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Encyclopedia > August II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong
Augustus II the Strong, by Louis de Silvestre
Enlarge
Augustus II the Strong, by Louis de Silvestre
Reign 16971706, and
17091 February 1733
Elected 1697 in Wola,
now a district of Warsaw, Poland
Coronation 15 September 1697,
Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland
Royal House Wettin
Parents John George III Wettin,
Anne Sophie
Consorts Christiane Eberhardine, Margravine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Children August III the Saxon,
Maurice, comte de Saxe
Date of Birth 12 May 1670
Place of Birth Dresden, Saxony, Germany
Date of Death 1 February 1733
Place of Death Warsaw, Poland
Place of Burial Hofkirche, Dresden (heart), and Wawel Cathedral, Kraków (body)

Augustus II the Strong (German: August II der Starke; Polish: August II Mocny) (12 May 16701 February 1733) was as Frederick Augustus I (German: Kurfürst Friedrich August) the Elector of Saxony 1694-1733, and later also King of Poland 1697-1706 and again 1709-1733. Image File history File links Louis_de_Silvestre-August_II.jpg Summary Augustus II of Poland by Louis de Silvestre http://webart. ... Image File history File links Louis_de_Silvestre-August_II.jpg Summary Augustus II of Poland by Louis de Silvestre http://webart. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral – in full, the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Wenceslaus – is Polands national sanctuary. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... A Royal House or Dynasty is a sort of family name used by royalty. ... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ... John George III was born in 1647 to the house of Wettin. ... Reign 1734 – October 5, 1763. ... Maurice, comte de Saxe (German Moritz Graf von Sachsen) (October 28, 1696 – November 30, 1750), Marshal General of France, the natural son of Augustus II of Poland and of the countess Aurora Königsmark, was born at Goslar. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral Wawel Cathedral – in full, the Cathedral Basilica of St Stanislaus and St Wenceslaus – is Polands national sanctuary. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (133rd in leap years). ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... February 1 is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ...


August's great physical strength earned him the nicknames "the Strong“, "Saxon Hercules“ and "iron hand.“ He liked to show that he lived up to his name by breaking horse shoes with his bare hands. His ancestor Cymburgis of Masovia was also noted for her strength. Modern horseshoes are most commonly made of iron and nailed onto the hoof. ... Cymburgis, also Cimburgis, Cimburga or Cymbarka of Masovia (born 1394 or 1397 in Warsaw; died September 28, 1429 in Türnitz, Lower Austria) from the Piast dynasty, was the wife of Ernest the Iron and thus a Duchess of Austria from of the Styrian-Inner Austrian line. ...


August is perhaps best remembered as a patron of the arts and architecture. He established the Saxon capital of Dresden as a major cultural center, attracting artists from across Europe to his court. August also amassed an impressive art collection and built fantastic baroque palaces there.


As a politician, he is not held in high esteem in Poland, getting blamed for embroiling the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the Great Northern War. His attempts at internal reforms and at bolstering the royal power are considered coming to naught, while his policies are said to have allowed the Russian Empire to strengthen its influence over the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire Russia Denmark-Norway Poland Saxony Commanders Karl XII of Sweden Ahmed III Peter the Great August II Fredrik VI of Denmark Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ...

Contents


Royal titles

Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... By the Grace of God, as well as the various equivalent phrases in other languages thus rendered in English, is not a title in its own right, but a common introductory part of the full styles of many Monarchs, preceding the actual princely styles in chief of the specific realm... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... It has been suggested that Eldership of Samogitia be merged into this article or section. ... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... Kiev (Київ, Kyiv, in Ukrainian; Киев, Kiev, in Russian) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper river. ... Pochayiv Lavra, the spiritual heart of Volhynia Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... A view of Smolensk in 1912 Smolensk (Russian: ) is a city in western Russia, located on the Dnieper River at 54. ... Severia (Сіверщина in Ukrainian, Сиверщина in Russian, and Sewerien in German) is a historical region in northern Ukraine and southwestern Russia, centered around the Ukrainian city of Novhorod-Siverskyj. ... Chernihiv or Chernigov is an ancient city in northern Ukraine, the capital of Chernihiv Oblast (province). ... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ...

