. ... Events The Duke of Alva arrives in the Netherlands with Spanish forces to suppress unrest there. ...


The Augustinian ethos

The teaching and writing of Augustine, the Augustinian Rule, and the lives and experiences of Augustinians over 16 centuries help define the ethos of the order, sometimes "honoured in the breach". Detail of St. ...


As well as telling his disciples to be "of one mind and heart on the way towards God"[7] Augustine of Hippo taught that "Nothing conquers except truth and the victory of truth is love" (Victoria veritatis est caritas}[8], and the pursuit of truth through learning is key to the Augustinian ethos, balanced by the injunction to behave with love towards one another. It does not unduly single out the exceptional, especially favour the gifted, nor exclude the poor or marginalised. Love is not earned through human merit, but received and given freely by God's free gift of grace, totally undeserved yet generously given. These same imperatives of affection and fairness have driven the order in its international missionary outreach. This balanced pursuit of love and learning has energised the various branches of the order into building communities founded on mutual affection and intellectual advancement. The Augustinian ideal is inclusive.


Augustine spoke passionately of God's "beauty so ancient and so new" [9], and his fascination with beauty extended to music. He taught that "to sing once is to pray twice" (Qui cantat, bis orat) [10], and music is also a key part of the Augustinian ethos. Contemporary Augustinian musical foundations include the famous Augustinerkirche in Vienna where Orchestral Masses by Mozart and Schubert are performed every week, as well as the boys' choir at Sankt Florian in Austria, a school conducted by Augustinian Canons, a choir now over 1,000 years old. The Augustinerkirche Since 1634, the Augustinerkirche has been the historic parish church of the Hofburg, the winter palace of the Habsburg dynasty in the center of Vienna. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (IPA: , baptized Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart) (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. ... Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828) was an Austrian composer. ... St. ...


History in Europe

In its most flourishing state at the beginning of the 14th century A.D., the order in Europe had forty-two provinces (besides the two vicariates of India and Moravia) with 2,000 monasteries and about 30,000 members [11]. The Canons Regular and the Augustinian Recollects also have considerable history in Europe. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ...


German-speaking lands

The successful German branch, which until 1299 was counted as one province, was then divided into four provinces. These provinces produced significant Augustinian leaders and reformers. These included the most famous German Augustinian theologian before the Augustinian Martin Luther: Andreas Proles (d. 1503), the founder of the Union or Congregation of the Observant Augustinian Hermits, organized after strict principles; Johann von Paltz, the famous Erfurt professor and pulpit-orator (d. 1511); as well as Johann von Staupitz, Luther's monastic superior and Wittenberg colleague (d. 1524). Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Year 1503 (MDIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Mariendom and the Severikirche. ... Year 1511 (MDXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Engraving of Johann Von Staupitz, 1889. ... Statue of Martin Luther in the main square Wittenberg, officially [Die] Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a town in Germany, in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, at 12° 59 E, 51° 51 N, on the Elbe river. ... Events March 1, 1524/5 - Giovanni da Verrazano lands near Cape Fear (approx. ...


Reforms were also introduced into the extra-German branches of the order, but a long time after Proles's reform and in connection with the Counter-Reformation of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Augustinian credentials of Martin Luther did not prevent anti-clerical attacks on the order during the Reformation, and neither did it enhance the order's political influence within the Catholic church during the Counter-Reformation. The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation was a strong reaffirmation of the doctrine and structure of the Catholic Church, climaxing at the Council of Trent, partly in reaction to the growth of Protestantism. ...


Spanish-speaking and French-speaking lands

The order of friars in Spain and France has had an eventful history, from being part of the Grand Union, through the periods of extensive Spanish colonisation, the French Revolution, the effects of the Napoleonic wars, the War of the Spanish Succession, suppression of the order, the Spanish Civil War, and then Francisco Franco. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[5] Saxony[6] Denmark [7] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von Blücher Duke of Brunswick Prince of... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20 November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Historically, the other most important of the observant Augustinian congregations are the Spanish Augustinian tertiary nuns, founded in 1545 by Archbishop Thomas of Villanova at Valencia; the "reformed" Augustinian nuns who originated under the influence of Augustinian educated Carmelite St Theresa after the end of the sixteenth century at Madrid, Alcoy, and in Portugal; and the barefoot Augustinians (in France Augustins déchaussés) founded about 1560 by Thomas a Jesu (d. 1582). Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... St. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ... Origin and early history Carmelites (in Latin Ordo fratrum Beatæ Virginis Mariæ de monte Carmelo) is the name of a Roman Catholic order founded in the 12th century by a certain Berthold (d. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Motto: (Spanish for From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: , Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón Jimémez (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Panoramic photograph of Alcoi taken in 1925. ... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ...


A significant Augustinian missionary college was established at the former Spanish capital of Valladolid in 1759 - and this house was exempted from the suppression of monastic houses in Spain c.1835, later becoming the centre of restoration for the order in Spain. In 1885 Filipino Augustinians took charge of the famous Escorial, and friars continue to administer it today. The modern Augustinian province of Spain was refounded in 1926- largely through Spanish and Filipino friars from the Philippines- but that was not the end of difficulty for the order in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) ninety eight Augustinians were murdered - sixty five friars from the Escorial alone were executed. Many of the discalced Augustinian nuns of Valencia were also put to death. The facade of the chapel, in the baroque style of Jesuit churches, is integrated with the palatial facade El Escorial is an immense palace, monastery, museum, and library complex located at San Lorenzo de El Escorial (also San Lorenzo del Escorial), a town 45 kilometres northwest of Madrid in the... Augustinian nuns are the most ancient and continuous segment of the Roman Catholic Augustinian religious order under the canons of contemporary historical method. ... Location Coordinates : 39°29′ N 0°22′ W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name València (Catalan) Spanish name Valencia Founded 137 BC Postal code 46000-46080 Website http://www. ...


