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Encyclopedia > Augustine of Hippo
Saint Augustine of Hippo

Augustine as depicted by Sandro Botticelli, c. 1480
Bishop and Doctor of the Church
Born November 13, 354(354-11-13), Tagaste, Algeria
Died August 28, 430 (aged 75), Hippo Regius
Venerated in most Christian groups
Major shrine San Pietro in Ciel d'Oro, Pavia, Italy
Feast August 28 (W), June 15 (E)
Attributes child; dove; pen; shell, pierced heart
Patronage brewers; printers; sore eyes; theologians
Saints Portal

Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine (November 13, 354August 28, 430) was a philosopher and theologian, and was bishop of the North African city of Hippo Regius for the last third of his life. Augustine is one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity, and is considered to be one of the church fathers. He framed the concepts of original sin and just war. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 390 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1576 × 2423 pixel, file size: 369 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi, better known as Sandro Botticelli (little barrel) (March 1, 1445 – May 17, 1510) was an Italian painter of the Florentine school during the Early Renaissance (Quattrocento). ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ... The city of Tagaste, now the present Souk-Ahras in Algeria, was situated in the northeast highlands of Numidia. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... Eastern Orthodox shrine Buddhist shrine just outside Wat Phnom. ... Tomb of Boethius in San Pietro in Ciel dOro. ... For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... The Milwaukee Brewers are a Major League Baseball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... Theology is literally rational discourse concerning God (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογος, logos, rational discourse). By extension, it also refers to the study of other religious topics. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Augustinus can refer to: Augustine of Hippo or Saint Augustine (354–430), Christian theologian Augustine of Canterbury (died 604), first Archbishop of Canterbury Augustine Eriugena, around 655, also known as Augustinus Hibernicus, Irish writer and philosopher Augustinus Triumphus (1243-1328), also known as Augustinus of Ancona, Hermit and writer Antonio... Augustine is the name of two important Saints: Augustine of Hippo (354-430) -- philosopher and theologian, author of The City of God, Confessions Augustine of Canterbury (d. ... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... The doctrine of the just war has its foundations in ancient Greek society and was first developed in the Christian tradition by Augustine in Civitas Dei, The City of God, in reaction to the absolutist pacifist strain of Christian ethics based on the doctrine of Turn the other cheek espoused...


In Roman Catholicism and the Anglican Communion, he is a saint and pre-eminent Doctor of the Church, and the patron of the Augustinian religious order. Many Protestants, especially Calvinists, consider him to be one of the theological fathers of Reformation teaching on salvation and grace. In the Eastern Orthodox Church he is a saint, and his feast day is celebrated annually on June 15, though a minority are of the opinion that he is a heretic, primarily because of his statements concerning what became known as the filioque clause.[1] Among the Orthodox he is called Blessed Augustine, or St. Augustine the Blessed. "Blessed" here does not mean that he is less than a saint, but is a title bestowed upon him as a sign of respect.[2] The Orthodox do not remember Augustine so much for his theological speculations as for his writings on spirituality. In addition he believed in Papal supremacy. [3] Catholic Church redirects here. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Detail of St. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Referring to the doctrine of Papal Supremacy the Catechism of the Catholic Church notes in paragraph 882, “the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he...


Born in present day Algeria as the eldest son of Saint Monica, he was educated in North Africa and baptized in Milan. His works—including The Confessions, which is often called the first Western autobiography—are still read around the world. Saint Monica of Hippo (332 – 387) is a Christian saint and mother of Saint Augustine. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... Confessions is the name of a series of thirteen autobiographical books by St. ... Cover of the first English edition of 1793 of Benjamin Franklins autobiography. ...

Contents

Life

Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

Jesus Christ
Birth · Resurrection
Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... Image File history File links Christian_cross_trans. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Resurrection—Tischbein, 1778. ...


Foundations
Church · Theology
New Covenant
Apostles · Kingdom · Gospel
History of Christianity · Timeline
St. ... Christian doctrine redirects here. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... “Kingdom of Heaven” redirects here. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The purpose...


Bible
Old Testament · New Testament
Books · Canon · Apocrypha
Septuagint · Decalogue
Sermon on the Mount
Great Commission
Translations (English)
Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... This article is about the Christian scriptures. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list of Biblical books which establishes the set of books which are considered to be authoritative as scripture by a particular Jewish or Christian community. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A column of uncial text from 1 Esdras in the Codex Vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons Greek edition and English translation. ... This article is about a list of ten religious commandments. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The Sermon... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


Christian theology
Monotheism
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
Grace · Faith · Justification · Salvation)
Sanctification · Theosis · Worship
Church · Sacraments · Eschatology
Dispensationalism · Covenant Theology
New Covenant Theology
Christian doctrine redirects here. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity, or in the oneness of God. ... This article is about the Christian Trinity. ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Christian apologetics is the... THIS IS A FACT Creation is a doctrinal position in many religions and philosophical belief systems which maintains that a single God, or a group of or deities is responsible for creating the universe. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... The Harrowing of Hell as depicted by Fra Angelico In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of declaring or making a sinner righteous before God. ... For other uses, see Salvation (disambiguation). ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Eastern Orthodox and... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      In Christian theology, Christian eschatology is the... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      As a current in Protestant Christian theology... Covenant Theology is not to be confused with the Covenanters For Covenantal Theology in the Roman Catholic perspective, see Covenantal Theology (Roman Catholic). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      New Covenant Theology refers to a...


History and traditions
Early · Councils
Creeds · Missions
Great Schism · Crusades · Reformation
Great Awakenings · Great Apostasy
Restorationism · Nontrinitarianism
Thomism · Arminianism
Congregationalism Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term Early Christianity... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      An Ecumenical Council (also sometimes Oecumenical... For other uses, see Creed (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The Great Awakenings refer to several periods of dramatic religious revival in Anglo-American religious history. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Great Apostasy is... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      For other... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Nontrinitarianism refers to Christian... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... Arminianism is a school of soteriological thought in Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacob Hermann, who was best known by the Latin form of his name, Jacobus Arminius. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...

Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations · Other religions
Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A denomination... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      This article is about... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther
Calvin · Wesley
Arius · Marcion of Sinope
Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope
Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch A 19th century picture of Paul of Tarsus Paul of Tarsus (originally Saul of Tarsus) or Saint Paul the Apostle (fl. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος, Athanásios; c 293 – May 2, 373) was a Christian bishop, the Bishop of Alexandria, in the fourth century. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... Marcion of Sinope (ca. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pope. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Patriarch of Alexandria. ... Throne inside the Patriarchade of Constantinople. ...

