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Encyclopedia > Auction
An auctioneer and her assistants scan the crowd for bidders
An auctioneer and her assistants scan the crowd for bidders

An auction is a process of buying and selling goods by offering them up for bid, taking bids, and then selling the item to the winning bidder. In economic theory, an auction may refer to any mechanism or set of trading rules for exchange. Image File history File links Auction. ... Image File history File links Auction. ... Process (lat. ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... Economics is the social science studying production and consumption through measurable variables. ...


There are several variations on the basic auction form, including time limits, minimum or maximum limits on bid prices, and special rules for determining the winning bidder(s) and sale price(s). Participants in an auction may or may not know the identities or actions of other participants. Depending on the auction, bidders may participate in person or remotely through a variety of means, including telephone and the internet. Auctions are generally funded by a fee paid by the seller to the auctioneer or auction company.

Contents

History of the Auction

Auctioning can be traced as far back as 500 B.C.[1] According to ancient Greek scribes, the more generally accepted auction occurred first in Babylon in 500 B.C. During this period, auctions were held annually, and women were sold on the condition of marriage. It was considered illegal to allow a daughter to be sold outside the auction method. Women with “beauty” engendered higher bidding, women without “beauty” had to pay a dowry to be accepted into the auction, and thus the price would be negative. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Scribes is a text editor for GNOME that is simple, slim and sleek, and features no tabs, auto-completion and much more. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Matrimony redirects here. ...


During the Roman Empire, following military victory, Roman soldiers would often spear the ground to mark the location of spoils in which goods and property were seized. Roman business agents were said to have accompanied warriors into battle to help facilitate expected sales. The Romans also used the auction to liquidate their own property. For example, Marcus Aurelius is said to have auctioned prized heirlooms and furniture, (an auction that, as legend has it, lasted over two months). The most legendary auction occurred in the year 193 A.D. when the entire Roman Empire was put on the auction block by the Praetorian Guard. On March 23rd, The Praetorian Guard first killed Pertinax the emperor, and then announced that the highest bidder could claim the entire Empire. Didius Julianus outbid everyone else for the price of 6,250 drachmas per Guard, an act that initiated a brief civil war. Didius was then beheaded two months later when Septimus Severus conquered Rome. For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Liquidation, or winding up, refers to a business whose assets are converted to money in order to pay off debt. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Rome, April 26, 121[2] – Vindobona or Sirmium, March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... The Praetorian Guard of Augustus - 1st century. ... Publius Helvius Pertinax (August 1, 126 - March 28, 193) was Roman emperor for a short period in 193. ... Didius Julianus Marcus Severus Didius Julianus (133–193) was emperor of the Roman Empire from 28 March until 1 June 193. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... Emperor Septimius Severus Lucius Septimius Severus, (April 11, 146 - February 4, 211) was Roman emperor from April 9, 193 to 211. ...


During the end of the 18th century, soon after the French Revolution, auctions came to be held in taverns and coffeehouses to sell art. Such auctions were held daily, and catalogs were printed to announce available items. Such Auction catalogs are frequently printed and distributed before auctions of rare or collectible items. Many of these catalogs may be very elaborate works themselves, with considerable details about the items being auctioned. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... A tavern is, loosely, a place of business where people gather to drink alcoholic beverages and, more than likely, also be served food, though not licenced to put up guests. ... A Street Cafe, Jerusalem, Henry Fenn (1838- ): steel engraving in Picturesque Palestine, ca 1875 A coffeehouse, coffee shop, or café shares some of the characteristics of a bar, and some of the characteristics of a restaurant. ... An auction catalog is a catalog that lists items to be sold at an auction. ...


During the American civil war, goods seized by armies were sold at auction by the Colonel of the division. Thus, some of today's auctioneers in the U.S. carry the unofficial title of "colonel". Auctioneers are usually trained in the legal and practical aspects of conducting auctions. Some jurisdictions require auctioneers to be licensed and bonded. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ...