As of 2006 there were 177 Spanish Augustinian friars, with 23 in simple profession. [12]


Setbacks in Europe

Many European Augustinian priories and foundations suffered serious setbacks (including suppression and destruction) from the various periods of anti-clericalism during the Reformation and other historical events such as the French Revolution, the Spanish civil war (among more than 6,000 clergy, 155 Spanish Augustinians were killed) [13], the two World Wars and Communist repression. Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... There have been two World Wars, now more commonly known as World War I or First World War (from 1914 to 1918), and World War II or Second World War (from 1939 to 1945). ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Latest statistics in Europe

As of 2006 there were 148 active Augustinian priories in Europe, including Germany, Belgium, Poland, Ireland, England, Scotland, the Czech Republic, Austria, Italy, Malta, Spain and Spanish houses in the Philippines. This includes 1,031 friars[14] in solemn vows, and 76 in simple vows.


The order is in numerical decline in Europe.


History in England

In England and Ireland of the 14th century the Augustinian order had had over 800 friars, but these priories had declined (for other reasons) to around 300 friars before the anti-clerical laws of the Reformation Parliament and the Act of Supremacy. The friaries were dispersed from 1538 in the dissolution of monasteries during the English Reformation. The martyr St John Stone was one of the few British Augustinians to publicly defy the will of Henry VIII in this matter. The partial List of monasteries dissolved by Henry VIII of England alone includes 19 Augustinian houses. Clare Priory was one of the houses dissolved by King Henry VIII, but the Order managed to buy it back in 1953, with help from the family who then owned it. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... In 1529, the English Parliament began to debate the question of King Henry VIIIs annulment; this debate would haunt the English Parliament for seven years and so gave it the name, the Reformation Parliament. ... The Act of Supremacy 1559 (1 Eliz, c. ... dissolution see Dissolution. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political... St John Stone was an English Reformation Augustinian friar, and Doctor of Sacred Theology, living in the Augustinian friary at Canterbury. ... Henry VIII (28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland, later King of Ireland, from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... These monasteries were dissolved by Henry VIII of England in the Dissolution of the Monasteries. ... Clare Priory is a modern English house of the Augustinian order, established 1248 near Clare Castle on the banks of the River Stour in Suffolk. ...


History in Ireland

The English Province of the Order of Saint Augustine founded their first house in Dublin some time before 1280, and for a considerable time the Augustinians of Ireland were all English, effectively serving the English settlers in Ireland. Great Connell Priory was founded about 1202. However, by the mid 14th century thirteen houses of the Order had been established in Ireland. The Irish branch was relatively poor, and very few of the indigenous Irish friars were sent to the universities of Oxford and Cambridge for their education (unlike the English Augustinians). The fortunes of the Irish order changed in 1361 when Lionel, the second son of King Edward III, became viceroy of Ireland. He favoured the order, and soon established an Augustinian professor of theology based at St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, and the Irish then order grew significantly until the time of the English Reformation. Great Connell Priory The Augustinian Priory of St. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Geography Status City (1951) Region East of England Admin. ... Lionel of Antwerp, Duke of Clarence, (November 29, 1338 – October 7, 1368) was the second son of Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault. ... Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... St. ... King Henry VIII of England The English Reformation refers to the series of events in sixteenth century England by which the church in England broke away from the authority of the Pope and consequently the entire Catholic church; it formed part of the wider Protestant Reformation, a religious and political...


In Ireland after the Reformation Parliament that began in 1529, the Augustinian houses in Leinster, Munster, Dublin, Dungarvan and Drogheda were soon suppressed. The houses in Ardnaree, Ballinrobe, Ballyhaunis, Banada and Murrisk managed to remain functioning until 1610. By decree in 1542 the English parliament had allowed the Augustinian community at Dunmore in County Galway, Ireland to continue. After 1610 the Dunmore community was the only surviving foundation, and in 1620 the Irish Province of the Augustinians was given pastoral charge of both England (where all houses had been forcibly closed) and Ireland. Irish Augustinian students were sent to the Continent to study, and the Irish Augustinians continued their work in Ireland under the harsh English Penal laws designed to protect the establishment of the Church of England. A number were executed - including William Tirry OSA (executed 1654 for saying mass). In 1656, in response to the persecution at home, Pope Alexander VII established the Irish Augustinians in Rome in the church and priory of San Matteo in Merulana. Many Augustinians though remained in Ireland. In 1751 Augustine Cheevers O.S.A, an Irish Augustinian, was made Bishop of Ardagh. Others left to work in America and after the 1830s to Australia. After the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829, the order began to re-organise more openly in Ireland. The Irish friars took the Order back to England, establishing a priory at Hoxton, London in 1864. They further turned their attention to Nigeria, Australia, America and missionary work. The contemporary Irish order conducts parishes, a school in Dungarvan (founded 1874), a school in New Ross and special ministries in Ireland. In 1529, the English Parliament began to debate the question of King Henry VIIIs annulment; this debate would haunt the English Parliament for seven years and so gave it the name, the Reformation Parliament. ... Statistics Area: 19,774. ... Statistics Area: 24,607. ... The Spire at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O088754 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 1 m Population (2006)  - Proper  - Environs    28,973[1]  6,117[1] Website: www. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Ballyhaunis (Béal Átha hAmhnais in Irish) is a town in County Mayo, Ireland. ... Murrisk (Muraisc in Irish) is a village in County Mayo, on the south side of Clew Bay, about 6km west of Westport. ... Dunmore (Dún Mór in Irish) is a village in County Galway, Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Connacht County Town: Galway Code: G (GY proposed) Area: 6,148 km² Population (2006) 231,035 (including Galway City); 159,052 (without Galway City) Website: www. ... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... Nations with state religions:  Buddhism  Islam  Shia Islam  Sunni Islam  Orthodox Christianity  Protestantism  Roman Catholic Church A state religion (also called an official religion, established church or state church) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[1] in England, and acts as the mother and senior branch of the worldwide Anglican Communion, as well as a founding member of the Porvoo Communion. ... Alexander VII, né Fabio Chigi (February 13, 1599 – May 22, 1667) was Pope from April 7, 1655 until his death in 1667. ... Ruined House, Ardagh Ardagh (high field) is a small village on the Inishowen peninsula near Carndonagh in County Donegal, [Ireland]]. This was the birth place of John Toland, the first Irish Republican. ... Catholic Emancipation was a process in Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century which involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics which had been introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the Penal Laws. ... Hoxton Square. ... For other schools/colleges of the same name, see St. ... St Augustines and Good Counsel College New Ross, known exclusively as Good Counsel College or The Counsel by its students and residents of the local area, is an all-boys secondary school in Ireland which caters for over 750 students. ...