Biography

Augustus was born in Dresden, Saxony, as the son of John George III and Princess Anne Sophie of Denmark. In 1694, upon the death of his elder brother John George IV, Augustus became Elector of Saxony, as Frederick Augustus I. From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... John George III was born in 1647 to the house of Wettin. ... Events February 6 - The colony Quilombo dos Palmares is destroyed. ... List of Dukes, Electors, and Kings of Saxony, 880-1918 The original Duchy of Saxony was in Northern Germany, roughly corresponding to the modern German state of Lower Saxony and Westphalia. ...


In order to be eligible for the throne of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Augustus had to convert to Roman-Catholicism. Given that the Saxon dukes traditionally had been called "champions of the Reformation" and that the duchy was a stronghold of German Protestantism, Augustus's conversion was most spectacular. Subsequently the now Roman-Catholic electors of Saxony lost the prestigious leading role of the Protestant estates in the Imperial Diet (see Reichstag) to the Prussian kings. Although the prince-elector guaranteed Saxony's religious status quo he somewhat alienated his Protestant subjects with his embracing the Papacy, and because of the huge amount of money necessary to bribe Polish noblemen and clergy at the expense of the Saxon treasury, Augustus's royal ambitions were referred to as his "Polish adventure" by some contemporaries. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ...


It is, however, noteworthy that the directorate of the Corpus Evangelicorum, which was the official Imperial board of the Protestant estates and the counterpart of the Corpus Catholicorum, remained with Saxony and thus, paradoxically, with the Roman-Catholic Augustus as its head. His church policy within the Holy Roman Empire was orthodoxly Lutheran on behalf of his Saxon subjects (and apparently against his newly found religious and also absolutistic convictions), whereas the Protestant Princes of the Empire and the two remaining Protestant Electors (of Hanover and Prussia) were anxious to keep Saxony well-integrated in their camp. According to the Peace of Augsburg Augustus theoretically had the right to re-introduce Roman-Catholicism (see Cuius regio, eius religio) or at least give religious freedom to his fellow Catholics to the full extent, but it never happened. Saxony remained Lutheran altogether and the few Roman-Catholics were without any political or civil rights, and in 1717 it became clear how awkward the issue was: For his ambitious family-plans in Poland and Germany it was necessary that his heirs became Roman-Catholics, too. So, after five years as a convert in disguise, his son--the future Augustus III--publicly came out as a Roman-Catholic. The Saxon estates were outraged and revolting, because now it was certain that Roman-Catholicism wasn’t just an episode in Saxony of Augustus II. The Holy Roman Empire and from the 16th century on also The Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation was a political conglomeration of lands in Central Europe in the Middle Ages and the early modern period. ... The Peace of Augsburg was a treaty signed between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and the forces of the Schmalkaldic League on September 25, 1555 at the city of Augsburg in Germany. ... Cuius regio, eius religio is a phrase in Latin that means, Whose the region is, his religion. ...


Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, electress consort of Augustus, interestingly refused to follow her husband's example and remained a staunch Protestant. She didn't attend her husband's coronation in Poland and led a rather quiet life outside of Dresden. She gained some popularity for her stubbornness.


King of Poland for the first time

Following the death of Polish King Jan III Sobieski and having successfully converted to Catholicism, Augustus was elected King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1697 with the backing of Russia and Austria, which financed him through the Jewish banker, Berend Lehmann. Jan III Sobieski (1629-1696) (also known in English literature as John Sobieski) was one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death. ... In Christianity, the term Catholicism (from Greek: καθολικός (katholikos), meaning general or universal) has two main ecclesiastical meanings, described in Websters Dictionary as: The whole orthodox Christian church, or adherence thereto. ... Poland was ruled by dukes (c. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... This article describes the Jewish religion; for a consideration of ethnic, historic, and cultural aspects of the Jewish identity refer to the article Jew. ... Issachar Berend Lehmann, Be(h)rend Lehmann, Jissachar Bermann Segal (born 1661 in Halberstadt, Germany, died 1730 in Dresden) was the Court Jew for August the Strong of Saxony. ...


