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Encyclopedia > Audie Murphy
Audie Leon Murphy
June 20, 1924(1924-06-20) - May 28, 1971 (aged 46)

Audie Murphy, the most decorated American combat soldier of World War II
Place of birth Kingston, Texas, USA Flag of Texas
Place of death Brush Mountain near Catawba or Roanoke, Virginia, United States
Allegiance United States
Service/branch U.S. Army
Years of service 1942–1945 (US Army)
1950–1966 (Texas National Guard)
Rank First Lieutenant (USA), Major (TNG)
Battles/wars World War II: Sicily (July 1943), Salerno, Anzio, Rome, France: Operation Anvil-Dragoon (Aug. 1944), Holtzwihr (Jan. 1945)[1]
Awards Medal of Honor
Distinguished Service Cross
Silver Star Medal (2)
Legion of Merit
Bronze Star Medal (2)
Purple Heart (3)
French Legion of Honor[1]
French Croix de Guerre (+ Palm)[1]
Belgian Croix de Guerre 1940 Palm[1]
Other work actor, songwriter, horseracing, oil
Also see: Audie Murphy legacy.

Audie Leon Murphy (June 20, 1924May 28, 1971) [2] was an American soldier in World War II, who later became an actor, appearing in 44 American films.[2]He also found success as a country music composer. is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... // There are a large number of places named Kingston: Jamaica Kingston, Jamaica, the capital United Kingdom Kingston upon Hull, East Riding of Yorkshire, England Kingston upon Thames, Greater London, England Kingston, Cambridgeshire, Cambridgeshire, England Kingston, Devon, Devon, England Kingston, Dorset, Dorset, England Kingston, East Lothian, East Lothian, Scotland Kingston, Hampshire... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Texas. ... Catawba is an unincorporated community in the northern section of Roanoke County, Virginia, United States. ... Nickname: Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor Nelson Harris Area  - City  43 sq mi (111. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United States1, Free French, United Kingdom Germany Commanders Jacob L. Devers Johannes Blaskowitz Strength 250,000 (approx) 230,000 (approx) Casualties 4,500 American, 4,500+ French 125,000+ (approx) Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Silver Star is also a passenger rail line run by Amtrak as part of their Silver Service and Palmetto service. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... For other uses, see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... Medal for the officer class, decorated with a rosette Napoleon wearing the Grand Cross The President of France is the Grand Master of the Legion. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Audie Murphy legacy or cultural influence involves events and organizations that endure beyond the lifetime of Audie Murphy, who was the most decorated soldier during World War II, and who also became a Hollywood actor appearing in 44 films and on various television shows. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


In 27 months of combat action, Murphy became the most decorated United States combat soldier of World War II, and United States military history.[2][3] He received the Medal of Honor, the U.S. military's highest award for valor, along with 32 additional U.S. medals,[2][3] five from France, and one from Belgium.[1][2][4] Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Murphy had a successful movie career, including the extremely popular To Hell and Back (1955), based on his memoir of the same name (1949),[3] and starred in 33 Hollywood Westerns. He died in a plane crash in 1971[3] and was interred, with full military honors,[3] in Arlington National Cemetery (his is the second most-visited gravesite, after that of President John F. Kennedy).[3] [4] [1] For the 2000 album, see To Hell and Back (album). ... ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

Contents

Biography

Early life

Audie Leon Murphy was born near Kingston, Texas,[2] [5] to Emmett Berry and Josie Bell Murphy (née Killian),[5] [6] poor sharecroppers,[3][5] and grew up near Celeste, Texas (Hunt County).[2] Murphy went to school in Celeste until the eighth grade,[5] when he dropped out to help support his family (his father deserted them in 1936), working for a dollar a day, plowing and picking cotton on any farm that would hire him.[5] He became very skilled with a rifle, hunting small game to help feed the family.[1] Murphy was the sixth of twelve children,[6][5] nine of whom survived until the age of eighteen.[1][5] His brothers and sisters included Corinne, Charles Emmett (Buck), Vernon, June, Oneta, J.W., Richard, Eugene, Nadine, Billie, and Joseph Murphy. Sharecropping is a system of farming in which employee farmers work a parcel of land in return for a fraction of the parcels crops. ... Celeste is a city located in Hunt County, Texas. ... Hunt County is a county located in the state of Texas. ... For other uses, see Rifle (disambiguation). ...