Major auction houses include Christie's, Sotheby's, Lyon & Turnbull, and Bonhams. The Stockholms Auktionsverk, the world's oldest auction house, was established in 1674 in Sweden. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: spamvertising If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The Christies auction house in South Kensington, London Christies American branch in Rockefeller Center, New York Christies is a fine art auction house, the largest and by some accounts the oldest in the world. ... Sothebys (NYSE: BID) is the worlds second oldest international auction house in continuous operation. ... Lyon & Turnbull is a privately owned international auction house based in Scotland. ... Bonhams is a privately-owned British auction house founded in 1793. ... Events February 19 - England and the Netherlands sign the Treaty of Westminster. ...


Internet auctions, such as eBay and GoIndustry, have become very popular with the prevalence of Internet. Other websites, such as AuctionZip and Auctioneers, display live auction listings from auctioneers nationwide. The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the internet. ... This article is about the online auction center. ...


Auctions held by members of the United States Executive Branch are commonly held which feature property that was seized that was, to what they believed, used in the event of a crime. The issue of the morality of this process is debated and is what some would compare to the act of stealing. Theft (also known as stealing) is, in general, the wrongful taking of someone elses property without that persons willful consent. ...


Types of auction

Tuna auction at the Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo
Tuna auction at the Tsukiji fish market in Tokyo
Fish auction in Honolulu, Hawaii

Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Auction. ... Download high resolution version (1600x988, 433 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x988, 433 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Tsukiji as seen from Shiodome End of the fresh tuna auction at Tsukiji. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Fish_auction_Hawaii. ... Image File history File links Fish_auction_Hawaii. ... Honolulu as seen from the International Space Station Honolulu is the largest city and the capital of the U.S. state of Hawai‘i. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...

JEL Classification

In the Journal of Economic Literature "Classification System" D stands for "Microeconomics" with division D4 for "Market Structure and Pricing" and subdivisions D44 for "Auctions" and D46 for "Value Theory". (C7 for "Game Theory" and C78 for "Bargaining Theory").


Auctions: Characterization

Auctions can differ in the number of participants:

  • In a supply (or reverse) auction, m sellers offer a good that a buyer requests
  • In a demand auction, n buyers bid for a good being sold
  • In a double auction n buyers bid to buy goods from m sellers

Prices are bid (or offered) by buyers and asked by sellers. Auctions may also differ by the procedure for bidding (or asking, as the case may be):

  • In an open auction participants may repeatedly bid and are aware of each other's previous bids.
  • In a closed auction buyers and/or sellers submit sealed bids

Auctions may differ as to the price at which the item is sold, whether the first (best) price, the second price, the first unique price or some other. Auctions may set a reservation price which is the least/maximum acceptable price for which a good may be sold/bought. In microeconomics, the Reservation Price is the maximum price a buyer is willing to buy a good or service, or the minimum price a seller is willing to sell a good or service. ...


Without modification, auction generally refers to an open, demand auction, with or without a reservation price (or reserve), with the item sold to the highest bidder. In microeconomics, the Reservation Price is the maximum price a buyer is willing to buy a good or service, or the minimum price a seller is willing to sell a good or service. ...

Supply auction
Supply auction
Demand auction
Double auction

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Primary types of auction

  • English auction: This is the type of auction commonly used by the English auction houses like Sotheby's, Christie's, and Phillips. Participants bid openly against one another, with each bid being higher than the previous bid. The auction ends when no participant is willing to bid further, or when a pre-determined "buy-out" price is reached, at which point the highest bidder pays the price. The seller may set a 'reserve' price and if the auction fails to have a bid equal to or higher than the reserve, the item remains unsold. If there is no reserve price, the auction is called absolute.