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Saint Augustine was of Berber descent[4] and was born in 354 A.D. in Tagaste (present-day Souk Ahras, Algeria), a provincial Roman city in North Africa.[5] At the age of 11, Augustine was sent to school at Madaurus, a small Numidian city about 19 miles south of Tagaste noted for its pagan climate. There he became very familiar with Latin literature, as well as pagan beliefs and practices.[6] In 369 and 370, he remained at home. During this period he read Cicero's dialogue Hortensius, which he described as leaving a lasting impression on him and sparking his interest in philosophy.[5] At age seventeen, through the generosity of a fellow citizen Romanianus,[5] he went to Carthage to continue his education in rhetoric. His revered mother, Monica,[7] was a Berber and a devout Catholic, and his father, Patricius, a pagan. Although raised as a Catholic, Augustine left the Church to follow the controversial Manichaean religion, much to the despair of his mother. As a youth Augustine lived a hedonistic lifestyle for a time and, in Carthage, he developed a relationship with a young woman who would be his concubine for over fifteen years. During this period he had a son, Adeodatus,[8] with the young woman. During the years 373 and 374, Augustine taught grammar at Tagaste. The following year, he moved to Carthage to conduct a school of rhetoric there, and would remain there for the next nine years.[5] Disturbed by the unruly behaviour of the students in Carthage, in 383 he moved to Rome to establish a school there, where he believed the best and brightest rhetoricians practiced. However, Augustine was disappointed with the Roman schools, which he found apathetic. Once the time came for his students to pay their fees they simply fled. Manichaean friends introduced him to the prefect of the City of Rome, Symmachus, who had been asked to provide a professor of rhetoric for the imperial court at Milan. Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ... The city of Tagaste, now the present Souk-Ahras in Algeria, was situated in the northeast highlands of Numidia. ... Souk Ahras (Arabic: ولاية سوق أهراس ) is a wilaya of Algeria. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Madaurus, or Madaura (see also for homonyms) is a Roman Catholic titular see in the former Roman province of Numidia. ... Latin literature, the body of written works in the Latin language, remains an enduring legacy of the culture of ancient Rome. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Quintus Hortensius (114 - 50 BC), surnamed Hortalus, was a Roman orator and advocate. ... Roman Carthage with former military harbor Carthage (Greek: , Latin: , from the Phoenician meaning new town; Arabic: ) refers both to an ancient city in Tunisia and to the civilization that developed within the citys sphere of influence. ... Saint Monica of Hippo (332 – 387) is a Christian saint and mother of Saint Augustine. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... Patricians (patricii) were originally the elite caste in ancient Rome. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Manichean priests, writing at their desk, with panel inscription in Sogdian. ... A swampy marsh area ... Rhetoric (from Greek , rhêtôr, orator, teacher) is generally understood to be the art or technique of persuasion through the use of oral, visual, or written language; however, this definition of rhetoric has expanded greatly since rhetoric emerged as a field of study in universities. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Symmachus can refer to several different people of Roman antiquity. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN...

"St Augustine and Monica" (1846), by Ary Scheffer.
"St Augustine and Monica" (1846), by Ary Scheffer.

The young provincial won the job and headed north to take up his position in late 384. At age thirty, Augustine had won the most visible academic chair in the Latin world, at a time when such posts gave ready access to political careers. However, he felt the tensions of life at an imperial court, lamenting one day as he rode in his carriage to deliver a grand speech before the emperor, that a drunken beggar he passed on the street had a less careworn existence than he did. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x772, 73 KB) Author: Ary Scheffer Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Augustine of Hippo ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x772, 73 KB) Author: Ary Scheffer Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Augustine of Hippo ... Ary Scheffer (February 10, 1795 _ June 15, 1858), French painter of Dutch extraction, was born at Dordrecht. ... Forum of Theodosius I built in Constantinople. ...


It was at Milan that Augustine's life changed. While still at Carthage, he had begun to move away from Manichaeism, in part because of a disappointing meeting with a key exponent of Manichaean theology. In Rome, he is reported to have completely turned away from Manichaeanism, and instead embraced the skepticism of the New Academy movement. At Milan, his mother Monica pressured him to become a Catholic. Augustine's own studies in Neoplatonism were also leading him in this direction, and his friend Simplicianus urged him that way as well.[5] But it was the bishop of Milan, Ambrose, who had most influence over Augustine. Ambrose was a master of rhetoric like Augustine himself, but older and more experienced. Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Saint Monica of Hippo (332 – 387) is a Christian saint and mother of Saint Augustine. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ...


Augustine's mother had followed him to Milan and he allowed her to arrange a society marriage, for which he abandoned his concubine (however he had to wait two years until his fiancée came of age; he promptly took up in the meantime with another woman). It was during this period that he uttered his famous prayer, "Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet" [da mihi castitatem et continentiam, sed noli modo] (Conf., VIII. vii (17)).


In the summer of 386, after having read an account of the life of Saint Anthony of the Desert which greatly inspired him, Augustine underwent a profound personal crisis and decided to convert to Catholic Christianity, abandon his career in rhetoric, quit his teaching position in Milan, give up any ideas of marriage, and devote himself entirely to serving God and the practices of priesthood, which included celibacy. Key to this conversion was the voice of an unseen child he heard while in his garden in Milan telling him in a sing-song voice to "tolle lege" ("take up and read") the Bible, at which point he opened the Bible at random and fell upon the Epistle to the Romans 13:13, which reads: "Let us walk honestly, as in the day; not in rioting and drunkenness, not in chambering and wantonness, not in strife and envying" (KJV). He would detail his spiritual journey in his famous Confessions, which became a classic of both Christian theology and world literature. Ambrose baptized Augustine, along with his son, Adeodatus, on Easter Vigil in 387 in Milan, and soon thereafter in 388 he returned to Africa.[5] On his way back to Africa his mother died, as did his son soon after, leaving him alone in the world without family. Theodosius I concludes peace with Persia, dividing Armenia between them. ... For the 13th century saint, see Saint Anthony of Padua. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... A priesthood is a body of priests, shamans, or oracles who are thought to have special religious authority or function. ... Clerical celibacy is the practice of various religious traditions in which clergy, monastics and those in religious orders (female or male) adopt a celibate life, refraining from marriage and sexual relationships, including masturbation and impure thoughts (such as sexual visualisation and fantasies). ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... Confessions is the name of a series of thirteen autobiographical books by St. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Events The widowed Roman Emperor Theodosius I marries Galla, sister of his colleague Valentinian II Births Deaths Flaccilla, wife of the Roman Emperor Theodosius I. Categories: 387 ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... // Events Bahram IV becomes king of Persia. ...


Upon his return to north Africa he sold his patrimony and gave the money to the poor. The only thing he kept was the family house, which he converted into a monastic foundation for himself and a group of friends.[5] In 391 he was ordained a priest in Hippo Regius (now Annaba, in Algeria). He became a famous preacher (more than 350 preserved sermons are believed to be authentic), and was noted for combating the Manichaean religion, to which he had formerly adhered. Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Events All non-Christian temples in the Roman Empire are closed Quintus Aurelius Symmachus is urban prefect in Rome, and petitions Theodosius I to re-open the pagan temples. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ... A small beach in Annaba with the city skyline in background. ... Preacher is a term the for someone who preaches sermons or gives homilies. ...


In 396 he was made coadjutor bishop of Hippo (assistant with the right of succession on the death of the current bishop), and became full bishop shortly thereafter. He remained in this position at Hippo until his death in 430. Augustine worked tirelessly in trying to convince the people of Hippo, who were diverse racial and religious group, to convert to the Catholic faith. He left his monastery, but continued to lead a monastic life in the episcopal residence. He left a Rule (Latin, Regula) for his monastery that has led him to be designated the "patron saint of Regular Clergy", that is, Clergy who live by a monastic rule. Events Emperor An succeeds Emperor Xiaowu as ruler of the Chinese Jin Dynasty Augustine appointed bishop of Hippo in North Africa End of the Visigoth invasion in Greece. ... Archbishop Jerome Hanus of the Archdiocese of Dubuque, Dubuque, Iowa. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... Monastery of St. ...


Augustine died on August 28, 430 during the siege of Hippo by the Vandals. On his death bed he was read the Enneads of Plotinus. He is said to have encouraged its citizens to resist the attacks, primarily on the grounds that the Vandals adhered to Arianism, a heterodox branch of Christianity. It is also said that he died just as the Vandals were tearing down the city walls of Hippo. is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article...


After conquering the city, the Vandals destroyed all of it but Augustine's cathedral and library, which they left untouched. Tradition indicates that his body was later moved to Pavia, where it is said to remain to this day.[5] For the municipality in the Philippines, see Pavia, Iloilo. ...