During the 1930s Murphy worked at a combination general store/garage and filling station in Greenville, Texas.[2][5] At sixteen he was working in a radio repair shop when his mother died[2][5] on May 23, 1941. Later that year, in agreement with his older sister, Corrinne, Murphy was forced to place his three youngest siblings in an orphanage[5] to ensure their care (he reclaimed them after World War II). The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Enlistment

Immediately following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, Murphy (then just 17 years old) tried to enlist in the military, but the services rejected him for being underage.[4] In June 1942, shortly after his 18th birthday, Murphy was accepted into the United States Army,[3][4] at Greenville,[6] after being turned down by the Marines and the paratroopers for being too short (5'5"/1.65 m)[2] and of slight build[3][4]. He was sent to Camp Wolters, Texas, for basic training[1][6] and during a session of close order drill, passed out. His company commander tried to have him transferred to a cook and bakers' school[5] because of his baby-faced youthfulness, but Murphy insisted on becoming a combat soldier. His wish was granted: after 13 weeks of basic training,[5] he was sent to Fort Meade, Maryland for advanced infantry training.[1][6] This article is about the actual attack. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... An American USMC Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... Fort Wolters was a United States military installation four miles east of Mineral Wells, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Fort Meade is a census-designated place located in Anne Arundel County, Maryland. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


Battles

Because of his small stature, Murphy still had to "fight the system" to get overseas and into combat. His persistence paid off, and in early 1943 he was shipped out to Casablanca, Morocco as a replacement in Company B, 1st Battalion, 15th Infantry Regiment (United States), 3rd Infantry Division.[4] Murphy saw no action in Africa, but instead participated in extensive training maneuvers along with the rest of the 3rd Division. His combat initiation finally came when he took part in the liberation of Sicily on July 10, 1943.[1][4] Shortly after arriving, Murphy was promoted to corporal[1] after killing two Italian officers as they tried to escape on horseback. He contracted malaria[2][5] while in Sicily, an illness which put him in the hospital several times during his Army years.[5] For the 1942 film, see Casablanca (movie). ... The 15th Infantry Regiment is currently a parent regiment in the United States Army. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ...


After Sicily was secured from the Germans, the 3rd Division invaded the Italian mainland, landing near Salerno[1] in September 1943.[4] While leading a night patrol, Murphy and his men ran into German soldiers but fought their way out of an ambush, taking cover in a rock quarry.[1] The German command sent a squad of soldiers in but they were stopped by intense machine-gun and rifle fire:[1] Three German soldiers were killed and several others captured.[1] For his actions at Salerno, Murphy was promoted to sergeant.[1] Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ...


Murphy distinguished himself in combat on many occasions while in Italy, fighting at the Volturno River,[4] at the Anzio beachhead,[4] and in the cold, wet Italian mountains. While in Italy, his instinctive skills as a combat infantryman earned him promotions and decorations for valor.[4] // Anzio is a city and resort on the coast of the Lazio region of Italy, about 33 miles south of Rome. ...


Following its participation in the Italian campaign, the 3rd Division invaded Southern France[4] on August 15, 1944 (Operation Anvil-Dragoon).[4] Shortly thereafter, Murphy's best friend, Lattie Tipton (referred to as "Brandon" in Murphy's book To Hell and Back), was killed while approaching a German soldier who was feigning surrender.[1] Murphy went into a rage,[1] and single-handedly wiped out the German machine gun crew which had just killed his friend.[1] He then used the German machine gun and grenades to destroy several other nearby enemy positions.[1] For this act, Murphy received the Distinguished Service Cross[1] (second only to the Medal of Honor). During seven weeks of fighting in that campaign in France, Murphy's division had suffered 4,500 casualties.[4] is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants United States1, Free French, United Kingdom Germany Commanders Jacob L. Devers Johannes Blaskowitz Strength 250,000 (approx) 230,000 (approx) Casualties 4,500 American, 4,500+ French 125,000+ (approx) Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ...


