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Encyclopedia > Audio format

An audio format is a medium for storing sound and music. The term is applied to both the physical medium and the format of the content – in computer science it is often limited to the audio file format, but its wider use usually refers to the physical method used to store the data. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Sound, Sound pressure and Sound pressure level, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Music is a form of art that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Music is recorded and distributed using a variety of audio formats, some of which store additional information.


Timeline of audio format developments

Year Physical formats Content formats
1877 Phonograph cylinder Mechanical analog; "hill-and-dale" grooves, vertical stylus motion
1895 Gramophone record Mechanical analog; lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion
1930s Wire recording Analog; magnetization; no "bias"
1947 Reel-to-Reel, Magnetic Tape Analog; magnetization; "bias" dramatically increases linearity/fidelity
1948 Vinyl Record Analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques (LP, RIAA). Lateral grooves, horizontal stylus motion.
1957 Stereophonic Vinyl Record Analog, with preemphasis and other equalization techniques. Combination lateral/vertical stylus motion with each channel encoded 45 degrees to the vertical.
1962 4-Track Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge.
1963 Compact Cassette Analog, with bias, preemphasis, 1/8 inch wide tape, 17/8 inches/sec. 1970: introduced Dolby noise reduction.
1965 8-Track Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, endless loop cartridge.
1969 Microcassette Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, used generally for notetaking, mostly mono, some stereo. 2.4 cm/s or 1.2 cm/s.
1969 Minicassette Analog, 1/8 inch wide tape, used generally for notetaking, 1.2 cm/s
1970 Quadraphonic 8-Track(Q8) Analog, 1/4 inch wide tape, 3 3/4 inches/sec, 4 Channel Stereo, endless loop cartridge.
1971 Quadraphonic Vinyl Record(CD-4)(SQ Matrix)
1975 Betamax Digital Audio 'Dolby Stereo' cinema surround sound
1976 Elcaset
1978 Laserdisc
1982 Compact Disc (CD) PCM
1985 Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF)
1985 Sound Designer (by Digidesign)
1987 Digital Audio Tape (DAT)
1991 MiniDisc (MD) ATRAC
1992 Digital Compact Cassette (DCC)
1992 WAVEform (WAV)

Dolby Digital surround cinema sound 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The earliest method of recording and reproducing sound was on phonograph cylinders. ... 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour (1967) as a 33 â…“ LP vinyl record A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the centre of the disc. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wire recording is a type of analogue audio storage in which the recording is made onto thin steel or stainless steel wire. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... A Sony TC-630 reel-to-reel recorder, once a common household object. ... Compact audio cassette Magnetic tape is a non-volatile storage medium consisting of a magnetic coating on a thin plastic strip. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... A 4-track tape is a type of analog infinite-loop tape, and the precursor to 8-track tapes. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... The Compact Cassette, often referred to as audio cassette, cassette tape, cassette, or simply a tape. ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ... 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1965 calendar). ... The 8-track cartridge is a now-obsolete audio storage magnetic tape cartridge technology, popular during the 1960s and 1970s. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ... A microcassette in front of a compact audio cassette. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... The 8-track cartridge is a now-obsolete audio storage magnetic tape cartridge technology, popular during the 1960s and 1970s. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ... A gramophone record, (also phonograph record - often simply record) is an analog sound recording medium: a flat disc rotating at a constant angular velocity, with inscribed spiral grooves in which a stylus or needle rides. ... 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday. ... Info on Betamax as an audio recorder is coming. ... Sign for Dolby Stereo Dolby Stereo (or Dolby Analog) was the original analog optical technology developed by Dolby Laboratories for 35 mm prints in 1976. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday. ... Elcaset was a short-lived audio format created by Sony in 1976. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... PCM is an initialism which can have different meanings: Phase Change Material Pulse-code modulation, a way to digitally encode signals representing sound and their video counterparts Potential Cancer Marker Communist Party of Mexico Plug Compatible Manufacturer Power-train control module, a computer in a car which controls the car... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data on personal computers. ... 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Digidesign is a digital audio company. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A 90-minute DAT cartridge, size compared to a AAA (LR03) battery. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... // Overview The MiniDisc logo A MiniDisc (MD) is a disc-based data storage device intended for storage of digitized audio. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... The DCC logo was inspired by that of the original Compact Cassette Digital Compact Cassette (DCC) was a short-lived sound recording format introduced by Philips and Matsushita late 1992. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ...

1993 Digital Theatre System (DTS)

Sony Dynamic Digital Sound (SDDS) 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... DTS DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS Inc (NASDAQ: DTSI), is a multi-channel surround sound format used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade applications (with significant technical differences between home and commercial/theatrical variants: the latter being a traditional ADPCM compression system and the... SDDS stands for Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, which is a cinema sound system developed by Sony. ...

1995 MP3
1997 DVD Dolby Digital
1997 DTS-CD DTS Audio
1999 Super Audio CD (SACD)
1999 Windows Media Audio (WMA)
1999 The True Audio Lossless Codec (TTA)
2000 Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC)
2001 Advanced audio coding (AAC)
2002 Ogg Vorbis
2003 DualDisc
2004 Apple Lossless (ALE or ALAC)
2005 HD-DVD
2006 Blu-ray

1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular digital audio encoding and lossy compression format, designed to greatly reduce the amount of data required to represent audio, yet still sound like a faithful reproduction of the original uncompressed audio to most listeners. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DVD (sometimes called Digital Versatile Disc, or Digital Video Disc) is an optical disc storage media format that can be used for data storage, including movies with high video and sound quality. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The DTS-CD, DTS Audio CD or 5. ... DTS may stand for: Digital Theater System (a multichannel audio source for synchronized film sound) Data Transformation Services (Microsoft database tool for Extract, Transform and Load operations) Dragons Tooth Sword (a fictional weapon from the video game Deus Ex) Dallas Theological Seminary (an evangelical Christian seminary in Dallas, TX... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Super Audio CD (SACD) is a read-only optical audio disc aimed at providing much higher fidelity digital audio reproduction than the compact disc. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is a proprietary compressed audio file format developed by Microsoft. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... True Audio (abbreviated TTA) is a free, simple real-time lossless audio codec, based on adaptive prognostic filters which has shown satisfactory results comparing to majority of modern analogs. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... FLAC, an acronym for Free Lossless Audio Codec, is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... This article is about the year 2001. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... This page is about the audio compression codec. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... DualDisc is a type of double-sided optical disc developed by EMI Music, Universal Music Group, Sony/BMG Music Entertainment, Warner Music Group, and 5. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Apple Lossless (also known as Apple Lossless Encoder, ALE, or Apple Lossless Audio Codec, ALAC) is an audio codec developed by Apple Computer for lossless compression of digital music. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... HD DVD, High Density DVD, or High-Definition DVD is a high-density optical disc format designed for the storage of data and high-definition video. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Blu-ray discs Blu-ray Disc is a next-generation optical disc format jointly developed by a group of leading consumer electronics and PC companies called the Blu_ray Disc Association (BDA), which succeeds the Blu_ray Disc Founders (BDF). ...

See also

Audio compression is a form of data compression designed to reduce the size of audio files. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Audio storage refers to techniques and formats used to store audio with the goal to reproduce the audio later using audio signal processing to something that resembles the original. ...

External links

  • Knowmadz.org article
  • recording-history.org
  • The Basics of Audio Recording

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An audio file is composed of three parts: a 24-byte header, a variable-length annotation block, and a contiguous segment of audio data.
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The general approach towards storing digital audio formats is to sample the audio voltage (corresponding to a certain position in the membrane of a speaker) in regular intervals (e.g.
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