In some cases, bids may be made absentee, by leaving them with the auctioneer, or by phone or by Internet (in which case live bids may also be visible online). In an English auction (also called an Open-outcry auction), the auctioneer begins the auction with the reserve price (lowest acceptable price) and then takes larger and larger bids from the customers until no one will increase the bid. ... Sothebys (NYSE: BID) is the worlds second oldest international auction house in continuous operation. ... The Christies auction house in South Kensington, London Christies American branch in Rockefeller Center, New York Christies is a fine art auction house, the largest and by some accounts the oldest in the world. ... Phillips may refer to: Phillips Head, a type of self-centering screw head shaped like a plus sign. ...


A variant popular in the time of Samuel Pepys was 'auction by candle' in which the winning (highest) bid was the last one to be made before a small piece of lit candle died out.[2] Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ...


Such auctions can be vulnerable to collusion: Two or more bidders act together to win the auction. Following the auction result, the "loser" threatens to sue the winner, who then proposes a settlement. The settlement is actually the pre-agreed reward for the loser's cooperation. This strategy was described by the economist Susan Athey. Susan Athey, born on November, 1970 is an American economist. ...

  • Dutch auction: In the traditional Dutch auction the auctioneer begins with a high asking price, which is lowered until some participant is willing to accept the auctioneer's price, or a predetermined minimum price is reached. The winning participant pays the last announced price. The Dutch auction is named for its best known example, the Dutch tulip auctions. ("Dutch auction" is also sometimes used to describe online auctions where several identical goods are sold simultaneously to an equal number of high bidders. Economists call the latter auction a multi-unit English ascending auction.)
  • Sealed-bid first-price auction: Also known as Sealed High-Bid Auction or First-Price Sealed-Bid Auction (FPSB). In this type of auction all bidders simultaneously submit bids so that no bidder knows the bid of any other participant. The highest bidder pays the price they submitted.
  • Sealed-bid second-price auction, also known as a Vickrey auction: This is identical to the sealed first-price auction, except the winning bidder pays the second highest bid rather than their own. This is very similar to the proxy bidding system used by eBay, where the winner pays the lesser of their actual bid and the second-highest bid plus one bidding increment.
  • All-pay auction: an auction in which all bidders must pay their bids regardless of whether they win the prize. The highest bidder wins the prize. The all-pay auction is often used to model lobbying (bids are political contributions), or other competitions.

All of the private value auctions listed above are revenue equivalent assuming complete information, meaning that they all result in the same expected revenue for a seller. A Chinese auction is a type of auction (actually a combination of auction and raffle) that is typically featured at charity or other fundraising events. ... A typical Neapolitan tombola. ... Dutch auction is a type of auction where the auctioneer begins with a high asking price which is lowered until some participant is willing to accept the auctioneers price, or a predetermined reserve price (the sellers minimum acceptable price) is reached. ... [[Media:Example. ... A sealed first-price auction us a form of auction where bidders submit one bid in a concealed fashion. ... A Vickrey auction is a type of sealed-bid auction, where bidders submit written bids without knowing the bid of the other people in the auction. ... A Vickrey auction is a type of sealed-bid auction, where bidders submit written bids without knowing the bid of the other people in the auction. ... In economics and game theory an all-pay auction, is an auction in which all bidders must pay regardless of whether they win the prize, which is awarded to the highest bidder as in a conventional auction. ...


Time requirements

Each type of auction has its specific qualities such as pricing accuracy and time required for preparing and conducting the auction. The number of simultaneous bidders is of critical importance. Open bidding during an extended period of time with many bidders will result in a final bid, that is very close to the true market value. Where there are few bidders and each bidder is allowed only one bid, time is saved, but the winning bid may not reflect the true market value with any degree of accuracy. Of special interest and importance during the actual auction is the time elapsed from the moment that the first bid is revealed to the moment that the final (winning) bid has become a binding agreement.