Just weeks later, he received two Silver Stars for further heroic actions.[1] Murphy, by now a staff sergeant and holding the position of Platoon Sergeant, was eventually awarded a battlefield commission to second lieutenant, which elevated him to the Platoon Leader position.[1] He was wounded in the hip by a sniper's ricocheting bullet 12 days after the promotion[1] and spent ten weeks recuperating.[1] Within days of returning to his unit, and still bandaged, he became company commander (January 25, 1945), and suffered further wounds from a mortar round which killed two others nearby. The Silver Star is the fourth highest military decoration that can be awarded to a member of any branch of the United States Armed Forces. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

The next day, January 26 (the temperature was 14 degrees with 24 inches of snow on the ground), the battle at Holtzwihr (France) began[1][4] with Murphy's unit at an effective strength of 19 out of 128. Murphy sent all of his men to the rear[4] while he took pot-shots at the Germans until out of ammunition. He then proceeded to use an abandoned, burning tank destroyer's .50 caliber machine gun[1] to cut into the German infantry at a distance,[4] including one full squad of German infantry that had crawled in a ditch to within 100 feet of his position. Wounded in the leg during heavy fire,[1][4] he continued this nearly single-handed battle for almost an hour.[1][4] His focus on the battle before him stopped only when his telephone line to the artillery fire direction center was cut by either U.S. or German artillery. As his remaining men came forward, he quickly organized them to conduct a counter attack,[1][4] which ultimately drove the enemy away from Holtzwihr.[4] These actions earned Murphy the Medal of Honor[1][4]. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ...


Murphy was then removed from the front lines and made a liaison officer; he was promoted to 1st lieutenant on February 22, 1945. On June 2, 1945, Lt. Gen. Alexander Patch, commander of the US Seventh Army, presented him with the Medal of Honor and Legion of Merit. The Legion of Merit was awarded for outstanding services with the 3rd Infantry Division during January 22, 1944 to February 18, 1945. On June 10, Murphy left Paris by plane, arriving in San Antonio, Texas four days later. is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... San Antonio redirects here. ...


Audie Murphy received 33 US medals, plus five medals from France and one from Belgium.[1][4] It has been said that he received every US medal available at the time; 5 of them awarded more than once.


His height and weight at his enlistment were 5 feet 5.5 inches and 110 pounds; after his three year enlistment, they were 5 ft 7 inches and 145 lbs.


Medal of Honor citation

The official U.S. Army citation for Audie Murphy's Medal of Honor reads: [1] [7]

Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company B 15th Infantry, 3rd Infantry Division.
Place and date: Near Holtzwihr France, 26 January 1945.
Entered service at: Dallas, Texas. Birth: Hunt County, near Kingston, Texas, G.O. No. 65, 9 August 1944.
Citation: Second Lt. Murphy commanded Company B, which was attacked by six tanks and waves of infantry. 2d Lt. Murphy ordered his men to withdraw to a prepared position in a woods, while he remained forward at his command post and continued to give fire directions to the artillery by telephone. Behind him, to his right, one of our tank destroyers received a direct hit and began to burn. Its crew withdrew to the woods. 2d Lt. Murphy continued to direct artillery fire, which killed large numbers of the advancing enemy infantry. With the enemy tanks abreast of his position, 2d Lt. Murphy climbed on the burning tank destroyer, which was in danger of blowing up at any moment, and employed its .50 caliber machine gun against the enemy. He was alone and exposed to German fire from three sides, but his deadly fire killed dozens of Germans and caused their infantry attack to waver. The enemy tanks, losing infantry support, began to fall back. For an hour the Germans tried every available weapon to eliminate 2d Lt. Murphy, but he continued to hold his position and wiped out a squad that was trying to creep up unnoticed on his right flank. Germans reached as close as 10 yards, only to be mowed down by his fire. He received a leg wound, but ignored it and continued his single-handed fight until his ammunition was exhausted. He then made his way back to his company, refused medical attention, and organized the company in a counterattack, which forced the Germans to withdraw. His directing of artillery fire wiped out many of the enemy; he killed or wounded about 50. 2d Lt. Murphy's indomitable courage and his refusal to give an inch of ground saved his company from possible encirclement and destruction, and enabled it to hold the woods which had been the enemy's objective. [1][7]

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Lifted to "Living Legend" status

Audie Murphy on the cover of Life for July 16, 1945, got him seen in Hollywood.
Audie Murphy on the cover of Life for July 16, 1945, got him seen in Hollywood.