Works

Augustine was one of the most prolific Latin authors, and the list of his works consists of more than a hundred separate titles.[9] They include apologetic works against the heresies of the Arians, Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians, texts on Christian doctrine, notably De doctrina Christiana (On Christian Doctrine), exegetical works such as commentaries on Genesis, the Psalms and Paul's Letter to the Romans, many sermons and letters, and the Retractationes (Retractions), a review of his earlier works which he wrote near the end of his life. Apart from those, Augustine is probably best known for his Confessiones (Confessions), which is a personal account of his earlier life, and for De civitate Dei (The City of God, consisting of 22 books), which he wrote to restore the confidence of his fellow Christians, which was badly shaken by the sack of Rome by the Visigoths in 410. His 'On the Trinity' (De Trinitate), in which he developed what has become known as the 'psychological analogy' of the Trinity, is also among his masterpieces, and arguably one of the greatest theological works of all time. This article is about the theological doctrine of Arius. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Manichaeism was one of the major ancient religions. ... Pelagianism is a belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil with no Divine aid whatesoever. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... On Christian Doctrine is the primary text written by St. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or praises) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the epistles, or letters, included in the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about letter, a written message from one party to another. ... A retraction is a public statement that confirms that a previously made statement was incorrect, invalid, or morally wrong. ... Confessions is the name of a series of thirteen autobiographical books by St. ... This article is about the work by St. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ...


Influence as a theologian and thinker

Augustine remains a central figure, both within Christianity and in the history of Western thought, and is considered by modern historian Thomas Cahill to be the first medieval man and the last classical man.[10] In both his philosophical and theological reasoning, he was greatly influenced by Stoicism, Platonism and Neo-platonism, particularly by the work of Plotinus, author of the Enneads, probably through the mediation of Porphyry and Victorinus (as Pierre Hadot has argued). His generally favorable view of Neoplatonic thought contributed to the "baptism" of Greek thought and its entrance into the Christian and subsequently the European intellectual tradition. His early and influential writing on the human will, a central topic in ethics, would become a focus for later philosophers such as Schopenhauer and Nietzsche. In addition, Augustine was influenced by the works of Virgil (known for his teaching on language), Cicero (known for his teaching on argument), and Aristotle (particularly his Rhetoric and Poetics). Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1072 KB)Tiffany stained-glass window of St. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 1072 KB)Tiffany stained-glass window of St. ... Strictly speaking, stained glass is glass that has been painted with silver stain and then fired. ... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and... Tower detail of the Lightner Museum in St. ... Nickname: Location in St. ... Thomas Cahill is an author who has written 4 best sellers, most famous of which is Sailing the Wine Dark Sea: Why The Greeks Matter. ... A restored Stoa in Athens. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is an ancient school of philosophy beginning in the 3rd century A.D. It was based on the teachings of Plato and Platonists; but it interpreted Plato in many new ways, such that Neoplatonism was quite different from what Plato taught, though not many Neoplatonists would... Plotinus (Greek: ) (ca. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Porphyry of Tyre (Greek: , c. ... Marcus Piav(v)onius Victorinus was emperor of the successionist Gallic Empire from 268 to 270 or 271, following the brief reign of Marius. ... Pierre Hadot (Paris, 1922) is a French philosopher, specialized in Ancient philosophy (in particular neo-platonism). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher who believed that the will to live is the fundamental reality and that this will, being a constant striving, is insatiable and ultimately yields only suffering. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philosopher. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Aristotles Rhetoric (or Ars Rhetorica, or The Art of Rhetoric or Treatise on Rhetoric) places the discipline of public speaking in the context of all other intellectual pursuits at the time. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ...


Augustine's concept of original sin was expounded in his works against the Pelagians. However, Eastern Orthodox theologians, while they believe all humans were damaged by the original sin of Adam and Eve, have key disputes with Augustine about this doctrine, and as such this is viewed as a key source of division between East and West. His writings helped formulate the theory of the just war. He also advocated the use of force against the Donatists, asking "Why ... should not the Church use force in compelling her lost sons to return, if the lost sons compelled others to their destruction?" (The Correction of the Donatists, 22–24). St. Thomas Aquinas took much from Augustine's theology while creating his own unique synthesis of Greek and Christian thought after the widespread rediscovery of the work of Aristotle. While Augustine's doctrine of divine predestination would never be wholly forgotten within the Roman Catholic Church, finding eloquent expression in the works of Bernard of Clairvaux, Reformation theologians such as Martin Luther and John Calvin would look back to him as the inspiration for their avowed capturing of the Biblical Gospel. Bishop John Fisher of Rochester, a chief opponent of Luther, articulated an Augustinian view of grace and salvation consistent with Church doctrine, thus encompassing both Augustine’s soteriology and his teaching on the authority of and obedience to the Catholic Church.[11] Later, within the Roman Catholic Church, the writings of Cornelius Jansen, who claimed heavy influence from Augustine, would form the basis of the movement known as Jansenism; some Jansenists went into schism and formed their own church. Pelagianism is a belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil with no Divine aid whatesoever. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Coptic Orthodox Pope · Roman Catholic Pope Archbishop of Canterbury · Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Faith... Just War theory is an international law doctrine that postulates that a war can be just only if it satisfies a set of moral or legal rules. ... The Donatists (founded by the Berber christian Donatus) were followers of a belief considered a heresy by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Cornelius Jansen, Engraving by Jean Morin Cornelius Jansen, often known as Jansenius (October 28, 1585–May 6, 1638) was Catholic bishop of Ypres and the father of the religious movement known as Jansenism. ... Jansenism was a branch of Catholic thought tracing itself back to Cornelius Otto Jansen (1585 – 1638), a Flemish theologian. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ...


Augustine was canonized by popular acclaim, and later recognized as a Doctor of the Church in 1303 by Pope Boniface VIII[citation needed]. His feast day is August 28, the day on which he died. He is considered the patron saint of brewers, printers, theologians, sore eyes, and a number of cities and dioceses. The latter part of Augustine's Confessions consists of an extended meditation on the nature of time. Catholic theologians generally subscribe to Augustine's belief that God exists outside of time in the "eternal present"; that time only exists within the created universe because only in space is time discernible through motion and change. His meditations on the nature of time are closely linked to his consideration of the human ability of memory. Frances Yates in her 1966 study, The Art of Memory argues that a brief passage of the Confessions, X.8.12, in which Augustine writes of walking up a flight of stairs and entering the vast fields of memory [12] clearly indicates that the ancient Romans were aware of how to use explicit spatial and architectural metaphors as a mnemonic technique for organizing large amounts of information. According to Leo Ruickbie, Augustine's arguments against magic, differentiating it from miracle, were crucial in the early Church's fight against paganism and became a central thesis in the later denunciation of witches and witchcraft. According to Professor Deepak Lal, Augustine's vision of the heavenly city has influenced the secular projects and traditions of the Enlightenment, Marxism, Freudianism and Eco-fundamentalism [citation needed]. This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint Quentin is the patron saint of locksmiths and is also invoked against coughs and sneezes. ... While in the popular mind, eternity often simply means existing for an infinite, i. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Dame Frances Amelia Yates (1899-1981) was a noted British historian. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... The Art of Memory is a 1966 non-fiction book by British historian Frances A. Yates. ... For other uses, see Mnemonic (disambiguation). ... Leo Ruickbie is the author of Witchcraft Out of the Shadows[1], a 2004 publication outlining the history of witchcraft from ancient Greece until the modern day. ... Not to be confused with Magic (illusion). ... A miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the ordinary course and operation of Nature is overruled, suspended, or modified. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... “Witch” redirects here. ... The Enlightenment (French: ; German: ; Italian: ; Portuguese: ) was an eighteenth century movement in European and American philosophy — some classifications also include 17th century philosophy (usually called the Age of Reason). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ...