Dutch auction or (a low) Posted price are pricing methods, used when speed is important. Swedish auction or French auction are used when accurate pricing is important. Asking price, English auction or First price auction are used in most other cases. The diagram shows typical time requirements:

 (Asking price) x x x x Swedish auction x Simplified Swedish auction x Candle auction xx x x x English auction x x French auction x Dutch auction x Second price auction Swiss auction x x First price auction x (Posted price) 0 10 20 1 5 10 1 10 20 1 12 Seconds Minutes Days Months 

English auction (since 1674) is used for chattel (20 seconds), art, antiques (90 seconds) and (especially in Australia) for real estate (10 minutes). A valuation and/or a SOB Suggested Opening Bid is announced. At least two bidders are required. In an English auction (also called an Open-outcry auction), the auctioneer begins the auction with the reserve price (lowest acceptable price) and then takes larger and larger bids from the customers until no one will increase the bid. ...


Candle auction (since 1490) preceded English auction. (15 to 20 minutes).


Dutch auction (since 1887) is used for wholesale cut flowers, tobacco, farm products, fish and other perishables. (4 seconds). Dutch auction is a type of auction where the auctioneer begins with a high asking price which is lowered until some participant is willing to accept the auctioneers price, or a predetermined reserve price (the sellers minimum acceptable price) is reached. ...


First price auction (or sealed bids) (since 1770) is used for industrial real estate, building contract work and whenever only one or very few bidders are expected to participate. (1 second).


Swiss auction (since 1950) is used for building contract work, where the winning bid is subject to certain conditions. The bid is thus not immediately binding for the winning bidder. (5 days).


Second price auction (or Vickrey auction) (since 1961) is used for treasury bills. (1 second). A Vickrey auction is a type of sealed-bid auction, where bidders submit written bids without knowing the bid of the other people in the auction. ...


French auction (or Tâtonnement or Walrasian auction) (since 1874) is used for gold, stocks and bonds. (4 to 20 seconds).


Swedish auction (or Swedeauction) (since 1982) is used for various types of family homes. (10 days). (The General Services Administration GSA uses on-line auctions that are practically the same as Swedish auction. GSA is the United States government agency for the sale of surplus real estate).


Simplified Swedish auction (since 2002) is used for most family homes in Sweden´s metropolitan areas. (4 days).


Asking price is not an auction. This pricing method emerged about 1200 B.C. for chattel in Iraq. It is still used for chattel, second-hand cars and real estate, especially outside the metropolitan areas. (Lasting one year in a business recession). In a rising market, what starts as an Asking Price, may eventually become an English Auction, if surprisingly many bidders show up.


Posted price is not an auction. This pricing method emerged about 2000 B.C. for real estate in Israel and was reintroduced in 1850 at new department stores in France. It is mostly used for massproduced products such as food, new retail articles and newly-built real estate. (1 second). Since 1980 a barcode often instantly sets the price at the check-out counter.


SOB, Suggested Opening Bid

There will always be some kind of (rough) estimate as to what the object will fetch. In an ascending open auction it is considered important that there should be at least a 50 percent increase in the bids from start to finish. To accomplish this the auctioneer must start the auction by announcing a Suggested Opening Bid, SOB, that is low enough to be immediately accepted by one of the bidders. Once there is an Opening Bid there will quickly be several other higher bids submitted. Experienced auctioneers will often select an SOB that is about 45 percent of the (lowest) estimate. Thus there is a certain margin of safety to ensure that there will indeed be a lively auction with many bids submitted. Several observations indicate, that the lower the SOB, the higher the final winning bid will be. This is due to the increase in number of bidders attracted by the low SOB. When 50 bidders compete with each other the winning bid will be about twice as high as when only two bidders compete. Often with Swedish auction and sometimes with English auction there will be more than 50 bidders. In an English auction (also called an Open-outcry auction), the auctioneer begins the auction with the reserve price (lowest acceptable price) and then takes larger and larger bids from the customers until no one will increase the bid. ...


