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Encyclopedia > Audio Video Interleave
Audio Video Interleave
File extension .avi
MIME type video/avi
video/msvideo
video/x-msvideo
Type code 'Vfw '
Uniform Type Identifier public.avi
Developed by Microsoft
Container for Audio, Video

Audio Video Interleave, known by its acronym AVI, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows technology. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. Like the DVD video format, AVI files support multiple streaming audio and video, although these features are seldom used. Most AVI files also use the file format extensions developed by the Matrox OpenDML group in February 1996. These files are supported by Microsoft, and are unofficially called "AVI 2.0". A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ... For mime as an art form, see mime artist. ... A type code is a mechanism used in pre-Mac OS X versions of the Macintosh operating system to denote a files format, in a manner similar to file extensions in other operating systems. ... A Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) is a string that uniquely identifies the type of a class of items. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... “Sound recorder” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Backronym and Apronym (Discuss) Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations, such as NATO, laser, and ABC, written as the initial letter or letters of words, and pronounced on the basis of this abbreviated written form. ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A container format is a computer file format that can contain various types of data, compressed by means of standardized codecs. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Video for Windows was a multimedia technology developed by Microsoft that allowed Microsoft Windows to play digital video. ... Matrox Electronic Systems Ltd is a Canadian company based in Dorval, Quebec, which produces video card components and equipment for personal computers. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...

Contents

Format

AVI is a derivative of the Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF), which divides a file's data into blocks, or "chunks." Each "chunk" is identified by a FourCC tag. An AVI file takes the form of a single chunk in a RIFF formatted file, which is then subdivided into two mandatory "chunks" and one optional "chunk". The entire structure of a RIFF file was copied from an earlier IFF format devised by Electronic Arts in the mid-1980s[citation needed], the primary difference being the "endianness" of integers. In fact, even a properly written IFF parser for the now old-aged AmigaOS, (after correcting for endianness) will parse RIFF files. The Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) is a generic meta-format for storing data in tagged chunks. ... A FOURCC (literally, four character code) is a sequence of four bytes used to uniquely identify data formats. ... Interchange File Format (IFF), is a generic file format originally introduced by the Electronic Arts company in 1985 (in cooperation with Commodore-Amiga) in order to ease transfer of data between software products produced by different companies. ... Electronic Arts (EA) (NASDAQ: ERTS) is an American developer, marketer, publisher, and distributor of computer and video games. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ... Interchange File Format (IFF), is a generic file format originally introduced by the Electronic Arts company in 1985 (in cooperation with Commodore-Amiga) in order to ease transfer of data between software products produced by different companies. ... A parser is a computer program or a component of a program that analyses the grammatical structure of an input, with respect to a given formal grammar, a process known as parsing. ... AmigaOS is the default native operating system of the Amiga personal computer. ... In computing, endianness is the byte (and sometimes bit) ordering in memory used to represent some kind of data. ...


The first sub-chunk is identified by the "hdrl" tag. This sub-chunk is the file header and contains metadata about the video, such as its width, height and frame rate. The second sub-chunk is identified by the "movi" tag. This chunk contains the actual audio/visual data that make up the AVI movie. The third optional sub-chunk is identified by the "idx1" tag which indexes the physical addresses [within the file] of the data chunks.


By way of the RIFF format, the audio/visual data contained in the "movi" chunk can be encoded or decoded by software called a codec, which is an abbreviation for (en)coder/decoder. Upon creation of the file, the codec translates between raw data and the (compressed) data format used inside the chunk. An AVI file may carry audio/visual data inside the chunks in virtually any compression scheme, including Full Frame (Uncompressed), Intel Real Time (Indeo), Cinepak, Motion JPEG, Editable MPEG, VDOWave, ClearVideo / RealVideo, QPEG, and MPEG-4 Video. A codec is a device or program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal. ... Indeo Video (commonly known now simply as Indeo) is a video codec developed by Intel in 1992. ... Compressed with Cinepak, quality 40% Cinepak is a video codec, developed by Radius Inc to accommodate 1x (150 kbyte/s) CD-ROM transfer rates. ... Motion JPEG, also known as M-JPEG, is a video file format consisting of a sequence of individual JPEG images; unlike other video compression algorithms, each frame is an image unto itself. ... RealVideo is a proprietary video format developed by RealNetworks. ... QPEG is a video codec created by Q-Team that uses run-length encoding, interframe differencing and motion compensation [1]. It was also a popular image viewer for the long obsolote MSDOS operating system in the early 1990s ^ Mike Melanson cited at Multimedia. ... MPEG-4 is a standard used primarily to compress audio and visual (AV) digital data. ...