Audie Murphy was credited with destroying six tanks in addition to killing over 240 German soldiers and wounding and capturing many others.[4] By the end of World War II he was a legend within the 3rd Infantry Division as a result of his heroism and battlefield leadership.[3] His principal U.S. decorations included the Medal of Honor, Distinguished Service Cross, two Silver Star Medals, the Legion of Merit, two Bronze Star Medals with Valor device, and three Purple Hearts (for the three wounds he received in combat). Murphy participated in campaigns in North Africa, Sicily, Italy, France and Germany, as denoted by his European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal with one silver battle star (denoting five campaigns), four bronze battle stars, plus a bronze arrowhead representing his two amphibious assault landings at Sicily and southern France. During the French Campaign, Murphy was awarded two Presidential Citations, one from the 3rd Inf, Division, and one from the 15th Inf. Regiment during the Holtzwihr action. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 441 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (460 × 625 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Cover image of Life magazine, issue for July 16, 1945, showing soldier Audie Murphy in an iconic image: the magazine issue was seen by actor... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 441 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (460 × 625 pixel, file size: 35 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Cover image of Life magazine, issue for July 16, 1945, showing soldier Audie Murphy in an iconic image: the magazine issue was seen by actor... Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The Distinguished Service Cross (DSC) is the second highest military decoration of the United States Army, awarded for extreme gallantry and risk of life in actual combat with an armed enemy force. ... The Silver Star is also a passenger rail line run by Amtrak as part of their Silver Service and Palmetto service. ... The Legion of Merit is a military decoration of the United States armed forces that is awarded for exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding services and achievements. ... The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration and is the fourth highest award for bravery, heroism or meritorious service. ... For other uses, see Purple Heart (disambiguation). ... The European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal is a miliary decoration of the United States armed forces which was first created in 1942 by Executive Order of President Franklin Roosevelt. ...


The French government awarded Murphy its highest award, the Legion of Honor (Grade of Chevalier). [8] He also received two Croix de Guerre medals from France[8] and the Croix de Guerre 1940 Palm from Belgium.[8] In addition, Murphy was awarded the Combat Infantryman Badge (a complete list of his awards and decorations appears later in this article). He spent 29 months overseas and just under two years in combat with the 3rd Infantry Division, all before he turned 21 years of age and was eligible to vote.[4] Medal for the officer class, decorated with a rosette Napoleon wearing the Grand Cross The President of France is the Grand Master of the Legion. ... The Croix de guerre is a military decoration of both Belgium and France which was first created in 1915. ... The Combat Infantryman Badge (CIB) is an award of the United States Army which is presented to those officers, warrant officers and enlisted soldiers, in the grade of Colonel and below, who participate in active ground combat while assigned as a member of an infantry or special forces unit, brigade...


In early June 1945, one month after Germany's surrender, he returned from Europe to a hero's welcome in his home state of Texas,[4] where he was showered with parades, banquets, and speeches. Murphy was discharged from active duty with the U.S. Army as a first lieutenant, at Fort Sam Houston in San Antonio, Texas on August 17, 1945,[6] and discharged from the U.S. Army on September 21, 1945.[1][4] Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas. ... San Antonio redirects here. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


He gained nationwide recognition, appearing on the cover of Life magazine for July 16, 1945 (see image above). Philippe Halsmans famous portrait of Marilyn Monroe Life generally refers to two American magazines: A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936; A publication created by Time founder Henry Luce in 1936, with a strong emphasis on photojournalism. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


After the Korean War broke out in June 1950, Murphy joined the 36th Infantry Division of the Texas National Guard; however, that division was not called up for combat duty. By the time he left the Guard in 1966, Murphy had attained the rank of major. Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Seal of the National Guard Bureau Seal of the Army National Guard Seal of the Air National Guard The United States National Guard is a significant component of the United States armed forces military reserve. ...


Post war illness

Murphy suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after his return from the war.[2][3] He was plagued by insomnia, bouts of depression, and nightmares related to his numerous battles.[2] His first wife, Wanda Hendrix, often talked of his struggle with this condition, even claiming that he had at one time held her at gunpoint. For a time during the mid-1960s, he became dependent on doctor-prescribed sleeping pills called Placidyl.[2] When he recognized that he had become addicted to the drug, he locked himself in a motel room where he took himself off the pills, going through withdrawal for a week.[2] Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ... Glamour photo Wanda Hendrix (November 3, 1928 – February 1, 1981) was an American film actress. ... Ethchlorvynol is a sedative and hypnotic drug. ...


Always an advocate of the needs of America's military veterans, Murphy eventually broke the taboo about publicly discussing war-related mental conditions. In an effort to draw attention to the problems of returning Korean and Vietnam War veterans, Murphy spoke out candidly about his own problems with PTSD, known then and during World War II as "battle fatigue" [2] and also commonly known as "shell shock." He called on the United States government to give increased consideration and study to the emotional impact that combat experiences have on veterans, and to extend health care benefits to address PTSD and other mental-health problems suffered by returning war veterans.[2] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Image from The Great War taken in an Australian Dressing Station near Ypres in 1917. ...