Other auction terminology

  • Silent auction: This is often a variant of an English auction, where bids are written on a sheet of paper, and at the predetermined end of the auction, the highest listed bidder wins the prize. This auction variant is often used in charity events, and many items may be auctioned simultaneously. Participants submit bids normally on paper, near the item. Other variations of this type of auction may include sealed bids. The highest bidder pays the price he or she submitted.
  • Digital art auction: In this indefinitely long auction, designed for unreleased works that are trivially reproducible at zero cost (recordings, software, drug formulas), bidders openly submit their maximum bids (which may be adjusted or withdrawn at any time). The seller may review the bids and close with a price of their choosing at any time — the successful bidders that pay this price are those whose bid meets or exceeds it, and these are the only bidders who receive a copy of the item.
  • Open outcry auction: This type of auction can refer to any auction where the auction is conducted orally for people to hear. This type of auction also refers to what is used in stock exchanges and commodity exchanges, where trading occurs on a trading floor and traders may enter verbal bids and offers simultaneously. Transactions may take place simultaneously at different places in the trading pit or ring. This type of auction is being replaced by electronic trading platforms.
  • Unique bid auction: In this type of auction users post blind bids and are given a range of prices they can place a bid in, often a capped limit. The highest, or lowest, unique bid wins. For instance an auction is given a maximum bid of 10. If the top five bids are 10, 10, 9, 8, 8 then 9 would be the winner being the highest unique bid. This a popular online type of auction.
  • Buy-out auction: This auction has a predetermined buy-out price in which the bidder can end the auction by accepting the buy-out price. The buy-out price is set by the seller. The bidder can choose to bid or use the buy-out option. If no bidder chooses to utilize the buy-out option, the auction ends with the highest bidder winning the auction.
  • Combinatorial auction: A combinatorial auction is an auction in which bidders can place bids on combinations of items, or “packages,” rather than just individual items.
  • Absolute auction, also known as an Unreserved Auction, No-reserve Auction or Auction Without Reserve, is an auction with no minimum bid amount, no set starting bid, no seller confirmation of the high bid price, and no buybacks of the property being offered by the seller of any agents of the seller. The highest bidder will purchase the property no matter the high bid price. This type of auction is designed to attract the maximum participation from the buying public as the seller has committed to convey their property to the highest bidder without limitation. It does offer buyers excellent opportunities from time to time, however. A 2003 Virginia statute defines an absolute auction as "an auction where at the time of the auction sale the real or personal property to be sold will pass to the highest bidder regardless of the amount of the highest and last bid."

In terms of security/privacy, there are two main types of auctions: Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ... Chicago Board of Trade Futures market Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. ... Unique bid auctions are a mix between an auction and a lottery. ... A combinatorial auction is an auction in which bidders can place bids on combinations of items, or “packages,” rather than just individual items. ...

  • In a private auction the identities of the bidders are hidden, so anyone that buys the item can remain anonymous. This is normally done for either security reasons such as rare gems or art, or to avoid embarrassment if the item is more risque.
  • In a public auction, the bidders' identities are not hidden and anyone is welcome to attend the auction.

In terms of auctioneers and auction items, we can differentiate three types of auctions:

  • exchange auction — also known as commodity auctions or exchange-commodity auctions, are the most closed to the new participants. The participants include a number of core professional buyers, who monitor each other to ensure that no one is 'cheating' on the community
  • sale auction — for art and one-of-a-kind items
  • dealer auction — for collectibles, cars or machinery

If more than one identical item is sold, there are two possible generalizations of the second-price auction. In a uniform-price auction, all of the winning bidders pay the price submitted by the highest non-winning bidder. Bidders will not typically bid their true value in a uniform-price auction with multiple units. In a Vickrey (or second-price sealed-bid) auction, the pricing rule is more complicated, but preserves the property that bidders will bid their true valuation. It is also possible to auction each identical item individually. Once each item has been priced, the winning bidder is entitled to buy the remaining goods at the same price. Items the winning bidder opts not to purchase are auctioned again. This system creates a tension between the desire to hold back on bidding since later items will almost certainly be cheaper, and the chance that by losing the first round of bidding all possibility of purchasing will be lost. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Work in the theory of auctions contributed to Vickrey's 1996 Bank of Sweden Prize. ("Nobel Prize"). Auction theory is an applied branch of game theory which deals with how people act in auction markets and researches the game-theoretic properties of auction markets. ... The Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel (in Swedish Sveriges Riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne), is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ...