Influential quotations from Augustine's writings

  • "Give what Thou dost command, and command what Thou wilt." ("Da quod jubes, et jube quod vis," Confessions X, xxix, 40)
  • "Thou madest us for Thyself, and our heart is restless until it repose in Thee." (Confessions I, i, 1)
  • "Love the sinner and hate the sin" (Cum dilectione hominum et odio vitiorum) (Opera Omnia, vol II. col. 962, letter 211.), literally "With love for mankind and hatred of sins "[13]
  • "Excess [i.e., 'extravagant self-indulgence, riotous living'] is the enemy of God" (Luxuria est inimica Dei.)
  • "Heart speaks to heart" (Cor ad cor loquitur)[14]
  • "Nothing conquers except truth and the victory of truth is love" (Victoria veritatis est caritas}[15]
  • "To sing once is to pray twice" (Qui cantat, bis orat) literally "he who sings, prays twice"[16]
  • "Lord, you have seduced me and I let myself be seduced" (quoting the prophet Jeremiah 20.7-9)
  • "Love, and do what you will" (Dilige et quod vis fac) Sermon on 1 John 7, 8[17]
  • "Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet" (da mihi castitatem et continentiam, sed noli modo) (Conf., VIII. vii (17))
  • "God, O Lord, grant me the power to overcome sin. For this is what you gave to us when you granted us free choice of will. If I choose wrongly, then I shall be justly punished for it. Is that not true, my Lord, of whom I indebted for my temporal existence? Thank you, Lord, for granting me the power to will my self not to sin.(Free Choice of the Will, Book One)"
  • "Christ is the teacher within us"[18] (A paraphrase; see De Magistro - "On the Teacher" - 11:38)
  • "Hear the other side" (Audi partem alteram) De Duabus Animabus, XlV ii
  • "Take up [the book], and Read it" (Tolle, lege) Confessions, Book VIII, Chapter 12
  • "There is no salvation outside the church" (Salus extra ecclesiam non est) (De Bapt. IV, cxvii.24)
  • "To many, total abstinence is easier than perfect moderation." (Multi quidem facilius se abstinent ut non utantur, quam temperent ut bene utantur. - Lit. 'For many it is indeed easier to abstain so as not to use [married sexual relations] at all, than to control themselves so as to use them aright.') (On the Good of Marriage)
  • "We make ourselves a ladder out of our vices if we trample the vices themselves underfoot." (iii. De Ascensione)
  • "Hope has two beautiful daughters. Their names are anger and courage; anger at the way things are, and courage to see that they do not remain the way they are." (quoted in William Sloane Coffin, The Heart Is a Little to the Left)

Natural knowledge and biblical interpretation

Augustine took the view that the Biblical text should not be interpreted literally if it contradicts what we know from science and our God-given reason. In an important passage on his "The Literal Interpretation of Genesis" (early 5th century, AD), St. Augustine wrote: Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ...

It not infrequently happens that something about the earth, about the sky, about other elements of this world, about the motion and rotation or even the magnitude and distances of the stars, about definite eclipses of the sun and moon, about the passage of years and seasons, about the nature of animals, of fruits, of stones, and of other such things, may be known with the greatest certainty by reasoning or by experience, even by one who is not a Christian. It is too disgraceful and ruinous, though, and greatly to be avoided, that he [the non-Christian] should hear a Christian speaking so idiotically on these matters, and as if in accord with Christian writings, that he might say that he could scarcely keep from laughing when he saw how totally in error they are. In view of this and in keeping it in mind constantly while dealing with the book of Genesis, I have, insofar as I was able, explained in detail and set forth for consideration the meanings of obscure passages, taking care not to affirm rashly some one meaning to the prejudice of another and perhaps better explanation.

The Literal Interpretation of Genesis 1:19–20, Chapt. 19 [AD 408]

With the scriptures it is a matter of treating about the faith. For that reason, as I have noted repeatedly, if anyone, not understanding the mode of divine eloquence, should find something about these matters [about the physical universe] in our books, or hear of the same from those books, of such a kind that it seems to be at variance with the perceptions of his own rational faculties, let him believe that these other things are in no way necessary to the admonitions or accounts or predictions of the scriptures. In short, it must be said that our authors knew the truth about the nature of the skies, but it was not the intention of the Spirit of God, who spoke through them, to teach men anything that would not be of use to them for their salvation.

ibid, 2:9

A more clear distinction between "metaphorical" and "literal" in literary texts arose with the rise of the Scientific Revolution, although its source could be found in earlier writings, such as those of Herodotus (5th century BC). It was even considered heretical to interpret the Bible literally at times (cf. Origen, St. Jerome).[citation needed] This article is about the period or event in history. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hērodotos Halikarnāsseus) was a Greek historian from Ionia who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ...


Creation

See also: Allegorical interpretations of Genesis

In "The Literal Interpretation of Genesis" Augustine took the view that everything in the universe was created simultaneously by God, and not in seven calendar days like a plain account of Genesis would require. He argued that the six-day structure of creation presented in the book of Genesis represents a logical framework, rather than the passage of time in a physical way - it would bear a spiritual, rather than physical, meaning, which is no less literal. Augustine also doesn’t envisage original sin as originating structural changes in the universe, and even suggests that the bodies of Adam and Eve were already created mortal before the Fall. Apart from his specific views, Augustine recognizes that the interpretation of the creation story is difficult, and remarks that we should be willing to change our mind about it as new information comes up. [4] Allegorical interpretations of Genesis is devoted to historical and contemporary non-literal regarding the book of Genesis. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...


In "The City of God", Augustine also defended what would be called today as young Earth creationism. In the specific passage, Augustine rejected both the immortality of the human race proposed by pagans, and contemporary ideas of ages (such as those of certain Greeks and Egyptians) that differed from the Church's sacred writings: The City of God, opening text, created c. ... Adam and Eve, the first human beings according to Genesis. ...

Let us, then, omit the conjectures of men who know not what they say, when they speak of the nature and origin of the human race. For some hold the same opinion regarding men that they hold regarding the world itself, that they have always been... They are deceived, too, by those highly mendacious documents which profess to give the history of many thousand years, though, reckoning by the sacred writings, we find that not 6000 years have yet passed.

Augustine, Of the Falseness of the History Which Allots Many Thousand Years to the World’s Past, The City of God, Book 12: Chapt. 10 [AD 419].

Doctrine of original sin

Augustine's theological views in the early middle era were revolutionary, perhaps none so much as his clear formulation of the doctrine of original sin that has substantially influenced Catholic theology. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ...


His idea of predestination rests on the assertion that God has foreseen, from time immemorial, all the choices every person who would ever live on Earth would make, and whether they would cooperate with grace or not. The number of the people God knows would be saved are the elect, the number who God knows will not be saved are the reprobate. God has chosen the elect certainly and gratuitously, without any previous merit (ante merita) on their part. Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In Christianity...


Yet Augustine also maintains firmly that it is God's will to save all men. God does not destroy human liberty and free choice, but preserves it, so that the elect would, potentially, have the full power to be damned and the non-elect full power to be saved.