Personal life

Audie Murphy and his sons, Terry Michael Murphy and James Shannon Murphy.

Murphy married actress Wanda Hendrix in 1949;[2] they were divorced in 1951. He then married former airline stewardess Pamela Archer, by whom he had two children: Terry Michael Murphy (born 1952) and James Shannon Murphy (born 1954). He became a successful actor, rancher, and businessman,[4] breeding and raising quarter horses. He owned ranches in Texas, Tucson, Arizona and Perris, California.[3] Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... The American Quarter Horse is a breed of horse originally bred specifically to race the quarter mile. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ... Tucson (pronounced ) is the seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, located 118 miles (188 km) southeast of Phoenix and 60 miles (98 km) north of the U.S.-Mexico border. ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... Perris is a city in Riverside County, California, in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


In 1955, Murphy became interested in Freemasonry. He was encouraged by his close friend, Texas theater owner Skipper Cherry, to petition and join the Masonic Order in California. He returned to Texas to become a 32d degree Scottish Rite Mason and to join the Shriners. He was active in various Masonic events and was a member in good standing for the rest of his life. Freemasons redirects here. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... It has been suggested that Knight Kadosh be merged into this article or section. ... The Shriners, A.A.O.N.M.S. or Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, established in New York City in 1870, is an appendant body to Freemasonry. ...

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Movie career

Actor James Cagney invited Murphy to Hollywood in September 1945, after seeing the young hero's photo on the cover of the July 16 edition of Life Magazine.[2] But the next few years in California were difficult for Murphy. He became disillusioned by the lack of work, was financially broke, and slept on the floor of a gymnasium owned by his friend Terry Hunt (Murphy would later name one of his sons Terry out of respect for his friend). He eventually received token acting parts in the 1948 films Beyond Glory and Texas, Brooklyn and Heaven.[2][4] His third movie, Bad Boy, gave him his first leading role.[3] He also starred in the 1951 adaptation of Stephen Crane's Civil War novel, The Red Badge of Courage, which met with critical success.[4] Murphy expressed great discomfort in playing himself in To Hell and Back however. In 1959, he starred in the western film No Name on the Bullet, in which his performance was well-received despite being cast as the villain, a professional killer who managed to stay within the law.[2] James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ... For the U.S. Continental Congress delegate, see Stephen Crane (delegate). ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Red Badge of Courage (1895) is an impressionistic novel by Stephen Crane about the meaning of courage, as it is discovered by Henry Fleming, a recruit in the American Civil War. ... Justus D. Barnes, from The Great Train Robbery The Western is one of the classic American literary and film genres. ... No Name on the Bullet is a 1959 western movie. ...


First starring role

After returning home from World War II, Murphy bought a house in Farmersville, Texas for his oldest sister Corinne, her husband Poland Burns, and their three children. The idea was that Audie's three youngest siblings, Nadine, Billie, and Joe, who had been living in an orphanage since Murphy's mother's death, would also be able to live with Corinne and Poland and would become part of a family again. Unfortunately, six children under one roof created too much stress on everyone, particularly Nadine and Joe, so Murphy came and picked them up. Farmersville is a city located in Collin County, Texas. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Joe and Nadine wanted to stay with him, but despite a lot of post-war publicity, his acting career had gone nowhere and he was finding it difficult to survive financially. The oldest Murphy brother, Buck, and his wife agreed to take Nadine, but Murphy didn't know what to do with Joe. He approached James "Skipper" Cherry, a Dallas theater owner who was involved with the Variety Clubs International Boy's Ranch, a 4,800 acre (19 km²) ranch near Copperas Cove, Texas who arranged for the Boy's Ranch to take Joe in. He loved it there and Murphy was able to visit him, as well as Cherry, frequently. In a 1973 interview, Cherry recalled, "He was discouraged and somewhat despondent concerning his movie career." Copperas Cove is a city in Coryell County, Texas, United States. ... For other uses, see Texas (disambiguation). ...


Variety Clubs was financing a film to be called Bad Boy to help promote the organization's work with troubled children and Cherry called Texas theater executive Paul Short, who was producing the film, to suggest that they considered giving Murphy a significant role in the movie. He looked good in the screen test, but the president of Allied Artists did not want to cast someone with so little acting experience in a major role. However, by this time, Cherry, Short, and the other Texas theater owners had decided that Audie Murphy was going to play the lead or they weren't financing the film. Their money talked and he was cast, turning in such a fine performance that the Hollywood powers that be finally recognized his talent. As a direct result of the film, Universal Studios signed Murphy to his first seven-year studio contract. Allied Artists Pictures Corporation (AAPC) was a subsidiary of Monogram Pictures that was founded in 1946. ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ...