  • Reverse auction: A type of auction in which the role of the buyer and seller are reversed, with the primary objective to drive purchase prices downward. In an ordinary auction (or also known as forward auction ), buyers compete to obtain a good or service. In a reverse auction, sellers compete to obtain business.

A reverse auction (also called procurement auction, e-auction, sourcing event, e-sourcing or eRA) is a tool used in industrial business-to-business procurement. ...

Common uses for auctions

Auctions are publicly and privately seen in several contexts and almost anything can be sold at auction. Some typical auction arenas include the following:

  • the antique business, where besides being an opportunity for trade they also serve as social occasions and entertainment
  • in the sale of collectibles such as stamps, coins, classic cars, fine art, and luxury real estate
  • the wine auction business, where serious collectors can gain access to rare bottles and mature vintages, not typically available through retail channels
  • in the sale of all types of real property including residential and commercial real estate, farms, vacant lots and land
    Grass-fed cattle at auction, Walcha, NSW
    Grass-fed cattle at auction, Walcha, NSW
  • for the sale of consumer second-hand goods of all kinds, particularly farm (equipment) and house clearances and online auctions.
  • sale of industrial machinery, both surplus or through insolvency.
  • in commodities auctions, like the fish wholesale auctions
  • in livestock auctions where sheep, cattle, pigs and other livestock are sold
  • in wool auctions where international agents purchase lots of wool
  • in thoroughbred horseracing, where yearling horses are commonly auctioned off; and
  • in legal contexts where forced auctions occur, as when one's farm or house is sold at auction on the courthouse steps.

Although less publicly visible, the most economically important auctions are the commodities auctions in which the bidders are businesses even up to corporation level. Examples of this type of auction include: For the province in the Philippines, see Antique (province) and for the band, see Antique (duo). ... It has been suggested that Commerce be merged into this article or section. ... A collectible (or collectable) is typically a manufactured item designed for people to collect. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ... For general information about the genus, including other species of cattle, see Bos. ... Walcha is a town in the north of New South Wales, Australia, and serves as the seat of Walcha Shire. ... A used item is one that is not new or a resource that has been partially or completely depleted. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For the processor with the same codename , see Athlon. ... In the field of law, the word force has two main meanings: unlawful violence and lawful compulsion. ... In most counties in the United States the local trial courts conduct their business in a centrally located courthouse which may also house the offices of the county treasurer, clerk and recorder and assessor. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... For other uses, see Corporation (disambiguation). ...

  • sales of businesses
  • spectrum auctions, in which companies purchase licenses to use portions of the electromagnetic spectrum for communications (e.g., mobile phone networks)
  • private electronic markets using combinatorial auction techniques to continuously sell commodities (coal, iron ore, grain, water...) to a pre-qualified group of buyers (based on price and non-price factors)
  • timber auctions, in which companies purchase licenses to log on government land
  • timber allocation auctions, in which companies purchase timber directly from the government Forest Auctions
  • electricity auctions, in which large-scale generators and consumers of electricity bid on generating contracts
  • environmental auctions, in which companies bid for licenses to avoid being required to decrease their environmental impact
  • debt auctions, in which governments sell debt instruments, such as bonds, to investors. The auction is usually sealed and the uniform price paid by the investors is typically the best non-winning bid. In most cases, investors can also place so called non-competitive bids, which indicates an interest to purchase the debt instrument at the resulting price, whatever it may be
  • auto auctions, in which car dealers purchase used vehicles to retail to the public.