According to Augustine, God, in his creative decree, has expressly excluded every order of things in which grace would deprive man of his liberty, every situation in which man would not have the power to resist sin, and thus Augustine brushes aside that predestinationism which has been attributed to him. Listen to him speaking to the Manichæans: "All can be saved if they wish"; and in his "Retractations" (I, x), far from correcting this assertion, he confirms it emphatically: "It is true, entirely true, that all men can, if they wish." But he always goes back to the providential preparation. In his sermons he says to all: "It depends on you to be elect" (In Ps. cxx, n. 11, etc.); "Who are the elect? You, if you wish it" (In Ps. Lxxiii, n. 5). But, you will say, according to Augustine, the lists of the elect and reprobate are closed. Now if the non-elect can gain heaven, if all the elect can be lost, why should not some pass from one list to the other? You forget the celebrated explanation of Augustine: When God made His plan, He knew infallibly, before His choice, what would be the response of the wills of men to His graces. If, then, the lists are definitive, if no one will pass from one series to the other, it is not because anyone cannot (on the contrary, all can), it is because God knew with infallible knowledge that no one would wish to. Thus I cannot effect that God should destine me to another series of graces than that which He has fixed, but, with this grace, if I do not save myself it will not be because I am not able, but because I do not wish to.

[19]

Against the Pelagians Augustine also strongly stressed the importance of infant baptism. He believed that no one would be saved unless he or she had received baptism in order to be cleansed from original sin. He also maintained that unbaptized children would go to hell. It was not until the 12th century that pope Innocentius III accepted the doctrine of limbo as promulgated by Peter Abelard. It was the place where the unbaptized went and suffered no pain but, as the Church maintained, being still in a state of original sin, they did not deserve Paradise, therefore they did not know happiness either. The Church of England disavowed the state of original sin in the 16th century. Non-conformist religions such as the Unitarians and the Quakers never held to the concept. Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Catholic church in the United States in 2004 In Christian religious practice, infant baptism is the baptism of young children or infants. ... “Original Sin” redirects here. ... The Inferno redirects here. ...


Augustine and lust

Augustine struggled with lust throughout his life. He associated sexual desire with the sin of Adam, and believed that it was still sinful, even though the Fall has made it part of human nature.


In the Confessions, Augustine describes his personal struggle in vivid terms: "But I, wretched, most wretched, in the very commencement of my early youth, had begged chastity of Thee, and said, 'Grant me chastity and continence, only not yet.'"[20] At sixteen Augustine moved to Carthage where again he was plagued by this "wretched sin":

There seethed all around me a cauldron of lawless loves. I loved not yet, yet I loved to love, and out of a deep-seated want, I hated myself for wanting not. I sought what I might love, in love with loving, and I hated safety... To love then, and to be beloved, was sweet to me; but more, when I obtained to enjoy the person I loved. I defiled, therefore, the spring of friendship with the filth of concupiscence, and I beclouded its brightness with the hell of lustfulness.

[21]

For Augustine, the evil was not in the sexual act itself, but rather in the emotions that typically accompany it. To the pious virgins raped during the sack of Rome, he writes, "Truth, another's lust cannot pollute thee." Chastity is "a virtue of the mind, and is not lost by rape, but is lost by the intention of sin, even if unperformed."[19]


In short, Augustine's life experience led him to consider lust to be one of the most grievous sins, and a serious obstacle to the virtuous life.


Augustine and the Jews

Against certain Christian movements rejecting the use of Hebrew Scriptures, Augustine countered that God had chosen the Jews as a special people, though he also considered the scattering of Jews by the Roman empire to be a fulfillment of prophecy.[22] Augustine wrote:

The Jews who slew Him, and would not believe in Him, because it behooved Him to die and rise again, were yet more miserably wasted by the Romans, and utterly rooted out from their kingdom, where had already ruled over them, and were dispersed through the lands (so that indeed there is no place where they are not), and are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ. This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...

[23]

Augustine also quotes part of the same prophecy that says "Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Thy law". Augustine argued that God had allowed the Jews to survive this dispersion as a warning to Christians, thus they were to be permitted to dwell in Christian lands. Augustine further argued that the Jews would be converted at the end of time.[24]


St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas

For quotations of St. Augustine by St. Thomas Aquinas see Aquinas and the Sacraments and Thought of Thomas Aquinas Part I. // The following atricle is a condensation of the writings of St. ... This article contains selected thoughts of Thomas Aquinas on various topics. ...


Books

  • On Christian Doctrine, 397-426
  • Confessions, 397-398
  • The City of God, begun ca. 413, finished 426
  • On the Trinity, 400-416
  • Enchiridion
  • Retractions: At the end of his life (ca. 426-428) Augustine revisited his previous works in chronological order and suggested what he would have said differently in a work titled the Retractions, giving the reader a rare picture of the development of a writer and his final thoughts.
  • The Literal Meaning of Genesis
  • On Free Choice of the Will

On Christian Doctrine is the primary text written by St. ... Events Council of Carthage: Definitive declaration of the biblical canon Candida Casa founded by Saint Ninian. ... Events Saint Augustine of Hippo publishes the City of God. ... Confessions is the name of a series of thirteen autobiographical books by St. ... Events John Chrysostom becomes bishop of Constantinople. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ... Events May 8 - Honorius signs an edict providing tax relief for the provinces of Italy that have been plundered by the Visigoths. ... Events First invasion of Italy by Alaric (probable date). ... Events Krakatoa undergoes a massive explosion. ... The Enchiridion, Manual, or Handbook of Augustine of Hippo is alternatively titled, Faith, Hope, and Love. The Enchiridion is a compact treatise on Christian piety, written in response to a request by an otherwise unknown person, named Laurentis, shortly after the death of Saint Jerome in 420. ... Events Saint Augustine of Hippo publishes the City of God. ... Events April 10 - Nestorius is made Patriarch of Constantinople. ...

Letters

  • On the Catechising of the Uninstructed
  • On Faith and the Creed
  • Concerning Faith of Things Not Seen
  • On the Profit of Believing
  • On the Creed: A Sermon to Catechumens
  • On Continence
  • On the Good of Marriage
  • On Holy Virginity
  • On the Good of Widowhood
  • On Lying
  • To Consentius: Against Lying
  • On the Work of Monks
  • On Patience
  • On Care to be Had For the Dead
  • On the Morals of the Catholic Church
  • On the Morals of the Manichaeans
  • On Two Souls, Against the Manichaeans
  • Acts or Disputation Against Fortunatus the Manichaean
  • Against the Epistle of Manichaeus Called Fundamental
  • Reply to Faustus the Manichaean
  • Concerning the Nature of Good, Against the Manichaeans
  • On Baptism, Against the Donatists
  • Answer to Letters of Petilian, Bishop of Cirta
  • The Correction of the Donatists
  • Merits and Remission of Sin, and Infant Baptism
  • On the Spirit and the Letter
  • On Nature and Grace
  • On Man's Perfection in Righteousness
  • On the Proceedings of Pelagius
  • On the Grace of Christ, and on Original Sin
  • On Marriage and Concupiscence
  • On the Soul and its Origin
  • Against Two Letters of the Pelagians
  • On Grace and Free Will
  • On Rebuke and Grace
  • The Predestination of the Saints/Gift of Perseverance
  • Our Lord's Sermon on the Mount
  • The Harmony of the Gospels
  • Sermons on Selected Lessons of the New Testament
  • Tractates on the Gospel of John
  • Homilies on the First Epistle of John
  • Soliloquies
  • The Enarrations, or Expositions, on the Psalms
  • On the Immortality of the Soul