Continued use

AVI is widely considered to be an outdated container format. There is significant overhead when used with popular MPEG-4 codecs (Xvid and DivX, for example), increasing file size more than necessary. The AVI container has no native support for modern MPEG-4 features like B-Frames. Hacks are sometimes used to enable modern MPEG-4 features and subtitles, however, this is the source of playback incompatibilities. Xvid (formerly XviD) is a video codec library following the MPEG-4 standard. ... This article is about the video codec. ... B pictures (often called B frames) are one of the three major picture types found in typical video compression designs. ... Hack has several meanings in the technology and computer science fields: a clever or quick fix to a computer program problem; a clumsy or inelegant solution to a problem; or a modification of a program or device to give the user access to features that were otherwise unavailable to them. ...


The highly-efficient H.264 codecs commonly used for MP4 files are ill-suited to the AVI file container; this is particularly true of H.264 Main Profile (MP) and High Profile (HiP) codecs. H.264 is a high compression digital video codec standard written by the ITU-T Video Coding Experts Group (VCEG) together with the ISO/IEC Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) as the product of a collective partnership effort known as the Joint Video Team (JVT). ... MP4 can refer to: MPEG-4 Part 14 file format Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the fourth order This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


AVI files do not contain pixel aspect ratio information. Microsoft confirms that "many players, including Windows Media Player, render all AVI files with square pixels. Therefore, the frame appears stretched or squeezed horizontally when the file is played back."[1] Microsoft recommends that aspect ratio problems can be avoided by using the Windows Media Encoder. "You can capture digital video directly with the encoder or encode from an AVI file that contains video that was captured with nonsquare pixels", recommends MSDN article cited above. Windows Media Encoder is a production tool developed by Microsoft which enables content developers to convert both live and prerecorded audio, video, and computer screen images to Windows Media formats for live and on-demand delivery. ...


More modern container formats (such as QuickTime, Matroska, Ogg and MP4) offer superior compression and playback, however, the age of the AVI format, its ties with the Microsoft Windows operating system, and the availability of video editing and playback software like VirtualDub and Windows Media Player[citation needed] help keep the AVI file format popular amongst amateur videographers. To improve interoperability with the widest possible audience, videographers commonly install DirectShow filters like ffdshow to augment DirectShow, using AVI as a common-ground, lowest-common-denominator format.[citation needed] While technical limitations and codec/container incompatibilities have limited AVI's popularity amongst tech-savvy videographers, video enthusiasts typically have libraries including many AVI files. QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... // The Matroska Multimedia Container is an open standard free multimedia container format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture or subtitle tracks inside a single file. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... MP4 can refer to: MPEG-4 Part 14 file format Møller-Plesset perturbation theory of the fourth order This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... VirtualDub is an open source video capture and linear processing tool for Microsoft Windows. ... Windows Media Player (WMP) is a digital media player and media library application developed by Microsoft that is used for playing audio, video and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. ... ffdshow is an open source decoder (and encoder) mainly used for the fast and high-quality decoding of video in the MPEG-4 ASP (e. ...


Projects based on the FFmpeg project, including MPlayer, xine, and VLC media player, have solved most problems with viewing AVI format video files. FFmpeg is a collection of software libraries that can record, convert and stream digital audio and video in numerous formats. ... This article is about the open source media player. ... xine (officially pronounced [ksi:n], like the name Maxine without Ma[1]) is a multimedia playback engine for Unix-like operating systems released under the GNU General Public License. ... VLC media player is a free software media player by the VideoLAN project. ...


In June 2005, DivX, Inc. released its own container format called DivX Media Format (.divx extension) to succeed the AVI + DivX combo. However, this format is basically an enhanced AVI format (based on the same RIFF structure) and so far, has gained no perceivable consumer traction, even where the DivX codec was once popular (the Xvid codec has instead become the codec of choice among most of the file-sharing groups [2]). DivX, Inc. ...


See also

This table compares features of container formats. ... Video editing software is application software which handles the editing of video sequences on a computer. ...