It is sometimes incorrectly stated that Augustus defeated the other leading candidates, Jakub Ludwik Sobieski, son of the previous king, and the French candidate, François Louis, Prince of Conti. Augustus actually received fewer votes than Conti (despite a massive bribery campaign), but he rushed to Poland and had himself crowned before the French candidate could set foot in the Commonwealth. Some Poles questioned the legality of Augustus's elevation. Nobel Family Sobieski Coat of Arms Janina Parents Jan III Sobieski Marie Casimire Louise Consorts Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Children with Hedwig Elisabeth Amelia Maria Leopoldyna Sobieska Maria Kazimiera Sobieska Maria Karolina Sobieska Jan Sobieski Maria Klementyna Sobieska Maria Magdalena Sobieska Date of Birth November 2, 1667 Place of Birth Paris... François Louis de Bourbon (April 30, 1664 - February 9, 1709) was Prince de Conti, succeeding his brother Louis Armand I de Bourbon in 1685. ...


He continued the war of the Holy League against Turkey: After a Moldavian campaign his Polish army defeated the Tatar expedition eventually in Battle of Podhajce in 1698. It compelled the Ottoman Empire to sign the Treaty of Karlowitz in 1699. Podolia and Kamieniec Podolski returned to Poland. An ambitious ruler, Augustus hoped to make the Polish throne hereditary within his family, and to use his resources as Elector of Saxony to impose some order on the chaotic Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. He was, however, soon distracted from his internal-reform projects by the possibility of external conquest. He formed an alliance with Denmark's Frederick IV and Russia's Peter I to strip Sweden's young King Charles XII of his possessions. Poland's reward from this Great Northern War was to have been the Swedish territory of Livonia. Charles proved an able military commander, however, quickly forcing the Danes out of the war and then driving back the Russians at Narva, thereby allowing him to focus on the struggle with Augustus. Charles' decision ultimately proved as disastrous to Sweden as to Poland. Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... Historically, the term Tatar (or Tartar) has been ambiguously used by Europeans to refer to many different peoples of Inner Asia and Northern Asia. ... Battle of Podhajce took place on 8-9 September 1698 near Podhajce in Ruthenian Voivodship during Great Turkish War. ... Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), İstanbul (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanl... The Treaty of Karlowitz was signed in 1699 in Sremski Karlovci (a city in modern-day Serbia and Montenegro) (German: Karlowitz, Turkish:Karlofça), concluding the Austro-Ottoman War of 1683–1697 in which the Ottoman side was defeated. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... Historical arms of Podilia The region of Podolia (also spelt Podilia or Podillya) is a historical region in the west-central and south-west portions of present-day Ukraine, corresponding to Khmelnytskyi Oblast and Vinnytsia Oblast. ... ... Frederick IV Frederick IV (October 11, 1671 - October 12, 1730) king of Denmark and Norway from 1699. ... Portrait of Peter by Paul Delaroche Peter I (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич or Pyotr I Alekseyevich) (Peter Alexeyevich Romanov) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672– 28 January 1725 O.S.] [1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as Demirbaş Şarl (Charles the Habitué), was a King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire Russia Denmark-Norway Poland Saxony Commanders Karl XII of Sweden Ahmed III Peter the Great August II Fredrik VI of Denmark Battle of Poltava as painted by Denis Martens the Younger in 1726 The Great Northern War was the war fought between a coalition of Russia... Livonia (Latvian: Livonija; Estonian: Liivimaa; German: Livland; Swedish: Livland; Polish: Inflanty; Russian: Лифляндия or Lifljandija) once was the land of the Finnic Livonians, but came in the Middle Ages to designate a much broader territory controlled by the Livonian Order on the eastern coasts of the Baltic Sea in present-day... Three famous battles took place around Narva. ...