Notes

  1. ^ Archimandrite [now Archbishop] Chrysostomos. "Book Review: The Place of Blessed Augustine in the Orthodox Church". Orthodox Tradition II (3&4): 40-43. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. 
  2. ^ "Blessed Augustine of Hippo: His Place in the Orthodox Church: A Corrective Compilation". Orthodox Tradition XIV (4): 33-35. Retrieved on 2007-06-28. 
  3. ^ "Carthage was also near the countries over the sea, and distinguished by illustrious renown,so that it had a bishop of more than ordinary influence, who could afford to disregard a number of conspiring enemies because he saw himself joined by letters of communion to the Roman Church, in which the supremacy of an apostolic chair has always flourished" Letter 43 Chapter 9
  4. ^ Patricia Hampl. The Confessions by St Augustine (preface). Vintage, 1998. ISBN 0375700218 - Marcus Dods. The City of God by St Augustine (preface). Modern Library edition, 2000. ISBN 0679783199 - Norman Cantor. The Civilization of the Middle Ages, A Completely Revised and Expanded Edition of Medieval History p74. Harper Perennial, 1994. ISBN 0060925531 - Vincent Serralda. Le Berbère...lumière de l'Occident. Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1989. ISBN 2723302393 - René Pottier. Saint Augustin le Berbère. Fernand Lanore, 2006. ISBN 2851572822 - Gabriel Camps. Les Berbères. Editions de France, 1995. ISBN 978-2877722216 - Gilbert Meynier. L'Algérie des origines p73. La Découverte, 2007. ISBN 2707150886 etc
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Encyclopedia Americana, v.2, p. 685. Danbury, CT:Grolier Incorporated, 1997. ISBN 0-7172-0129-5.
  6. ^ Andrew Knowles and Pachomios Penkett, Augustine and his World Ch.2.
  7. ^ Monica was a Berber name derived from the Libyan deity Mon worshiped in the neighbouring town of Thibilis. However, we don’t have any information that Monica’s husband was a Berber too.
  8. ^ According to J.Fersuson and Garry Wills, Adeodatus, the name of Augustine's son is a Latinization of the Berber name Iatanbaal (given by God).
  9. ^ Passage based on F.A. Wright and T.A. Sinclair, A History of Later Latin Literature (London 1931), pp. 56 ff.
  10. ^ Thomas Cahill, How the Irish Saved Civilization Ch.2.
  11. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation: A History (Penguin Group, 2005) p112.
  12. ^ Confessiones Liber X: commentary on 10.8.12 (in Latin)
  13. ^ J.-P. Migne, (translator) St. Augustine's Letter 211 (ed.) Patrologiae Latinae Volume 33, (1845).
  14. ^ Augustine of Hippo The Confessions
  15. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermons 358,1 "Victoria veritatis est caritas"
  16. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermons 336, 1 PL 38, 1472
  17. ^ Augustine of Hippo Sermon on 1 John 7, 8 [1]
  18. ^ Augustine's Confessions : critical essaysedited by William E. Mann. Lanham, Md. : Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2006. - xii, 240 s
  19. ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia (1914); emphasis added.
  20. ^ [2]Confessions, Saint Augustine, Book Eight, Chapter 17.
  21. ^ [3] Confessions, Saint Augustine, Book Three, Chapter 1.
  22. ^ Diarmaid MacCulloch, The Reformation (Penguin Group, 2005) p8.
  23. ^ City of God, book 18, chapter 46.
  24. ^ J. Edwards, The Spanish Inquisition (Stroud, 1999), pp33-5.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Norman F. Cantor (born in Winnipeg, Canada on November 19, 1929, died in Miami, Florida, United States on September 18, 2004) was a historian who specialized in the medieval period. ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... How The Irish Saved Civilization: The Untold Story of Irelands Heroic Role from the Fall of Rome to the Rise of Medieval Europe is a non-fiction historical book written by Thomas Cahill. ... Diarmaid MacCulloch is Professor of the History of the Church in the University of Oxford (at St Cross College, Oxford. ... Jacques-Paul Migne Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 24 October 1875) was a French priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works, encyclopedias and the texts of the Church Fathers. ... The Patrologia Latina is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1844 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. ...

References

  • The Story of Thought, DK Publishing, Bryan Magee, London, 1998, ISBN 0-7894-4455-0
aka The Story of Philosophy, Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2001, ISBN 0-7894-7994-X
(subtitled on cover: The Essential Guide to the History of Western Philosophy)
g Saint Augustine, pages 30, 144; City of God 51, 52, 53 and The Confessions 50, 51, 52
- additional in the Dictionary of the History of Ideas for Saint Augustine and Neo-Platonism

Bryan Magee (born April 12, 1930) is a noted British broadcasting personality, politician, and author, best known as a popularizer of philosophy. ...

In the arts

  • Indie/rock band Band of Horses have a song called "St. Augustine". It seems that the song speaks of somebody's desire for fame and recognition, rather than their desire for truth.
  • Christian rock band Petra dedicated a song to St. Augustine called "St. Augustine's Pears". It is based on one of Augustine's writings in his book "Confessions" where he tells of how he stole some neighbor's pears without being hungry, and how that petty theft haunted him through his life.[5]
  • Jon Foreman, lead singer and song writer of the alternative rock band Switchfoot wrote a song called "Something More (Augustine's Confession)", based after the life and book, "Confessions", of Augustine.
  • For his 1993 album "Ten Summoner's Tales", Sting wrote a song entitled "Saint Augustine in Hell", with lyrics 'Make me chaste, but not just yet' alluding to Augustine's famous prayer, 'Grant me chastity and continence, but not yet'.
  • Bob Dylan, for his 1967 album John Wesley Harding penned a song entitled "I Dreamed I Saw St. Augustine" (also covered by Thea Gilmore in her 2002 album Songs from the Gutter.). The song's opening lines ("I dreamed I saw Saint Augustine / Alive as you or me") are likely based on the opening lines of " I Dreamed I Saw Joe Hill Last Night", a song crafted in 1936 by Earl Robinson detailing the death of the famous American labor-activist who, himself, was an influential songwriter.
  • Roberto Rossellini directed the film "Agostino d'Ippona" (Augustine of Hippo) for Italy's RAI-TV in 1972.
  • Alternative rock band Sherwood's album "Sing, But Keep Going" references a famous quote attributed to St. Augustine on the inside cover.
  • After being unintentionally baptised by Ned Flanders in episode '3F01' - "Home Sweet Home - Diddily-Dum-Doodily", Homer Simpson says, "Oh, Bartholomew, I feel like St. Augustine of Hippo after his conversion by Ambrose of Milan."
  • Christian singer Kevin Max mentions St. Augustine in his song "Angel With No Wings". He sings So come on back when you can make some tea/And read Saint Augustine.

Band of Horses, known early in its life as simply Horses, is an American indie rock band formed in Seattle by Ben Bridwell, Mat Brooke, Creighton Barrett and Rob Hampton, who were joined in February 2006 by Joe Arnone. ... Christian rock (occasionally abbreviated CR) is a form of rock music played by bands whose members are Christian and who often focus the lyrics on matters concerned with the Christian faith. ... Petra, which means rock, massive in Greek, is a Christian Rock band formed in the 1970s. ... Jon Foreman playing guitar Jonathan Mark Foreman (born October 22, 1976) is the lead singer, guitarist, and co-founder of the alternative rock band Switchfoot, which he co-founded in 1996 with drummer Chad Butler and his brother Tim on bass. ... Alternative music redirects here. ... {{Infobox musical artist | Name = | Img = SwitchfootConcert1. ... Ten Summoners Tales is the fourth solo studio album by the rock musician Sting. ... This article is about the musician. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... John Wesley Harding is an album of original songs by Bob Dylan, produced by Bob Johnston and released on December 27, 1967. ... Thea Eve Gilmore (b. ... Joe Hill, born Joel Emmanuel Hägglund, and also known as Joseph Hillström (October 7, 1879 – November 19, 1915) was a radical songwriter, labor activist and member of the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), also known as the Wobblies. ... Earl Robinson Earl Robinson (1910 - 1991) was a songwriter and composer from Seattle, Washington who was probably as well known for his left-leaning political views as he was for his music. ... Roberto Rossellini (May 8, 1906 - June 3, 1977), was an Italian film director. ... Nedward Ned Flanders is a fictional character on The Simpsons, voiced by Harry Shearer. ... Homer Simpson is also a character in the book and film The Day of the Locust. ... Kevin Max (born August 17, 1967) is an American singer, songwriter, and poet. ...