Contemporary Ireland is undergoing rapid change, and this presents challenges to the order there. Many Irish emigrants (including Augustinian friars) are now returning. Over 40,000 immigrants each year are admitted to keep the Irish economy working, and many are coming from the new Eastern European members of the European Union. For example, there are now over 100,000 Poles in the country as well as asylum seekers from Africa and the Balkan countries. The formerly unified Celtic culture of Ireland is diversifying, and this means its predominantly Celtic Catholic ethos as well. This article is about the island of Ireland. ...


Measuring the growth or decline of the Augustinian Order internationally

Given that the Roman Catholic church in the Western world has been experiencing a decline in vocations to the priesthood and religious life since the 1960s, a relatively simple way to assess the vigour of this order is to compare the numbers of those in solemn profession (vows) with those in simple profession. For a mendicant order such as the Augustinians, the most formal and significant commitments are the permanent and lifelong vows of Solemn profession. Ordination is considered a separate matter, and though most are, the Augustinian friar may or may not be ordained priest or deacon. Those in simple profession are the newer members of the order, but have agreed to make a serious commitment (temporary, but with a view to permanent commitment), and been formally accepted as suitable by senior members of the order to make that formal commitment. The figures quoted do not include aspirants to the order who have not reached the significant step of simple profession. The details of the median age of friars in respective national grouping is another way of assessing the vigour of the order, but these details are not included here. They may be found on the order's international website. Likewise, the growth of lay organisations of Augustinian spirituality is another (less-precise) way of measuring the vigour of the order. Profession, in Christian monasticism, is the act of embracing the religious state by the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience according to the rule of a canonically approved religious order; it involves then a triple vow made to God, and binding oneself to the rule of a certain order. ... Profession, in Christian monasticism, is the act of embracing the religious state by the three vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience according to the rule of a canonically approved religious order; it involves then a triple vow made to God, and binding oneself to the rule of a certain order. ... A vow (Lat. ... In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


History in the New World: North America

St. Thomas of Villanova Church, on the Villanova University campus.
St. Thomas of Villanova Church, on the Villanova University campus.

The North American foundation of the order happened in 1796 when Irish friars founded Olde St. Augustine's Church in Philadelphia. Michael Hurley was the first American to join the Order the following year. Friars established schools, Universities and other works throughout the Americas, including Villanova University (1842) near Philadelphia (USA) and Merrimack College (1947, USA). While Malvern Preparatory School was founded in 1842 alongside the University, by 1909 two Augustinian houses and a school had been established in Chicago, 1922 in San Diego, by 1925 a school in Ojai and Los Angeles; 1926 a school in Oklahoma; in 1947 a college in Massachusetts; in 1953 a school in Pennsylvania; 1959 a school in New Jersey; in 1961 a school in Massachusetts; and in 1962 a school in Illinois . The Augustinian Recollects are also present in the U.S.A. as are the Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1546x2222, 488 KB) St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1546x2222, 488 KB) St. ... Villanova University is a private university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. ... Merrimack College is a small, private, liberal arts, Catholic college in North Andover, Massachusetts, located on Route 114. ... Malvern Preparatory School, commonly referred to as Malvern Prep, is an independent Catholic middle and high school for boys located in Malvern, Pennsylvania. ... St. ... St. ... Villanova Preparatory School is an Augustinian Catholic co-ed day/ boarding school located in the small town of Ojai, California, USA. Located in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Los Angeles, it was founded by Augustinian friars in 1924 and is the only co-ed Augustinian boarding school in the country. ... Cascia Hall Preparatory School was established by the Augustinians as a Catholic school for boys in 1926 by Francis Driscoll in Tulsa, Oklahoma at the request of Bishop Francis Kelley. ... Merrimack College is a small, private, liberal arts, Catholic college in North Andover, Massachusetts, located on Route 114. ... Monsignor Bonner High School is an all-male Augustinian Catholic High School in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Philadelphia. ... For other schools/colleges of the same name, see St. ... Austin Preparatory School is a coeducational Catholic school located in Reading, Massachusetts. ... Providence Catholic High School is located in New Lenox, Illinois. ... The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ... The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception are a Roman Catholic congregation which follows the Augustinian Rule, and is therefore part of the wider Order of Canons Regular of St. ...


The Order's 20th century establishment in Canada[15] was one result of both poverty and political trouble being experienced by German Augustinians. From 1925 and later during the Great Depression German Augustinians began arriving in North America to teach. After 1936, with the political situation in Nazi Germany worsening, more German Augustinians departed for North America. By 1939 from there were 46 German priests, 13 German religious brothers and 8 German candidates in North America. The order established the first of their Canadian houses at Tracadie, Nova Scotia in Canada in 1938. Among other Canadian foundations, the order also established a significant priory and school in Toronto. The order, by 2006 has since professed many native Canadians. The Great Depression started after October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... St. ...


Latest statistics for the United States and Canada

As of 2006 there were more than 70 Augustinian priories in the United States and Canada with 386 friars[16] in solemn vows and 16 in simple vows, numerically the order of friars is in decline.


History in the New World: Latin America

Monastery of San Agustin of Yuriria, Mexico, founded in 1550.
Monastery of San Agustin of Yuriria, Mexico, founded in 1550.
View of the 16th century convent-fortress of Yecapixtla, Mexico.

Sent by their Provincial St.Thomas of Villanova, the first group of Spanish/Castilian Augustinians arrived in Mexico in 1533[17]. They soon formed multiple priories, including at Guanajuato (pictured) and were later instrumental in establishing the Pontifical and Royal University of Mexico. By 1562 there were nearly 300 Spanish Augustinians in Mexico, and they had established some 50 priories. Their history in Mexico was not to be an easy one, given the civil strife of events like the Cristero War, periodic anti-clericalism and suppression of the church that was to follow. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 4114 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augustinians Yuriria Spanish missions in Mexico Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3504x2336, 4114 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Augustinians Yuriria Spanish missions in Mexico Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... There are several monasteries near the Popocatépetl volcano in central Mexico which were built in the 16th-century by members of the Franciscan, Dominican and Augustinian orders. ... St. ... Guanajuato is a state in the central highlands of Mexico. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The struggle between church and state in Mexico broke out in armed conflict during the Cristero War (also known as the Cristiada) of 1926 to 1929. ... Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic) institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the encroachment of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. ...