Poland in 1701
Poland in 1701

Charles defeated Augustus at Riga June 17, 1701, forcing the Polish-Saxon army to withdraw from Livonia, and followed this up with an invasion of Poland. He captured Warsaw May 14, 1702, defeated the Polish-Saxon army again at the Kliszów, and took Kraków. He defeated another of Augustus's armies at the Pułtusk in spring 1703, and besieged and captured Toruń. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 545 KB) Reason for deletion request: Summary Rzeczpospolita w roku 1701 author-Maciej SzczepaÅ„czyk-user Mathiasrex Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): August II... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2000x1568, 545 KB) Reason for deletion request: Summary Rzeczpospolita w roku 1701 author-Maciej SzczepaÅ„czyk-user Mathiasrex Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): August II... Location Map of Latvia Coordinates , Government Founded 1201 Mayor Aivars Aksenoks Geographical characteristics Area     City 307. ... June 17 is the 168th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (169th in leap years), with 197 days remaining. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Warsaw (Polish: , (?), in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (135th in leap years). ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Combatants Sweden Poland,Saxony Commanders Charles XII August II the Strong Strength 20 000, 20 000, Casualties 1000 2000 {{{notes}}} Battle of Kliszów took place on July 19 1702 in MaÅ‚opolska during Great Northern War. ... Tomb of Kazimierz the Great St. ... The Battle of PuÅ‚tusk took place on December 26, 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars near PuÅ‚tusk, Poland, between 60,000 Russian soldiers with 120 guns under General Bennigsen and 35,000 French soldiers under Marshal Lannes. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... ToruÅ„ (Polish pronunciation: (?); German: ; Kashubian: TorÅ„, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ...


By this time, Augustus was certainly ready for peace, but Charles felt that he would be more secure if he could establish someone more pliable on the Polish throne. In 1704 the Swedes installed Stanisław Leszczyński on Polish throne, it compelled Augustus II to introduce Poland to war alongside with Russia (alliance was concluded in Narva summer 1704). On September 1, 1706, Charles invaded Saxony, forcing Augustus to yield up the Polish throne to Leszczyński by the Treaty of Altranstadt. Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stata Sakska) is at a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Altranstadt is a village of Germany, in Prussian Saxony near Merseburg (q. ...


Meanwhile Russia's Tsar Peter the Great had reformed his army, and dealt a crippling defeat to the Swedes at the Battle of Poltava. This spelled the end of the Swedish Empire and the rise of the Russian Empire. Peter I Emperor and Autocrat of All Russia Peter I (Pyotr Alekseyvich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death. ... The Battle of Poltava (or Pultowa) was a battle between the armies of Peter I of Russia and Charles XII of Sweden on 28 June (new style 8 July) 1709, the most famous of the battles of the Great Northern War. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Official language Russian Official Religion Russian Orthodox Christianity Capital Saint Petersburg (Petrograd 1914-1925) Area Approx. ...


King of Poland for the second time

The weakened Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth soon came to be regarded almost a protectorate of Russia. In 1709 Augustus II returned to the Polish throne under Russian auspices. Once again he attempted to establish an absolute monarchy in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but was faced with opposition from the nobility (szlachta). Peter the Great seized on this opportunity to pose as mediator, threatened the Commonwealth militarily, and in 1717 forced Augustus and the nobility to sign an accommodation, favorable to Russian interests, at the Silent Sejm (Sejm Niemy). Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A protectorate is, in international law, a political entity (a sovereign state or a less developed native polity, such as a tribal chiefstainship or feudal princely state) that formally agrees (voluntarily or under pressure) by treaty to enter into an unequal relationship with another, stronger state, called the protector, which... // Events January 12 - Two-month freezing period begins in France - The coast of the Atlantic and Seine River freeze, crops fail and at least 24. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Polish szlachcic. ... // Events January 4 — The Netherlands, Britain & France sign Triple Alliance February 26-March 6 What is now the northeastern United States was paralyzed by a series of blizzards that buried the region. ... Silent Sejm (Polish: Sejm Niemy) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717. ...

Arms of the House of Wettin
Arms of the House of Wettin

For the remainder of his reign, in an uneasy relationship, Augustus was more or less dependent on Russia (and to a lesser extent, on Austria) to maintain his throne. After the Silent Sejm, he gave up his ambitions and finally settled on attempts to strengthen the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Faced with both internal and foreign opposition, however, he achieved little. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (478x615, 84 KB) Summary Taken from German Wikipedia, which in turn took it from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (478x615, 84 KB) Summary Taken from German Wikipedia, which in turn took it from http://www. ... The Wettin dynasty of German counts, dukes, Prince Electors (Kurfürsten) and kings ruled the area of todays German state of Saxony for more than 800 years as well as holding for a time the kingship of Poland. ... Silent Sejm (Polish: Sejm Niemy) is the name given to the session of the Sejm (parliament) of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth of 1 February 1717. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Augustus died in 1733. Although he had failed to make the Polish throne hereditary in his house, his eldest son, Frederick Augustus II of Saxony, did succeed him to the Polish throne as August III — although he had to be installed there by a Russian army in the War of the Polish Succession. Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western...