Bibliography

  • Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967. ISBN 0-520-00186-9
  • Gareth B. Matthews. Augustine. Blackwell, 2005. ISBN 0-631-23348-2
  • O'Donnell, James J. Augustine: A New Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 2005. ISBN 0-06-053537-7
  • Ruickbie, Leo. Witchcraft Out of the Shadows. London: Robert Hale, 2004. ISBN 0-7090-7567-7, pp. 57-8.
  • Tanquerey, Adolphe. The Spiritual Life: A Treatise on Ascetical and Mystical Theology. Reprinted Ed. (original 1930). Rockford, IL: Tan Books, 2000. ISBN 0-89555-659-6, p. 37.
  • von Heyking, John. Augustine and Politics as Longing in the World. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8262-1349-9
  • Orbis Augustinianus sive conventuum O. Erem. S. A. chorographica et topographica descriptio Augustino Lubin, Paris, 1659, 1671, 1672.
  • Regle de St. Augustin pour les religieuses de son ordre; et Constitutions de la Congregation des Religieuses du Verbe-Incarne et du Saint-Sacrament (Lyon: Chez Pierre Guillimin, 1662), pp. 28-29. Cf. later edition published at Lyon (Chez Briday, Libraire,1962), pp. 22-24. English edition, The Rule of Saint Augustine and the Constitutions of the Order of the Incarnate Word and Blessed Sacrament (New York: Schwartz, Kirwin, and Fauss, 1893), pp. 33-35.
  • Zumkeller O.S.A.,Adolar (1986). Augustine's ideal of Religious life. Fordham University Press, New York. 
  • Zumkeller O.S.A.,Adolar (1987). Augustine's Rule. Augustinian Press, Villanova,

Pennsylvania U.S.A..  Peter Robert Lamont Brown (b. ... James J. ODonnell James J. ODonnell is Provost of Georgetown University. ... Leo Ruickbie is the author of Witchcraft Out of the Shadows[1], a 2004 publication outlining the history of witchcraft from ancient Greece until the modern day. ... Ascetical theology is the organized study or presentation of spiritual teachings found in Scripture and the Church Fathers that help the faithful to more perfectly follow Christ and attain to Christian perfection. ...

  • René Pottier. Saint Augustin le Berbère. Fernand Lanore , 2006. ISBN 2851572822
  • Fitzgerald, Allan D., O.S.A., General Editor (1999). Augustine through the Ages: An Encyclopedia. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.,.  ISBN 0-8028-3843-X
  • Plumer, Eric Antone, (2003). Augustine's Commentary on Galatians. Oxford [England] ; New York : Oxford University Press,.  ISBN 0199244391 ISBN 9780199244393 Preview from Google

See also

Detail of St. ... Predestination (also linked with foreknowledge) is a religious concept, which involves the relationship between the beginning of things and their destinies. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ... Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... The Latin phrase in necessariis unitas, in dubiis libertas, in omnibus caritas means in certain things unity; in doubtful things liberty; in all things charity. It is often misattributed to St. ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. ... In Christian theology the filioque clause or filioque controversy (filioque meaning and [from] the son in Latin) is a heavily disputed addition to the Nicene Creed, that forms a divisive difference in particular between the Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions. ... Incurvatus in se (Latin: turned/curved inward on oneself) is a theological phrase describing a life lived inward for self rather than outward for God and others. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ...

External links

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NAME Augustine of Hippo, Saint
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Augustine, Saint, Bishop of Hippo; Augustin; Augustinus, Aurelius
SHORT DESCRIPTION Christian theologian, bishop, philosopher and saint
DATE OF BIRTH November 13, 354(354-11-13)
PLACE OF BIRTH Tagaste, Algeria
DATE OF DEATH August 28, 430
PLACE OF DEATH Hippo Regius