Autobiography

1955 photo of Audie Murphy used for advertisement and art work purposes to promote the movie To Hell and Back.
1955 photo of Audie Murphy and his wife, Pam Archer Murphy, as they arrived at the Los Angeles premiere of To Hell and Back at the Wiltern Theater on October 12, 1955.

Murphy's 1949 autobiography To Hell and Back became a national bestseller. In the book, which he wrote with the assistance of his writer friend "Specs" McClure, Murphy modestly describes some of his most heroic actions — without portraying himself as a hero. Not once does he mention any of the many decorations he received for his incredible combat exploits. Instead, he chooses to praise the skills, bravery, and dedication of the other soldiers in his platoon. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x633, 52 KB) This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (500x633, 52 KB) This is a copyrighted promotional photo with a known source. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... Image File history File links This work is copyrighted. ... The Wiltern Theatre and adjacent 12-story Pellissier Building are an Art Deco landmark located on the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue in Los Angeles, California (the entire complex is commonly referred to as simply the Wiltern). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ...


Murphy played himself in the 1955 version of his book made into a film of the same title, To Hell and Back.[2] The film grossed almost ten million dollars during its initial theatrical release, and at the time became Universal's biggest hit of the studio's entire 43-year history. This movie held the record as the company's highest-grossing motion picture until 1975, when it was surpassed by Steven Spielberg's Jaws.[2] Universal gave Murphy latitude in choosing the various roles, as long as plenty of action was included. Terry Murphy, who played Joe Preston Murphy (at age 4), is in fact Murphy's older son. For the 2000 album, see To Hell and Back (album). ... This article is about the American media conglomerate. ... Steven Allan Spielberg (born December 18, 1946)[1] is an American film director and producer. ... Jaws is a 1975 thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on Peter Benchleys best-selling novel inspired by the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916. ...


Audie was reluctant to star in To Hell and Back fearing that he was cashing in on his war experience - he even suggested that his role be played by Tony Curtis. The film was introduced by General Walter Bedell Smith, United States Army, Retired. During World War II, Smith had served as Chief of Staff to General Dwight D. Eisenhower. For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...


Harold B. Simpson's 1975 comprehensive biography, Audie Murphy, American Soldier, covers the breadth of Murphy's life. The book emphasizes his military exploits, and includes photos, maps, and battle-maneuver diagrams. Murphy's post-war career is also well-documented.


Hollywood Walk of Fame

For his contribution to the motion picture industry, Audie Murphy has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame at 1601 Vine Street. Buskers perform on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. ...


Filmography

Main article: Audie Murphy legacy

In the twenty-five years he spent in Hollywood, Audie Murphy made a total of 44 feature films, 33 of them Westerns.[2] He also appeared in several television shows.[2] The Audie Murphy legacy or cultural influence involves events and organizations that endure beyond the lifetime of Audie Murphy, who was the most decorated soldier during World War II, and who also became a Hollywood actor appearing in 44 films and on various television shows. ...


Music career

In addition to motion picture acting, Murphy also became successful as a country music songwriter.[2] teaming up with talented artists and composers such as Guy Mitchell, Jimmy Bryant, Scott Turner, Coy Ziegler, and Terri Eddleman. Many of Murphy's songs were recorded and released by such performers as Dean Martin,[2] Eddy Arnold,[2] Charley Pride,[2] Jimmy Bryant, Porter Waggoner, Jerry Wallace, Roy Clark, and Harry Nilsson. His two biggest hits were "Shutters and Boards" and "When the Wind Blows in Chicago". Eddy Arnold recorded the latter for his 1983 RCA album, Last of the Love Song Singers. Guy Mitchell (February 22, 1927-July 1, 1999) was an American pop singer, who was even more successful in the United Kingdom than his homeland, despite being an international recording star of the 1950s with five #1 singles. ... Jimmy Bryant (March 5, 1925–September 22, 1980) was a prominent American session guitarist. ... Eric Scott Turner (born February 26, 1972 in Richardson, Texas) is a retired American football player and a politician. ... Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti, June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995) was an American singer, film actor, and comedian. ... Eddy Arnold (May 15, 1918) is an American country music singer. ... Charley Frank Pride (born March 18, 1938) is a country music artist. ... Jimmy Bryant (March 5, 1925–September 22, 1980) was a prominent American session guitarist. ... The Porter Wagoner Show, RCA, 1963 Porter Wagoner (born August 12, 1927, in Howell County, Missouri, in the Ozark Mountains) is an American country music singer. ... Jerry Wallace (born December 15, 1928) is an American country and popular music singer. ... Roy Clark - March 2002 Roy Linwood Clark (born April 15, 1933 in Meherrin, Virginia) is one of the most versatile and well-known country music musicians and performers. ... Harry Edward Nilsson III (June 15, 1941 – January 15, 1994) was an American songwriter, singer, pianist, and guitarist, most popular during the 1960s and 1970s. ... Eddy Arnold (May 15, 1918) is an American country music singer. ... RCA, formerly an acronym for the Radio Corporation of America, is now a trademark owned by Thomson SA through RCA Trademark Management S.A., a company owned by Thomson. ...