Legacy

Augustus II was called "the Strong" for his bear-like physical strength and for his numerous offspring. He is alleged by some to have sired either 365 or 382 children. The number is extremely difficult to verify; August officially recognized only a tiny fraction of that number as his bastards (the mothers of these "chosen ones," with the possible exception of Fatima, were all aristocratic ladies) and he had only one legitimate child. The most famous of the king’s bastards is Maurice de Saxe who was a brilliant strategist and reached the highest military ranks in Ancien Régime France. In the War of the Polish Succession he remained loyal to his employer Louis XV of France, who was married to the daughter of Augustus’s rival Stanisław Leszczyński and hence an opponent of Augustus III. In recognition of his service Maurice de Saxe was eventually made one of only six maréchaux généraux in French history. He was the great-grandfather of French novelist George Sand, the longtime companion of Polish composer Frédéric Chopin. Illegitimacy was a term in common use for the condition of being born of parents who were not validly married to one another; the legal term was bastardy. ... Maurice de Saxe Maurice, comte de Saxe (German Moritz Graf von Sachsen) (October 28, 1696 — November 30, 1750), Marshal of France, the natural son of Augustus II of Poland and of the countess Aurora Königsmark, was born at Goslar. ... The War of the Polish Succession (1733-1738) was a European war and a Polish civil war, with considerable interference from other countries, to determine the succession to Augustus II, King of Poland, as well as an attempt by the Bourbon powers to check the power of Austria in western... Louis XV (February 15, 1710 – May 10, 1774), called the Well-Beloved (French: le Bien-Aimé), was King of France from 1715 to 1774. ... Reign From 1704 until 1709 and from 1733 until 1736 Elected In 1704 and 1733 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On October 4, 1705 in the St. ... Reign From 1734 until October 5, 1763 Elected In 1734 in Wola, today suburb of Warsaw, Poland Coronation On January 17, 1734 in the Wawel Cathedral, Kraków, Poland Royal House Wettin Parents August II Mocny ? Consorts Marie Josepha Children Frederick Christian Date of Birth October 7, 1696 Place of... George Sand in 1864 (picture by Nadar). ... Frédéric François Chopin as portrayed by Eugène Delacroix in 1838. ...


Augustus was at 1,76 meter of then above average height, and in spite of his extraordinary physical strength he did not look very big. In his final years he suffered from Diabetes mellitus and became obese, at his death weighing some 110 kg. Augustus II's body was interred in Poland — all but his heart, which rests at Dresden's castle. For the disease characterized by excretion of large amounts of severely diluted urine, see diabetes insipidus. ... Obesity is an excess storage of fat and can affect any mammal, such as the mouse on the left. ...


Augustus II and the Arts

Augustus loved fine arts and architecture. During his reign, palaces were built, mainly in Dresden, known for centuries of extraordinary cultural and artistic splendor.


From 1687 to 1689 Augustus toured France and Italy. Especially the lavish and extravagant court in Versailles--which was perfectly tailored to fit the needs of an absolute monarch--impressed him deeply. In an absolute monarchy a flamboyantly splendid residence was symbolically most important as it publicly displayed and celebrated the princely power and thus legitimated the prince’s claim of governance: The court was an open arena to bind, entertain and eventually domesticate the aristocracy--which was vital for a monarch with absolutistic ambitions, as it turned independent nobles into fawning courtiers. Completely in accordance with the spirit of the baroque age Augustus--who was holding not just one but two highly prestigeous princely titles--invested heavily in the representative splendor of his residence to show off--as did most absolte monarchs of that time, depending on their resources. On the one hand he started to create an adequate architectural and cultural background for his reign: With strict edificial regualtions, major urban development plans and a certain feeling for art the king began to transform Dresden into a renowned baroque ensemble with one of Germany’s finest art collections, though most of the famous sights and landmarks of Dresden were completed during the reign of his son Augustus III. On the other hand Augustus II perfectly stage-managed his reign in Dresden. Being a man of pleasure the king used every excuse to throw a party: His lavish court balls, Venetian-style balli in maschera, gatherings, games and garden festivities were numerous, most luxurious and legendary. They are well documented by Saxon and Polish courtiers and they gave his court a fabulous reputation throughout Europe. Versailles (pronounced , roughly vair-sye’, in French), formerly the de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... Absolute monarchy is an idealized form of government, a monarchy where the ruler has the power to rule his or her country and citizens freely with no laws or legally-organized direct opposition telling him or her what to do, although some religious authority may be able to discourage the... -1... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens. ... World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ...