Spanish Augustinians first went to Peru in 1551. From there they went to Ecuador in 1573, and from Ecuador in 1575 to Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Panama and Venezuela. The order founded the Ecuadorean University of Quito in 1586. Augustinians also entered Argentina via Chile between 1617 and 1626, and their history there was eventful. The order had considerable property confiscated by the Argentinian government under the secularisation laws in the 19th century, and were entirely suppressed for 24 years until 1901 when they returned. Nickname: Luz de América Map of Ecuador showing location of Quito Coordinates: Country Ecuador Province Pichincha Canton Quito  - Mayor Paco Moncayo Area approx    - City 290 km²  - Land 290 km²  - Water 0 km² Elevation 2,800 m Population (2005, estimation)  - City 1,865,541 (canton)  - Density ~4,800/km² Time... The first conflicts between the Roman Catholic Church and the Argentine government can be traced to the ideas of the May Revolution of 1810. ... This article concerns secularism, the exclusion of religion and supernatural beliefs. ...


Augustinians from Ecuador went to Bolivia in 1575. The Augustinian Province of Holland later also founded houses in Bolivia from 1930. The Order (from Mexico) arrived in Cuba in 1608. It was suppressed by force in 1842. In 1892 American Augustinians went back to Cuba from the Province of Villanova in the USA and remained there until 1961 when they were expelled by the government of Fidel Castro. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ...


The Augustinian Recollects are also present in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, the Dominican Republic, and Venezuela. The Canons Regular are present in Argentina, Brazil, Peru and Uruguay. The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ...


Latest statistics for Central and South America

In Central and South America[18], the Augustinians remain established in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama and Venezuela as well three Peruvian Vicariates of Iquitos, Apurimac and Chulucanas, and the Province of Peru. There are currently 814 friars in Latin America, but the order's growth or decline in Central and South America is not able to be assessed for this article.


History in Africa

The Augustinians followed the Portuguese flag in Africa and the Gulf behind the explorer and seafarer Vasco da Gama[19]. He had sailed from Lisbon in 1497, and arrived at Mozambique in March 1498. Portuguese Augustinians also worked on the island of Sao Tome, in Warri (Nigeria) and in what is now known as Angola, the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, and Gabon up until 1738. The Portuguese also took control of the port of Goa in India - giving the Augustinians a foothold there also. Besides the early Portuguese Augustinians, other Augustinian missionaries have since followed to Africa from America, Ireland, Belgium and Australia. The Augustinian Sisters of Mercy of Jesus established themselves in South Africa in 1891, and at their invitation they were joined in their work by American friars in 1997. Dom Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (IPA: (Sines or Vidigueira, Alentejo, Portugal, ca. ... São Tomé, population 53,300 (in 2003), is the capital of São Tomé and Príncipe. ... , Goa   (Konkani: गोंय goṃya; Marathi: govā; Portuguese: ) is Indias smallest state in terms of area and the fourth smallest in terms of population. ...


Latest statistics for Africa

As of 2006, there were more than 30 other Augustinian priories in Nigeria, Congo, Kenya, Tanzania, South Africa and Algeria, with over 85 friars[20] in solemn vows, and more than 60 in simple vows. There are also Augustinians working in the Republic of Benin, Togo, Madagascar, Guinea and Burkina. Burkina Faso is a landlocked nation of western Africa. ...


The order of friars and affiliated orders are growing in Africa..


History in Asia

The Philippines

The Augustinians were the first Christian missionaries to arrive in what is now regarded as Asia's only Catholic nation, and the leader of these first missionaries was the navigator Andrés de Urdaneta (b. 1498 - d. June 3, Mexico, 1568), an Augustinian friar. He was navigator on the journey that established the first permanent Spanish settlement in the Philippines. The historic Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus of the Philippines of the Order of St. Augustine was officially formed on December 31, 1575 as an offshoot of the establishment of the first permanent Spanish settlements. San Agustín Church and Monastery in Manila became the center of Augustinian efforts to evangelise the Philippines. The order still has responsibility for one of the oldest churches in the Philippines, the Basilica del Santo Niño de Cebu in Cebu. Before the Philippine Revolution of 1898 which accelerated the separation of church and state in the Philippines, the Augustinians conducted more than 400 hundred schools and churches there and had pastoral care for some 2,237,000 Filipinos, including 328 village missions. The Philippine Revolution of 1896 cost the order its heaviest losses in the entire nineteenth century, breaking the historic connection with, or destroying the majority of its established works there. This included the removal of friars from 194 parishes, the capture of 122 friars by Filipino revolutionaries and the deprivation of income from 240 friars. Many Spanish Augustinians were forced to leave the country for Spain or Latin America, repopulating the Augustinian houses in Spain and reinforcing Augustinian missionary work in South America. Andrés de Urdaneta (b. ... 1498 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 23 - Peace of Longjumeau ends the Second War of Religion in France. ... A friar is a member of a religious mendicant order of men. ... Augustinian logo // Historical background The Province of the Most Holy Name of Jesus of the Philippines of the religious Order of St. ... The inside of the San Agustin Church in Intramuros, with magnificent trompe loeil mural on its ceiling and walls Historical Marker of San Agustin Church. ... Basilica Minore del Santo Niño (sometimes also called Basilica del Santo Niño) is a 16th century church structure in the heart of downtown Cebu City, Philippines. ... Combatants Filipino independence movement Spanish Empire Commanders Andres Bonifacio, Emilio Aguinaldo Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Strength 80,000 soldiers unknown Casualties unknown unknown The Philippine Revolution (1896—1898) was an armed conflict between the Spanish colonial regime and the Katipunan, which sought Philippine independence from Spain. ... By passing through the numerous phases of colonial occupation, the relationship of the church and state in the Philippines has repeatedly changed from the collaboration of the Roman Catholic Church with the government during the Spanish era to todays generally accepted separation of church and state. ...