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Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... Abū-Yūsuf Ya’qūb ibn Ishāq al-Kindī (c. ... J. Scotus Eriugena commemorated on a Irish banknote, issued 1976-1993 Johannes Scotus Eriugena (ca. ... For other uses, see Razi. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... Al Farabi (870-950) was born of a Turkish family and educated by a Christian physician in Baghdad, and was himself later considered a teacher on par with Aristotle. ... Born in Spain on 883CE/269, ابن مسره or Ibn Massarah was a famous Islamic Philosopher who lived in a severely rigid era that made him to present his ideas secretly just to a few student. ... ابوالحسن عامرى Al-Amiri, an Iranian philosopher, who spent most of his life in Eastern provinces of Iran & died in Neyshaboor 992/381, was the most prominent muslim philosopher following the tradition of Al-Kindi in Islamic Philosophy. ... Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Miskawayh, (ابن مسكوويه) also known as Ibn Miskawayh (932-1030) was a prominent Persian philosopher, scientist, poet and historian from Ray, Iran. ... The Brethren of Purity (اخوان الصفا; also translated as Brethren of Sincerity) were an obscure and mysterious organization of neo-Platonic Arabic philosophers in Basra, Iraq (then seat of the Abbasid Caliphate) sometime during the 900s CE. They are remembered primarily because of a work they produced- the Encyclopedia of the Brethren... (Arabic: أبو علي الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم, Latinized: Alhacen or (deprecated) Alhazen) (965 – 1039), was an Arab[1] Muslim polymath[2][3] who made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology, philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general with his introduction of the... (September 15, 973 in Kath, Khwarezm – December 13, 1048 in Ghazni) was a Persian[1][2][3] Muslim polymath[4] of the 11th century, whose experiments and discoveries were as significant and diverse as those of Leonardo da Vinci or Galileo, five hundred years before the Renaissance; al-Biruni was... (Persian: ابن سينا) (c. ... Abu Muhammad Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Sa`id ibn Hazm (أبو محمد علي بن احمد بن سعيد بن حزم) (November 7, 994 – August 15, 1069) was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and theologian of Persian descent [1] born in Córdoba, present day Spain. ... Roscellinus (~1050 - ~1122), often called the founder of Nominalism (see Scholasticism), was born at Compigne (Compendium). ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad al-GhazzālÄ« (1058-1111) (Persian: ), known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). ... Bernard of Chartres (Bernardus Carnotensis) (d. ... Ayn-al-Quzāt HamadānÄ« (1098–1131), Persian: , was a Persian jurisconsult, mystic, philosopher and mathematician who was executed at the age of 33. ... Ibn Bajjah ابن باجة Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya Ibn al-Sayegh أبو بكر محمد بن يحيى بن الصايغ was an Andalusian Muslim philosopher and physician who was known in the West using his latinized name, Avempace. ... Gilbert de la Porrée, frequently known as Gilbertus Porretanus or Pictavieiisis (1070 - September 4, 1154), scholastic logician and theologian, was born at Poitiers. ... Hugh of St Victor (c. ... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and logician. ... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Hibat Allah Abul-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (1080? - 1165?) was an Arab philosopher and physicist. ... Richard of St. ... Ibn Tufail (c. ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ... Ibn Rushd, known as Averroes (1126 – December 10, 1198), was an Andalusian-Arab philosopher and physician, a master of philosophy and Islamic law, mathematics, and medicine. ... Mohammad Ibn Abd-al-Haq Ibn Sab’in (محمدبن عبدالحق بن سبعين) is the last philosopher of the Andalous in the west land of Islamic world and his school is a combination of philosophical and Gnostic thoughts. ... Alain de Lille (Alanus de Insulis) (c. ... Shahab al-Din Yahya as-Suhrawardi (from the Arabicشهاب الدين يحيى سهروردى, also known as Sohrevardi) (born 1153 in North-West-Iran; died 1191 in Aleppo) was a persian philosopher and Sufi, founder of School of Illumination, one of the most important islamic doctrine in Philosophy. ... Abdallatif, Abd-el-latif or Abd-Ul-Latif (1162-1231), a celebrated physician and traveller, and one of the most voluminous writers of the East, was born at Baghdad. ... For the Maliki scholar, see Ibn al-Arabi. ... A 13th century portrait of Grosseteste. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... (1200–1265) was a Persian philosopher, astronomer and mathematician from Abhar. ... For other uses, see Muhammad Nasir-al-din. ... Zakariya ibn Muhammad al-Qazwini ( died 1283 CE), was a Persian physician from Qazvin. ... For the Nova Scotia premier see Roger Bacon (politician). ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Ramon Llull. ... Godfrey of Fontaines was a scholastic philosopher and theologian; born near Liège, within the first half of the thirteenth century, he became a canon of his native diocese, and also of Paris and Cologne, and was elected, in 1300, to the See of Tournai, which he declined. ... Henry of Ghent (c. ... Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi (1236–1311) was a 13th century Persian scientist and astronomer from Shiraz, Iran. ... Giles of Rome (Latin Ægidius Romanus) (circa 1243-1316), was an archbishop of Bourges who was famed for his logician commentary on the Organon by Aristotle. ... Rashid al-Din Tabib also Rashid ad-Din Fadhlullah Hamadani (1247 - 1318), was a Persian physician, writer and historian, who wrote an enormous Islamic history volume, the Jami al-Tawarikh, in the Persian language. ... Fakhr al-Din al-Razi (1149–1209) was a well-known Persian theologian and philosopher from Ray. ... Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyyah (Arabic: )(January 22, 1263 - 1328), was a Sunni Islamic scholar born in Harran, located in what is now Turkey, close to the Syrian border. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings, IPA: ) (c. ... Jean Buridan, in Latin Joannes Buridanus (1300 - 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of religious scepticism in Europe. ... Portrait of Nicole Oresme: Miniature of Nicole Oresmes Traité de l’espere, Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris, France, fonds français 565, fol. ... Ibn KhaldÅ«n or Ibn Khaldoun (full name Arabic: , ) (May 27, 1332/732AH – March 19, 1406/808AH), was a famous Arab Muslim historian, historiographer, demographer, economist, philosopher and sociologist born in present-day Tunisia. ... Georgius Gemistos (or Plethon, Pletho), (c. ... Basilius Bessarion Basilius Bessarion (in Greek Βασίλειος Βησσαρίων) (January 2, 1403 – November 18, 1472), mistakenly known also as Johannes Bessarion due to an erroneous interpretation of Gregory Mamme, a Roman Catholic Cardinal Bishop and the titular Latin Patriarch of Constantinople, was one of the illustrious Greek scholars who contributed to the great... Francisco de Vitoria Francisco de Vitoria, Statue before San Esteban, Salamanca Statue of Francisco de Vitoria, in Vitoria-Gasteiz Francisco de Vitoria (Francisci de Victoria; c. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor, teacher, from Latin docere, to teach) is a saint from whose writings the whole Christian Church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of a pope... “Saint Gregory” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ambrose (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerome (disambiguation). ... John Chrysostom (349– ca. ... Basil (ca. ... Saint Gregory of Nazianzus (329 - January 25, 389), also known as Saint Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen was a 4th century Christian bishop of Constantinople. ... Athanasius redirects here. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas, O.P.(also Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino; c. ... Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (Italian: San Bonaventura) (1221 – 15 July 1274), born John of Fidanza (Italian: Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ... Saint Peter Chrysologus (Latin for golden word) (406–450) was the Archbishop of Ravenna from 433 to his death. ... Pope Leo I or Leo the Great, was pope of Rome from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to whom the title the Great. ... Petrus Damiani (Saint Peter Damian, also Pietro Damiani or Pier Damiani -- c. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... Hilarius or Hilary (c. ... Saint Alphonsus Liguori (27 September 1696 – 1 August 1787) founded the Roman Catholic order, the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer popularly known as the Redemptorists. ... Saint Francis de Sales (in French, St François de Sales) (21 August 1567 - 28 December 1622) was bishop of Geneva and Roman Catholic saint. ... St. ... Cyril of Jerusalem was a distinguished theologian of the early Church ( 315 - 386). ... John of Damascus (Greek: Ιωάννης Δαμασκήνος/Ioannês Damaskinos; Arabic: Yaḥyā ibn Manṣūr; Latin: Iohannes Damascenus or Johannes Damascenus also known as John Damascene, Χρυσορρόας/Chrysorrhoas, streaming with gold—i. ... For other uses, see Bede (disambiguation). ... Ephrem the Syrian (Syriac: , ;Greek: ; Latin: Ephraem Syrus; 306–373) was a deacon, prolific Syriac language hymn writer and theologian of the 4th century. ... Saint Petrus Canisius (May 8, 1521 – December 21, 1597) was an important Jesuit who fought against the spread of Protestantism in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Switzerland. ... For the personification of the average Filipino, see Juan de la Cruz, and for another Saint who lived around the same time and area, see John of Avila Saint John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz) (June 24, 1542 – December 14, 1591) was a major figure in the... This article is about Robert Bellarmine, the Catholic Saint. ... Albertus Magnus (b. ... Saint Anthony of Padua, also venerated as Saint Anthony of Lisbon, is a Catholic saint who was born in Lisbon, Portugal, as Fernando de Bulhões to a wealthy family and who died in Padua, Italy. ... Saint Lawrence of Brindisi (July 22, 1559 – July 22, 1619), born Julio Cesare Rossi, was a Roman Catholic monk, a member of the Order of Friars Minor, Capuchin. ... For other saints with similar names, please see Saint Teresa. ... Saint Catherine of Siena (March 25, 1347 - April 29, 1380) was a Dominican Tertiary (lay affiliate) of the Dominican Order. ... For other women with similar names, see Saint Teresa Saint Thérèse de Lisieux (January 2, 1873 – September 30, 1897), or more properly Sainte Thérèse de lEnfant-Jésus et de la Sainte Face (Saint Thérèse of the Child Jesus and of the Holy... is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Gallus deposed, executed at Antioch. ... The city of Tagaste, now the present Souk-Ahras in Algeria, was situated in the northeast highlands of Numidia. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Saint Patrick reaches Ireland on his missionary expedition. ... Hippo Regius is the ancient name of the modern city of Annaba (or Bône), Algeria. ...


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Augustine of Hippo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2359 words)
Augustine's mother had followed him to Milan and he allowed her to arrange a society marriage, for which he abandoned his concubine (however he had to wait two years until his fiancée came of age; he promptly took up in the meantime with another woman).
Augustine died on August 28, 430, during the siege of Hippo by the Vandals.
Augustine deemed this scattering important because he believed that it was a fulfillment of certain prophecies, thus proving that Jesus was the Messiah.
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