Porcelain

Augustus II successfully set out to discover the secret of "white gold," as the porcelain that he produced at Dresden and Meißen was described. In 1701 he rescued the young alchemist Johann Friedrich Böttger, who was fleeing from Fredrick the First's expectation that he produce gold as he had boasted he could. King Augustus II imprisoned Böttger and forced him to reveal the secret of manufacturing gold. Böttger's transition from alchemist to potter was orchestrated as an attempt to avoid the impossible demands of the king. Being an alchemist by profession rather than a potter gave Böttger an advantage in the quest for the secret of porcelain. He realized that the current approaches which involved mixing fine white substances like crushed egg shells into clay was not the answer, but rather his approach was to attempt to bake the clay at higher temperatures than ever before created in a kiln in Europe. He intended to melt the structure of the clay so as to transmute it into a new substance. That approach yielded the breakthrough which had eluded European potters for a century. Today the manufacture of fine porcelain continues at the Meißen Procelain Factory. Augustus II also gathered together in Dresden many of the best architects and painters from all over Europe, and his reign marked the beginning of Dresden's development as a leading center of technology and art. A figurine made of porcelain For the indie band Fine China see Fine China. ... From left to right: Brühls Terrace; the Hofkirche and the castle; the Semper Opera House. ... Meißen, internationally most known for porcelain, is a town of approximately 35,000 near Dresden on the river Elbe in the State of Saxony in the southern part of eastern Germany. ... Johann Friedrich Böttger Johann Friedrich Böttger (born February 4, 1682 in Schleiz; died March 13, 1719 in Dresden) was a German alchemist. ... The Meißen porcelain is the first European porcelain. ...


See also

Monarchs of Poland
Piast: Siemowit | Lestko | Siemomysł | Mieszko I | Bolesław I the Brave | Mieszko II Lambert | Bezprym | Mieszko II Lambert | Casimir I the Restorer | Bolesław II the Bold | Władysław I Herman | Zbigniew of Poland | Bolesław III Wrymouth | Władysław II the Exile | Bolesław IV the Curly | Mieszko III the Old | Casimir II the Just | Leszek I the White | Władysław III Spindleshanks | Mieszko IV Tanglefoot | Konrad I of Masovia | Henryk I the Bearded | Henryk II the Pious | Konrad I of Masovia | Bolesław V the Chaste | Leszek II the Black | Henryk IV Probus | Przemysł II
Přemyslid: Václav II | Václav III
Piast: Władysław I the Elbow-high | Casimir III the Great
Angevin: Ludwik the Hungarian | Jadwiga Angevin
Jagiellon: Władysław II Jagiełło | Władysław III of Varna | Casimir IV Jagiellon | John I Albert | Alexander Jagiellon | Sigismund I the Old | Sigismund II Augustus
Elected: Henryk III Walezy | Anna Jagiellon | Stefan Batory | Sigismund III Vasa | Władysław IV Vasa | John II Casimir | Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki | Jan III Sobieski | August II the Strong | Stanisław Leszczyński | August II the Strong | Stanisław Leszczyński | August III the Saxon | Stanisław August Poniatowski

  Results from FactBites:
 
August II the Strong - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2019 words)
Augustus II the Strong (German: August II der Starke; Polish: August II Mocny) (12 May 1670 1 February 1733) was as Frederick Augustus I (German: Kurfürst Friedrich August) the Elector of Saxony 1694-1733, and later also King of Poland 1697-1706 and again 1709-1733.
Augustus was born in Dresden, Saxony, as the son of John George III and Princess Anne Sophie of Denmark.
Augustus II successfully set out to discover the secret of "white gold," as the porcelain that he produced at Dresden and Meißen was described.
Augustus III of Poland - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (470 words)
August III was born in Dresden in 1696, son of August II the Strong, Imperial Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
As King, August III was uninterested in the affairs of his Polish-Lithuanian dominion, focussing on interests like hunting, opera and arts (Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister).
On August 20, 1719, August married Archduchess Maria Josepha of Austria (1699-1757), daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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