In 1904 members of the order belonging to the Philippine province established the University of San Agustin in Iloilo City, Philippines. They have also since established schools such as the Colegio San Agustin-Bacolod in Negros Occidental (1962), the Colegio San Agustin, Makati (1969) and the Colegio San Agustin, Biñan in Biñan, Laguna (1985). In 1968 friars of the Philippine province re-established the Augustinian presence on the Indian subcontinent. The University of San Agustin is a private university in Iloilo City, Philippines. ... The City of Iloilo (Hiligaynon: Ciudad sang Iloilo; Filipino: Lungsod ng Iloilo) is the capital city of the province of Iloilo in the Philippines. ... For other schools/colleges of the same name, see St. ... Negros Occidental is a province of the Philippines located in the Western Visayas region. ... Colegio San Agustin, Makati is a private, co-educational Catholic school conducted by the Augustinian order, located in Palm Avenue, the upscale subdivision of Dasmariñas Village, Makati City, Philippines. ... COLEGIO SAN AGUSTIN-BIÑAN is a private Catholic school conducted by the Augustinian order in Biñan Laguna located near the [Southwoods] Interchange, South Luzon Expressway, Bgy. ... Biñán is a first class urban municipality in the province of Laguna, Philippines. ...


In 2004 the all-Filipino Augustinian Province of Cebu celebrated its twentieth year of existence. It has 85 members in final vows with 19 in simple profession. There are 12 priories including a mission on Socorro Island [21].


The order of friars is once again growing in the Philippines. The Augustinian Recollects are also present in the Philippines. The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ...


Japan

Despite a vigorous early Christian foundation in Nagasaki by Jesuits, Franciscans and Philippino Augustinians [22] and the many 17th century Japanese Augustinian martyrs, the earlier Augustinian mission attempts eventually failed after the repression of Tokugawa Hidetada (ruled 1605–1623; second Tokugawa shogun of Japan) and the expulsion of Christians under Tokugawa Iemitsu (ruled 1623 to 1651; third Tokugawa shogun of Japan). Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Nagasaki (Japanese: 長崎市, Nagasaki-shi  ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... The Society of Jesus (Latin: Societas Iesu), commonly known as the Jesuits, is a Roman Catholic religious order. ... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada Tokugawa Hidetada May 2, 1579—March 14, 1632) was the second shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623. ... Tokugawa Iemitsu (previously spelled Iyemitsu); 徳川 家光 (August 12, 1604 — June 8, 1651) was the third shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty who reigned from 1623 to 1651. ...


However, American Augustinian friars returned to Japan in 1954, symbolically establishing their first priory in 1959 at Nagasaki (also site of the second atomic bomb dropped on August 13th, 1945). They then established priories in Fukuoka (1959), Nagoya (1964), and Tokyo (1968). As of 2006, there are seven United States Augustinian friars and five Japanese Augustinian friars. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... This article is about a city in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... Nagoya ) is the fourth largest city in Japan. ...   , literally Eastern capital) is a unique subnational administrative region of Japan with characteristics of both a prefecture and a city. ...


Early Japanese Augustinian leaders, including St Magdalen of Nagasaki and St Thomas Jihyoe are venerated as saints.


Indonesia

Two Dutch Augustinian friars re-established the order in Papua (now Indonesia) in 1953 while it was still a Dutch colony. In 1956 the order took responsibility for the area that was to become the Diocese of Manokwari. As of 2006, the Augustinian Vicariate of Indonesia has 15 friars in solemn profession, and 7 in simple vows. It is now predominantly Papuan. The Augustinian Sisters of God's Mercy are also present in Indonesia (including West Borneo). The first Dutch sisters had arrived in 1946, and the order is now entirely Indonesian with fourteen communities and 105 professed [23]. Papua is: Another name for New Guinea Papua (Australian territory): A former Australian territory comprising the southeastern quarter of the island of New Guinea, now the southern part of Papua New Guinea Papua (Indonesian province): An Indonesian province comprising the western half of the island of New Guinea Related Words... Manokwari is a city and regency (district) in West Irian Jaya in Indonesia, at the western end of New Guinea. ...


The order of friars and affiliated orders are growing in Indonesia.


Korea

The Augustinian Recollects are also present in Korea, but for the Augustinian friars, the Region of Korea was founded in 1985 by Australian, English and Scottish friars. Philippinos later replaced the UK friars. As of 2006 there are 5 Koreans professed in the order and 12 in formation.[24]. Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or 조선 in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


The order of friars is growing numerically in Korea.


India

After an extensive period of expansion in India from the 15th century [25] the Portuguese Augustinians had not only established the order but also provided sixteen Indian bishops between 1579 and 1840. The order subsequently disappeared in India, cut off from its usual governance after the suppression of Portuguese monasteries in 1838, and the friars were forced to become secular priests. The order had failed successfully to establish itself as an autonomous indigenous Indian foundation.


However, the Augustinians were re-established by Filipino friars in 1968 at Cochin, and the Indian Augustinians took on further responsibilities in Kerala in 2005 [26]. The Indian order currently has 16 ordained friars and 8 in simple vows. The order is growing numerically in India. , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


China

The first Western major work on the history of China was by Augustinian friar Juan González de Mendoza. It was a description of a visit to China by three others (including another Augustinian friar), and included the first known depiction of Chinese characters in Western publishing. In 1585 he published it at Rome in Spanish. Juan González de Mendoza (c. ...


In about 1681, the Philippino Augustinian Alvaro de Benevente arrived in China and established the first of the Augustinian houses in China at Kan-chou. Benevente was made bishop and became head of the newly-created Vicariate of Kiang-si in 1699. The Augustinian missionaries had success in propagating Catholicism, but in 1708, during the Chinese Rites controversy they were forced to withdraw from China. Portuguese Augustinians also served in the colonial port of Macau from 1586 until 1712. Ganzhou (赣州) is a municipal unit, equivalent to a prefecture-level city in Jiangxi province, China. ... Jiangxi (Chinese: 江西; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chiang-hsi; Postal System Pinyin: Kiangsi) is a southern province of the Peoples Republic of China, spanning from the banks of the Yangtze River in the north into hillier areas in the south. ... The Chinese Rites controversy was a dispute within the Roman Catholic Church in the early 18th century about whether Chinese folk religion rites and offerings to the emperor constituted idolatry or not. ...