Death

Murphy's headstone

Just after noon on May 28, 1971[2][3][4] (during Memorial Day weekend), while on a business trip, and flying in bad weather with a pilot unqualified to fly on instruments, Murphy's private plane crashed into Brush Mountain, near Catawba, Virginia, some 20 miles west of Roanoke.[4] The pilot and all five passengers, including Murphy, were killed.[2] He was 46 years old. In 1974, a large granite memorial marker was erected near the crash site. A close friend, Captain Carl Swickerath (who is now buried directly in front of Murphy), represented the Murphy family at the dedication. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 3,456 pixels, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,304 × 3,456 pixels, file size: 3. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... The Colony of Roanoke was the first English colony in the New World, founded at Roanoke Island. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ...


On June 7, 1971, Murphy was buried with full military honors at Arlington National Cemetery.[2][4] The official U.S. representative at the ceremony was the decorated World War II Veteran and future President George H. W. Bush. Murphy's gravesite is in Section 46, located across Memorial Drive from the Amphitheater.[4] A special flagstone walkway was later constructed to accommodate the large number of people who stop to pay their respects.[4] It is the second most-visited gravesite, after that of President John F. Kennedy's.[4] is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...


The headstones of Arlington's Medal of Honor recipients are normally decorated in gold leaf, but Murphy had requested that his stone remain plain and inconspicuous,[4] as would be the case with an ordinary soldier. An unknown person maintains a small American flag next to his engraved Government-issue headstone, which reads as follows:

Audie L. Murphy, Texas. Major, Infantry, World War II. June 20, 1924 to May 28, 1971. Medal of Honor, DSC, SS & OLC, LM, BSM & OLC, PH & two OLC.


(Key to abbreviations: DSC = Distinguished Service Cross; SS = Silver Star; LM = Legion of Merit; BSM = Bronze Star Medal; PH = Purple Heart; OLC = Oak Leaf Cluster.) is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ...


An Oak Leaf Cluster signifies a subsequent award of the same decoration. First Lieutenant Audie Murphy was one of very few company-grade officers ever to be awarded the Legion of Merit. That decoration is usually awarded only to officers of the rank of lieutenant colonel and above.


Other honors

  • An Audie Murphy National Fan Club was established in the 1950s. Headed by various fans over the years, the club still exists today, with over 400 fans in nine countries.
  • On November 17, 1973, the Audie L. Murphy Memorial Veterans Hospital in San Antonio, Texas was dedicated. There is a one-ton bronze, eight-foot-tall statue of Murphy, created by sculptress Jimilu Mason. He is dressed in battle fatigues holding a rifle with bayonet; inside the hospital, a museum depicts his life and contains items including his uniform, other clothing, books and pictures.
  • In early 1986, the U.S. Army established the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club at Fort Hood, Texas. This elite membership group recognizes noncommissioned officers (sergeants) who have displayed the integrity, professionalism, commitment to mentoring subordinate soldiers, leadership abilities and personal ethics as exemplified by Audie L. Murphy. In 1994, the Sergeant Audie Murphy Club spread Army-wide, to all commands with installations retaining the selection process for their own NCOs.
  • In 1999, then-Governor George W. Bush also issued a proclamation declaring June 20 to officially be "Audie Murphy Day" in the State of Texas.
  • From the mid-1990s through the present, an annual celebration of Audie and other veterans in all branches of service has been held on the weekend closest to Murphy's birthday at the American Cotton Museum (recently renamed the Audie Murphy/American Cotton Museum) in Greenville and in Farmersville. The museum houses a large collection of Audie Murphy memorabilia and personal items.

Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Fort Hood, named after Confederate General John Bell Hood, is a U.S. Army post located halfway between Austin and Waco within the U.S. state of Texas. ... Texas Senate in session The Texas Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Texas. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hall of Great Western Performers is a Hall of Fame at the National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, United States. ... Bronze Wrangler The National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum is a museum and art gallery, in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, housing one of the largest collections of: Western, American cowboy, American rodeo, and American Indian; art, artifacts, and archival materials, in the world. ... OKC redirects here. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article lists people who have been featured on United States postage stamps. ... Fort Hood is a census-designated place and US Army base located in Texas. ...

Cultural influences

  • His films earned him close to $3 million in his 23 years as an actor.[3]
  • Murphy was the original choice to play the Scorpio Killer in Dirty Harry.[citations needed]
  • He purchased a Middle Eastern oil field in the 1960s which was blown up during the Six Day War, causing him to file for bankruptcy in 1968.[4]
  • Former World War II General and President Dwight Eisenhower did not enjoy Murphy's films, saying his combat scenes were unbelievable due to his small stature, despite Murphy having actually accomplished those feats in real life. However, Murphy's relatively short height is not particularly noticeable in To Hell and Back or in his other action movies.[citations needed]
  • Always a modest hero, Murphy gave his awards and decorations to friends. When these were replaced, he gave them away again.[citations needed]

For the 2000 album, see To Hell and Back (album). ... Universal Pictures is the main motion picture production/distribution arm of Universal Studios, a subsidiary of NBC Universal. ... Jaws is a 1975 thriller film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on Peter Benchleys best-selling novel inspired by the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Dirty Harry (disambiguation). ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... This article concerns the National Rifle Association of the USA. For the UK organisation, see National Rifle Association of the United Kingdom The National Rifle Association, or NRA, is a non-profit group for the promotion of marksmanship, firearm safety, and the protection of hunting and personal protection firearm rights...

See also

  • Audie Murphy legacy - detailed cultural influence & films.
  • Matt Urban, a World War II veteran who posthumously became the most decorated serviceman in United States history

The Audie Murphy legacy or cultural influence involves events and organizations that endure beyond the lifetime of Audie Murphy, who was the most decorated soldier during World War II, and who also became a Hollywood actor appearing in 44 films and on various television shows. ... Lt. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj "Sergeant Audie Murphy Club - SMA/Autreve Chapter" (bio), U.S. Army Medical Department Center & School Portal, Fort Sam Houston, San Antonio, TX, webpage: USArmy-SAMC.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag "Biography for Audie Murphy" (bio), IMDb, webpage: IMDb-AMurphy.
  3. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al "Historical Information - Audie Murphy" (bio), Arlington National Cemetery, webpage: ANC-AMurphy.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Audie Murphy" (bio), E. J. Addington, WhenMagazine, webpage: WhenMag-3c.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Handbook of Texas Online" (about Audie Murphy), webpage: TSHA-fmu13.
  7. ^ a b "Audie Murphy's Medal of Honor" (letter/photo), Audie Murphy Memorial Web Site, webpage: AMurphy-MedalHonor.
  8. ^ a b c "Audie Murphy's Military Award List" (list of all medals), Audie Murphy Memorial Web Site, webpage: AMurphy-awards.

Fort Sam Houston is a U.S. Army post in San Antonio, Texas. ... The Alamo in San Antonio San Antonio is a city in the U.S. state of Texas. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ...

References

  • Graham, Don. No Name on the Bullet, N.Y.: Viking, 1989.
  • Murphy, Audie. To Hell and Back, N.Y.: Holt, 1949.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Audie Murphy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4293 words)
Murphy was the sixth of twelve children, only nine of whom survived to see their eighteenth birthday.
It is a one-ton bronze, eight-foot statue of Murphy by the sculptress, Jimilu Mason.
Audie Murphy's height and weight at his enlistment was 5 ft 5 in and 110 lb.
Audie Murphy (1138 words)
Beginning his service as an Army Private, Audie quickly rose to the enlisted rank of Staff Sergeant, was given a "battle field" commission as 2nd Lieutenant, was wounded three times, fought in 9 major campaigns across the European Theater, and survived the war.
On 21 September, 1945, Audie was released from the Army as an active member and reassigned to inactive status.
Audie Murphy wrote some poetry and was quite successful as a songwriter.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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