References

External links

Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Source coding redirects here. ... Video compression refers to making a digital video signal use less data, without noticeably reducing the quality of the picture. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... Motion JPEG, also known as M-JPEG, is a video file format consisting of a sequence of individual JPEG images; unlike other video compression algorithms, each frame is an image unto itself. ... MPEG-1 defines a group of Audio and Video (AV) coding and compression standards agreed upon by MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group). ... MPEG-2 is a standard for the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information [1]. It is widely used around the world to specify the format of the digital television signals that are broadcast by terrestrial (over-the-air), cable, and direct broadcast satellite TV systems. ... MPEG-4 Part 2 is a video compression technology developed by MPEG. It belongs to the MPEG-4 ISO/IEC standard (ISO/IEC 14496-2). ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... H.261 is an 1990 ITU video coding standard originally designed for transmission over ISDN lines on which data rates are multiples of 64 kbit/s. ... H.262 is an ITU-T digital video coding standard. ... H.263 is a video codec designed by the ITU-T as a low-bitrate encoding solution for videoconferencing. ... H.264 is a standard for video compression. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Audio Video Standard, or AVS, is a compression codec for digital audio and video, and a possible alternative to H.264/AAC/Vorbis [1], meant to potentially replace MPEG-2. ... Bink is a video file format (extension . ... Dirac is a prototype algorithm for the encoding and decoding (see codec) of raw video. ... Indeo Video (commonly known now simply as Indeo) is a video codec developed by Intel in 1992. ... Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) is an informal name for multimedia formats where each video frame or interlaced field of a digital video sequence is separately compressed as a JPEG image. ... Pixlet is a video codec created by Apple Computer and based on wavelets, designed to enable viewing of full resolution, high resolution movies in real time at low DV data rates. ... RealVideo is a proprietary video format developed by RealNetworks. ... RTVideo RTVideo is Microsofts default video codec for OCS. RTVideo is a proprietrary codec. ... SheerVideo is a fast lossless video codec created by BitJazz Inc. ... Smacker video is a video file format (with the file extension) developed by RAD Game Tools and oftenly used in computer games. ... Snow is an experimental video codec developed by Michael Niedermayer for the FFmpeg package. ... Theora is a video codec being developed by the Xiph. ... VC-1 is the informal name of the SMPTE 421M video codec standard initially developed by Microsoft. ... TrueMotion VP6 is a video codec developed by On2 Technologies as a successor to earlier efforts such as VP3 and VP5. ... TrueMotion VP7 is a video codec developed by On2 Technologies as a successor to earlier efforts such as VP3, VP5 and TrueMotion VP6. ... Windows Media Video (WMV) is a generic name for the set of video codec technologies developed by Microsoft. ... This article is about a process which reduces the data rate or file size of digital audio signals. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... For other uses, see MP3 (disambiguation). ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer II (MP2, sometimes Musicam) is an audio codec defined by ISO/IEC 11172-3. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer I, commonly abbreviated to MP1, is one of three audio codecs included in the MPEG-1 standard. ... Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) is a standardized, lossy compression and encoding scheme for digital audio. ... High Efficiency AAC (HE-AAC) is a lossy data compression scheme for digital audio. ... High Efficiency AAC (HE-AAC) is a lossy data compression scheme for digital audio. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... G.711 is an ITU-T standard for audio companding. ... G.722[1] is a ITU-T standard wideband speech codec operating at 48-64 kbit/s. ... G.722. ... Adaptive Multi Rate - WideBand or AMR-WB is a speech coding standard developed after the AMR using same technology like ACELP. The codec provides excellent speech quality due to wider speech bandwidth of 50 - 7000 Hz compared to narrowband speech codecs which in general are optimized for POTS wireline quality... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... G.723. ... G.726 is ITU-T speech codec operating at bit rates of 16-40 kbit/s. ... G.728 is a ITU-T standard for speech coding operating at 16 kbit/s. ... G.729 is an audio data compression algorithm for voice that compresses voice audio in chunks of 10 milliseconds. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... G.729 is an audio data compression algorithm for voice that compresses voice audio in chunks of 10 milliseconds. ... Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... Adaptive Multi-Rate (AMR) is an audio data compression scheme optimized for speech coding. ... Apple Lossless (also known as Apple Lossless Encoder, ALE, or Apple Lossless Audio Codec, ALAC) is an audio codec developed by Apple Inc. ... Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding (ATRAC) is a family of proprietary audio compression algorithms developed by Sony. ... Free Lossless Audio Codec (FLAC) is a popular file format for audio data compression. ... internet Low Bit Rate Codec (iLBC) is a royalty free narrowband speech codec, developed by Global IP Sound (GIPS). ... Monkey’s Audio is a file format for audio data compression. ... In telecommunication, a mu-law algorithm (μ-law) is a standard analog signal compression or companding algorithm, used in digital communications systems of the North American and Japanese digital hierarchies, to optimize (in other words, modify) the dynamic range of an audio analog signal prior to digitizing. ... Musepack or MPC is an open source lossy audio codec, specifically optimized for transparent compression of stereo audio at bitrates of 160-180 kbit/s. ... The Nellymoser Asao codec is a proprietary single-channel (mono) format optimized for low-bitrate transmission of audio. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... RTAudio is a Microsoft produced adaptive wide-band speech codec. ... SHN (Shorten) is a file format used to losslessly compress CD-quality audio files (44. ... Speex is a free software speech codec that may be used on VoIP applications and podcasts. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... WavPack is a free, open source lossless audio compression format developed by David Bryant. ... Windows Media Audio (WMA) is an audio data compression technology developed by Microsoft. ... TAK (Toms lossless Audio Kompressor) is a lossless audio compressor which promises compression performance similar to Monkeys Audio “High” and decompression speed similar to FLAC. The codec also supports streaming (necessary headers for decompressing the audio are written to the stream every 2 seconds), error tolerance (single bit... Image compression is the application of Data compression on digital images. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is an international standards organization dealing with electrical, electronic and related technologies. ... The ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) coordinates standards for telecommunications on behalf of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) and is based in Geneva, Switzerland. ... JPG redirects here. ... JPEG 2000 is a wavelet-based image compression standard. ... The Joint Photographic Experts Group, in addition to their well-known lossy image compression techniques, JPEG and JPEG 2000, also have three standards for lossless compression (of which JPEG-LS has a lossy mode): Lossless JPEG was developed as a late addition to JPEG in 1993, using a completely different... JBIG is a lossless image compression standard from the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group, standardized as ISO/IEC standard 11544 and as ITU-T recommendation T.82. ... JBIG2 is an image compression standard for bi-level images, developed by the Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group. ... PNG (Portable Network Graphics), sometimes pronounced as ping, is a relatively new bitmap image format that is becoming popular on the World Wide Web and elsewhere. ... Wireless Application Protocol Bitmap Format (shortened to Wireless Bitmap and with file extension . ... The BMP file format, sometimes called bitmap or DIB file format (for device-independent bitmap), is an image file format used to store bitmap digital images, especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems. ... GIF redirects here. ... ICER is a wavelet-based image compression file format used by the NASA Mars Rovers. ... ILBM is a subtype of the Interchange File Format used for storing picture data. ... PCX is an image file format that uses a simple form of run-length encoding (a type of lossless compression algorithm). ... PGF (Progressive Graphics File) is a wavelet-based bitmapped image format that employs lossless and lossy data compression. ... Truevisions (now Pinnacle Systems) TGA File Format, often referred to as TARGA File Format, is a raster graphics file format. ... “TIFF” redirects here. ... JPEG XR (formerly HD Photo and Windows Media Photo) is a still-image compression algorithm and file format for continuous tone photographic images, developed by Microsoft as a part of the Windows Media family. ... A container format is a computer file format that can contain various types of data, compressed by means of standardized codecs. ... 3GP is a multimedia container format defined by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) for use on 3G mobile phones. ... Advanced Systems Format (formerly Advanced Streaming Format, Active Streaming Format) is Microsofts proprietary digital audio/digital video container format, especially meant for streaming media. ... Bink is a video file format (extension . ... DivX is a video codec created by DivX, Inc. ... DPX is also the name given to a mounting medium, see Di-n-butylPhthalate in Xylene. ... Flash Video is the name of a file format used to deliver video over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player (formerly known as Macromedia Flash Player) version 6, 7, 8, or 9. ... // The Matroska Multimedia Container is an open standard free multimedia container format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture or subtitle tracks inside a single file. ... For other parts of the MPEG-4 standard, see MPEG-4. ... Material eXchange Format (MXF) is a container format for professional digital video and audio media defined by a set of SMPTE standards. ... NUT is a patent-free, multimedia container format originally conceived by a few MPlayer and FFmpeg developers that were dissatisfied with the limitations of all currently available multimedia container formats such as AVI or Matroska. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Ogg Media (OGM), meaning Ogg Media File, is a container format (for video, audio and subtitle streams). ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... RealMedia is a multimedia container format created by RealNetworks. ... Smacker video is a video file format (with the file extension) developed by RAD Game Tools and oftenly used in computer games. ... A VOB file (DVD-Video Object or Versioned Object Base) is a container format contained in DVD-Video media. ... Audio Interchange File Format (AIFF) is an audio file format standard used for storing sound data for personal computers and other electronic audio devices. ... The Au file format is a simple audio file format that consists of a header of 6 32-bit words and then the data (high-order byte comes first). ... WAV (or WAVE), short for Waveform audio format, is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing audio on PCs. ...

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