In 1879 Spanish Augustinians[27] from Manila (Elias Suarez O.S.A. and Agostino Villanueva O.S.A) entered China to re-establish an Augustinian mission. By 1910 the Augustinian mission had 24 members of the Order, two were indigenous Chinese. By 1947 the Augustinian mission counted 24,332 baptised Catholics as well as 3,250 preparing for baptism. They had established 20 major churches and 90 satellite churches. By that time there were 25 Chinese-born priests. Augustinian Recollects also established the (then) successful mission at Kweiteh in Henan Province in 1923. Shangqiu (Chinese: 商丘; pinyin: Shāngqiū) is a prefecture-level city within Henan province of the Peoples Republic of China . ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


All foreign missionaries were expelled or imprisoned from 1953 by the Communist government. Chinese-born Augustinians were dispersed by government order and directed not to live the monastic life. Church officials were arrested, schools and other church institutions closed or confiscated by the State. Many priests, religious brothers and sisters, as well as leaders among the Christian laity were sent to labour camps. One of the last of the pre-Revolution Chinese Augustinians was Father Dai O.S.A.. He died in 2003. In religious organizations, the laity comprises all lay persons collectively. ...


Latest information on China

Since the re-unification of the former colonies of Macau and Hong-Kong with the central Chinese government and further developments in government religious policy, Roman Catholicism in China - including clergy, Roman Catholic bishops, and a Cardinal - once again exists openly alongside the members of the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association and their co-religionists in the continuing underground Church. Catholicism in China has a long and complicated history. ... The Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association (Chinese: 中国天主教爱国会, pinyin: Zhōngguó Tiānzhǔjiào Àiguó Huì), abbreviated CPA, CPCA, or CCPA, is a division, established in 1957, of the Peoples Republic of Chinas Religious Affairs Bureau to exercise state supervision over mainland Chinas Catholics. ...


The Augustinian have recently re-established friendly relations with Chinese educational organisations through school-placement programmes[28] as well as through the University of the Incarnate Word Chinese campus founded by the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word. The University of the Incarnate Word (UIW) is located in San Antonio, Texas. ...


While there are Chinese Augustinian friars, there is not yet a priory in mainland China re-established.


Other Augustinians in Taiwan

The Augustinian Recollects are established in Taiwan, at Kaohsiung. They are supported by Filipino Recollects from the Province of St. Ezekiel Moreno. Likewise the Augustinian Sisters of Our Lady of Consolation are established there in Hsinchu city. The Canons Regular of Saint Augustine are also present in Taiwan. The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ... The main landmark of Hsinchu is its East Gate. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ...


Latest statistics for Asia

As of 2006 (and not counting Spanish Augustinian priories) there were more than 21 other Augustinian houses across the Philippines, India, Korea, Japan, and Indonesia, with more than 140 friars[29] in solemn vows and more than 40 in simple vows. Korea (Korean: 한국 in South Korea or 조선 in North Korea, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ...


The order of friars is growing in Asia.


History in Australia

Irishman James Alipius Goold O.S.A, was the first Augustinian to arrive in the Australian colonies in 1838. He had been convinced to go to Australia by William Bernard Ullathorne (then the Benedictine Vicar-General of New Holland) after a chance meeting on the steps of the Roman Augustinian church at the monastery of Santa Maria del Popolo[30]. James Alipius Goold (Nov 4th 1812- Jun 11 1886) was the founding Roman Catholic Bishop and Archbishop of Melbourne in Australia. ... William Bernard Ullathorne (7 May 1806-21 March 1889), English Roman Catholic bishop, was born at Pocklington, Yorkshire to an old Roman Catholic family. ... The facade of Santa Maria del Popolo Santa Maria del Popolo is a notable church located in Rome. ...


Goold began his missionary work in Sydney under Archbishop John Bede Polding, becoming parish priest at Campbelltown. Goold went on in 1848 to become the founding bishop and first Archbishop of the Archdiocese of Melbourne. He also commenced the design and construction of its Neo-Gothic Cathedral. Despite's Goold's initial desire to establish immediately an Australian branch of the order, the first Australian Augustinian was not ordained until 1940, and the Australian Province was not formally established as separate from its Irish founding province until 1952. The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of 4,119,190, and 151,920 in the City of Sydney, as of the 2006 census. ... Queen Street in Campbelltown Campbelltown is a suburb and the CBD (central business district) of the City of Campbelltown, in south-western Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia, located about 44 km south west of the Sydney central business district. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... In some Christian churches, the diocese is an administrative territorial unit governed by a bishop, sometimes also referred to as a bishopric or episcopal see, though more often the term episcopal see means the office held by the bishop. ... Melbourne (pronounced ) is the second most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 3. ... St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne St Patricks Cathedral, Melbourne, is the cathedral church of the Catholic Archdiocese of Melbourne and the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Melbourne, currently His Grace, Archbishop Denis Hart. ...