A Spectrum auction is a process whereby governments use an auction system to sell the rights to broadcast over specific electromagnetic wavelengths. ... Legend γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultra high frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood... For other uses, see Debt (disambiguation). ... Financial instruments package financial capital in readily tradeable forms - they do not exist outside the context of the financial markets. ... For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... Financial instruments package financial capital in readily tradeable forms - they do not exist outside the context of the financial markets. ...

See also

An art sale is the practice of selling objects of art by auction. ... Millions of vehicles are sold at dealer auto auctions every year. ... A Chinese auction is a type of auction (actually a combination of auction and raffle) that is typically featured at charity or other fundraising events. ... An estate sale is a type of garage sale, yard sale or auction to dispose of the majority of the materials owned by a person who is deceased or will be moving. ... A Vickrey auction is a type of sealed-bid auction, where bidders submit written bids without knowing the bid of the other people in the auction. ... A reverse auction (also called procurement auction, e-auction, sourcing event, e-sourcing or eRA) is a tool used in industrial business-to-business procurement. ... The Christies auction house in South Kensington, London Christies is a world-famous auction house located in London. ... Bonhams is a privately-owned British auction house founded in 1793. ... Butterfield and Butterfield was a large American auction house, founded in 1865 by William Butterfield in San Francisco. ... Dorotheum The auction house Dorotheum, established in 1707, has its headquarters in Vienna on the Dorotheergasse. ... Lyon & Turnbull is a privately owned international auction house based in Scotland. ... Sothebys (NYSE: BID) is the worlds second oldest international auction house in continuous operation. ... Phillips, de Pury & Company is an auction house and art dealership, with offices in New York, London, Geneva, Berlin, Brusseles, Los Angeles, Milan, Munich and Paris. ... Tenders are special procedures to generate competing offers from different bidders looking to obtain an award of business activity in works, supply, or service contracts. ... Auction School refers to an institution or course of study that prepares one to practice auctioneering or trains one to become an auctioneer. ... Auction theory is an applied branch of game theory which deals with how people act in auction markets and researches the game-theoretic properties of auction markets. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... On eBay, where an auction has a starting price of $1 ... Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics that is often used in the context of economics. ... Online Auction tools is application software, that can either be deployed on a Web server or a Desktop. ... The online auction business model is one in which participants bid for products and services over the Internet. ...

Further reading

  • Klemperer, Paul (2004). Auctions: Theory and Practice. ISBN 0-691-11925-2.  Draft edition available online
  • Milgrom, Paul (2004). Putting Auction Theory to Work, 384 pp. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-53672-3.
  • Nissanoff, Daniel (2006). FutureShop: How the New Auction Culture Will Revolutionize the Way We Buy, Sell and Get the Things We Really Want. The Penguin Press. ISBN 1-59420-077-7.  (Hardcover, 246 pages)
  • Smith, Charles W. (1990). Auctions: Social Construction of Value. ISBN 0-520-07201-4. 

References

  1. ^ Davidow, Emily (2000). "The Dynamics of Pricing." Home Textiles Today (February 2000):42.
  2. ^ R. W. Patten (Summer 1970). Tatworth Candle Auction. Folklore Vol. 81, No. 2 132-135. Folklore Enterprises, Ltd.. Retrieved on 2007-02-13.
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Interesting eBay Auction News (2456 words)
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Auction - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2039 words)
Auctioning can be traced as far back as 500 B.C. In economic theory, an auction is a method for determining the value of a commodity that has an undetermined or variable price.
Auction catalogs are frequently printed and distributed before auctions of rare and/or collectible items; these catalogs may be very elaborate works, with considerable details about the items being auctioned.
Combinatorial Auction: In some cases, a buyer's value for the goods that are up for auction is a complex interaction of the type and number of goods he receives (known as a "bundle").
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