The Irish Augustinians formally accepted responsibility in 1884 for the part of Queensland that became the Diocese of Cairns, and the first Australian priory was founded at Echuca, Victoria in 1886. Priories were established at Rochester in 1889 and Kyabram in 1903. The order worked at different times in the colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania, taking part in some critical moments of the settlement and establishment of modern Australia. Charles O'Hea O.S.A. baptized Ned Kelly. Father Matthew Downing O.S.A. tried to calm the miners who were part of the Eureka Stockade in 1854. The order also supplied a number of the other early Australian bishops including Martin Crane O.S.A. and Stephen Reville O.S.A both in Sandhurst (Bendigo) John Heavey O.S.A. (Cairns), John Hutchinson O.S.A (Cooktown), and James Murray O.S.A (Cooktown). Cairns is a regional city located in far north Queensland, Australia. ... Echuca in Victoria (Australia) is a town of about 10,000 people lying on the Murray River (Moama is on the northern side in NSW). ... Rochester is a small town in country Victoria, Australia. ... Kyabram is located in the centre of a rich irrigation district in the Goulburn River Valley, 200 kilometres north of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, in the Campaspe Shire. ... Capital Sydney Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Professor Marie Bashir Premier Morris Iemma (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 50  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $305,437 (1st)  - Product per capita  $45,153/person (4th) Population (End of March 2006)  - Population  6,817,100 (1st)  - Density  8. ... Capital Brisbane Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Quentin Bryce Premier Peter Beattie (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 28  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $158,506 (3rd)  - Product per capita  $40,170/person (6th) Population (End of November 2006)  - Population  4,164,590 (3rd)  - Density  2. ... Slogan or Nickname: Garden State, The Place to Be Motto(s): Peace and Prosperity Other Australian states and territories Capital Melbourne Government Constitutional monarchy Governor David de Kretser Premier Steve Bracks (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 37  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $222,022 (2nd... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... Capital Hobart Government Constitutional monarchy Governor William Cox Premier Paul Lennon (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 5  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $16,114 (7th)  - Product per capita  $33,243/person (8th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  489,600 (6th)  - Density  7. ... Father Charles Adolphus OHea OSA (1814–1903) was a Catholic Priest best-known today as the man who baptised Ned Kelly, and who ministered to him before the bushranger was hanged in 1880. ... Ned Kelly the day before his execution Edward Ned Kelly (c. ... The Eureka Stockade was a gold miners revolt in 1854 in Ballarat, Victoria, Australia, against the officials supervising the mining of gold in the region of Ballarat. ... A Roman Catholic Diocese in Victoria, Australia. ... Cairns is a regional city located in far north Queensland, Australia. ... Cooktown is the northernmost town on the East coast of Australia, located at 15°28′ S 145°17′ E on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. ... Cooktown is the northernmost town on the East coast of Australia, located at 15°28′ S 145°17′ E on Cape York Peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia. ...


The order presently conducts parishes, two schools (one established 1948 in Brisbane, the other established 1956 in Sydney), St John Stone House (a centre for Augustinian Spirituality), a formation centre, and special ministries such as palliative care, HIV/AIDS ministry, and Aboriginal ministry. Villanova College Villanova College is an independent Australian Catholic college located in the Brisbane suburb of Coorparoo, Queensland, established in 1948 by the Augustinian friars. ... Vincit Veritas (Truth Conquers) For the school of the same name in Raleigh, see St. ... St John Stone was an English Reformation Augustinian friar, and Doctor of Sacred Theology, living in the Augustinian friary at Canterbury. ... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms or slowing the diseases progress, rather than providing a cure. ... Australian Aborigines are the indigenous peoples of Australia. ...


Associated orders such as the St John of God Brothers (arrived Australia 1947 and established mental health services) and the Philippino Augustinian Sisters of our Lady of Consolation also established an Australian house in the 1990s.


Latest statistics for Australia

As of 2006 there were 11 other Augustinian priories in Australia [31] with 36 friars in solemn vows, and one in simple vows. The order of friars is in numerical decline in Australia while affiliated orders are growing.


Notes

  1. ^ Sources quoted in the [1] New Advent Encyclopaedia, cf. Cardinal Boso's life, published by Muratori (SS. Rer. Ital. III, I 441–446) and reprinted in Migne (Patrologia Latina, CLXXXVIII, 135–160), also edited by Watterich (Vitae Pontificum II, 323–374), cf. also Duchesne's edition of the Liber Pontificalis (II, 388–397; cf. proleg XXXVII-XLV)
  2. ^ c.f. The Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions of the Order of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament New York: Schwartz, Kirwin, and Fauss, 1893, pp. 33–35.
  3. ^ Augustine of Hippo The Rule of St Augustine Constitutiones Ordinis Fratrum S. Augustini (Rome 1968)
  4. ^ c.f Schaff Herzog Encyclopaedia on which the beginnings of this article are based
  5. ^ c.f New Advent Encyclopaedia references to this exist in the later writings of St. Isidore, St.Ildephonsus and Eutropius
  6. ^ Licet ecclesiae catholicae Bullarium Taurinense, 3rd ed., 635 sq. issued on 4 May, 1256
  7. ^ Augustine of Hippo The Rule of St Augustine Constitutiones Ordinis Fratrum S. Augustini (Rome 1968) Chapter I
  8. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermons 358,1 "Victoria veritatis est caritas"
  9. ^ Augustine of Hippo Confessions 10, 27
  10. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermons 336, 1 PL 38, 1472
  11. ^ c.f. Augustino Lubin Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem. S. A. chorographica et topographica descriptio, Paris, 1659, 1671, 1672
  12. ^ c.f. Augustinians in Spain International Order of St. Augustine
  13. ^ The statistics come from Historia de la Persecución Religiosa en España (1936–1939) by Antonio Montero Moreno (Biblioteca de Autores Cristianos, 3rd edition, 1999)
  14. ^ N.B. Augustinian friars numbers cited from information on the website International Order of St. Augustine
  15. ^ c.f. Augustinians in North America Augnet historical information
  16. ^ N.B. Augustinian friars numbers cited from information on the website International Order of St. Augustine
  17. ^ c.f. Augustinians in the Americas Augnet historical information
  18. ^ N.B. South American Augustinian friars numbers not available online
  19. ^ c.f. Augustinians in Africa Augnet historical information
  20. ^ N.B. Augustinian friars numbers cited from information on the website International Order of St. Augustine
  21. ^ c.f. Augustinians in the Philippines Augnet historical information
  22. ^ c.f. Augustinians in Japan http://www.augnet.org/default.asp?ipageid=679&iparentid=678
  23. ^ c.f. Augustinian news Augustinians http://www.augustinians.org.au/apac/bulletin_01.html
  24. ^ c.f. Augustinians in Korea Augnet historical information
  25. ^ c.f. Augustinians in India Augnet historical information
  26. ^ c.f. Augustinian news Indian Augustinians http://www.augustinians.org.au/apac/bulletin_02.html
  27. ^ c.f. Augustinians in China Augnet historical information
  28. ^ c.f. Australian Augustinian School Principal from St. Augustine's College, Brookvale visits China Augnet News in 2003
  29. ^ N.B. Augustinian friars numbers cited from information on the website International Order of St. Augustine
  30. ^ Arneil, Stan pp. 34 "Out Where the Dead Men Lie" (The Augustinians in Australia 1838–1992) Augustinian Press Brookvale (1992). pp37.ISBN 0-949826-03-0
  31. ^ c.f. Augustinians in Australia Augnet historical information

Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 25 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... The Patrologia Latina is an enormous work published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1844 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. ... The Book of the Popes or the Liber Pontificalis is a major source for early medieval history but was also met with intense critical scrutiny. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ... Saint Ildephonsus (died 23 January 667) was the archbishop of Toledo from 657 until his death. ... Eutrophius of Orange (b. ... Vincit Veritas (Truth Conquers) For the school of the same name in Raleigh, see St. ...

References

  • Bibliography for the Augustinian official website
  • Augustine of Hippo, The Rule of St Augustine Constitutiones Ordinis Fratrum S. Augustini (Rome 1968)
  • The Augustinians (1244–1994): Our History in Pictures. Pubblicazioni Agostiniane, Via Paolo VI, 25, Roma, Italy. 
  • Canning O.S.A, Rev. R. (1984). The Rule of St Augustine. Darton, Longman and Todd. 
  • Ebsworth, Rev. Walter (1973). Pioneer Catholic Victoria. Polding Press. ISBN 0-85884-096-0. 
  • Hackett O.S.A., Michael Benedict (2002). A Presence in the Age of Turmoil: English, Irish and Scottish Augustinians in the Reformation and Counter-Reformation. Augustinian Historical Institute, Villanova University, Pennsylvania 19085 U.S.A.. ISBN 188954227X. 
  • Hickey, Rev. P.J. O.S.A (1981). A History of the Catholic Church in Northern Nigeria. Augustinian publications in Nigeria, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria. 
  • edited by Martin O.S.A, Rev F.X., and Clare O'Reilly. The Irish Augustinians in Rome, 1656–1994 and Irish Augustinian Missions throughout the World. St. Patrick's College, Via Piemonte 60, Roma, Italy. 
  • Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem. S. A. chorographica et topographica descriptio Augustino Lubin, Paris, 1659, 1671, 1672.
  • Regle de S. Augustin pour lei religieuses de son .ordre; et Constitutions de la Congregation des Religieuses du Verbe-Incarne et du Saint-Sacrament (Lyon: Chez Pierre Guillimin, 1662), pp. 28–29. Cf. later edition published at Lyon (Chez Briday, Libraire,1962), pp. 22–24. English edition, The Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions of the Order of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament (New York: Schwartz, Kirwin, and Fauss, 1893), pp. 33–35.
  • Zumkeller O.S.A., Adolar (1986). Augustine's ideal of Religious life. Fordham University Press, New York. 
  • Zumkeller O.S.A., Adolar (1987). Augustine's Rule. Augustinian Press, Villanova, Pennsylvania U.S.A.. 

See also

The Augustinian Recollects are a Roman Catholic monastic order of men and women. ... The Society of Saint Augustine (Societas Sancti Augustini) is a Roman Catholic Institute of Consecrated Life which takes as its pattern of living, the way of life delineated in the Rule of Saint Augustine of Hippo. ... The Bridgettine or Briggittine order. ... Canons regular are members to certain bodies of Canons (priests) living under a rule. ... The Canons Regular of Saint John Cantius (CRSJC) is a clerical Institute of Consecrated Life in the Catholic Church, founded in 1998 in the Archdiocese of Chicago as the Society of St. ... The Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception are a Roman Catholic congregation which follows the Augustinian Rule, and is therefore part of the wider Order of Canons Regular of St. ... Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare (Praise, Bless, Preach) Saint Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization to address the needs of his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities... These are Roman Catholic religious communities that follow the Augustinian Rule, but are not under the jurisdiction if the Prior General of the Augustinian hermits in Rome. ... The Premonstratensians, also called Norbertines, and in England the White Canons (from the color of their habit) are a Christian religious order of Augustinian Canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... The Norbertines, also known as the Premonstratensians and in England, as the White Canons (from the color of their habit), are a Christian religious order of Augustinian canons founded at Prémontré near Laon in 1120 by Saint Norbert, afterwards archbishop of Magdeburg. ... The Liturgy of the Hours is usually recited in full in monastic communities. ... Our Lady of Good Counsel (Mater boni consilii) is a title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary, after a miraculous painting now found in Genazzano, Italy. ...

External links

  • International Order of St. Augustine
  • Augustinians in Canada
  • www.augnet.org
  • International Order of St. Augustine
  • Text of the Rule of St. Augustine
  • Catholic Encyclopedia entry for the "Hermits of St Augustine"
  • Catholic Encyclopedia entry for "Canons and Canonesses Regular"
  • Canons Regular of the Immaculate Conception
  • The Augustinian Recollects
  • Augustinian nuns (America)
  • Augustinian nuns at Santo Quattro, Rome, Italy
  • Augustinian nuns at Cascia, Italy
  • List of Augustinian Saints
  • Augustinian Missionary Sisters
  • Italian language site of the Discalced Augustinians
  • Augustines of the Mercy of Jesus
  • Augustinian friars in Britain
  • Augustinian friars in Ireland
  • Brothers Hospitallers of St John of God
  • Augustinian Canons of Stift Klosterneuburg in Austria
  • Order of the Hermit Friars of St. Augustine (O.S.A.)
  • The Society of Saint Augustine (S.S.A.)
  • Augustinians in Brazil (Portugese language)
  • Augustinians of the Midwest
  • Augustinians of the East Coast, Province of St. Thomas of Villanova
  • Order of Augustinians of the Immaculate Heart of Mary, Independent Catholic
  • One Mind, One Heart - Augustine's Spirituality of Religious Life
  • Catholic Encyclopaedia article

This article includes content derived from the Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1914, which is in the public domain. The Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge is a 1914 religious encyclopedia, published in thirteen volumes. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


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