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Encyclopedia > Aubergine
Aubergine / Eggplant

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. melongena
Binomial name
Solanum melongena
L.

The aubergine, eggplant or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a solanaceous plant bearing a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking. It is closely related to the tomato and potato and is native to southern India and Sri Lanka. It is a short-lived perennial plant often cultivated as an annual, growing 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall, often spiny, with large coarsely lobed leaves 10 to 20 cm (4-8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2-4 in) broad. The flowers are white to purple, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. The fruit is fleshy, less than 3 cm in diameter on wild plants, but much larger in cultivated forms. The fruit contains numerous small, soft seeds. (Semi-)wild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. Image File history File linksMetadata Solanum_melongena_ja02. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta—liverworts Anthocerotophyta—hornworts Bryophyta—mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta—rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta—zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta—clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta—trimerophytes Pteridophyta—ferns and horsetails Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta—seed ferns Pinophyta—conifers Cycadophyta—cycads Ginkgophyta—ginkgo Gnetophyta—gnetae Magnoliophyta—flowering plants... Orders See text. ... Asteridae is a botanical subclass of flowering plants in class Dicotyledon or Magnoliopsida. ... Families at least the following: Solanaceae Convolvulaceae and others, varying between classification systems; for details see text The Solanales are an order of flowering plants, included in the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... Genera Acnistus Atropa (deadly nightshade) Browallia Brugmansia (angels trumpet) Brunfelsia Calibrachoa Capsicum (peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Juanulloa Lycianthes Lycium (boxthorn) Mandragora (mandrake) Nicandra Nicotiana (tobacco) Nierembergia or cupflower Nolana Petunia Physalis (tomatillo) Scopolia Solandra Solanum (tomato, potato, eggplant) Streptosolen Withania... Species See text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 23, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Species See text. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A plate of vegetables Vegetable is a culinary term which generally refers to an edible part of a plant. ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, commonly grown for its starchy tuber. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Raised thorns on the stem of the wait-a-bit climber Thorns on rose stems A spine is a rigid, pointed surface protuberance or needle-like structure on an animal, shell, or plant, presumably serving as a defense against attack by predators. ... “Foliage” redirects here. ... A Phalaenopsis flower Rudbeckia fulgida A flower, (<Old French flo(u)r<Latin florem<flos), also known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms). ... Corolla can be: A Latin-language term for crown The Toyota Corolla, a model of automobile manufactured by Toyota The corolla is one whorl of the perianth of a flower and composed of petals The town of Corolla, North Carolina This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Solanum melongena, flower

The aubergine is an important food crop grown for its large, pendulous, purple or white fruit. It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asian countries since prehistory but appears to have become known to the Western world no earlier than ca. 1500 CE. The numerous Arabic and North African names for it, along with the lack of ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate that it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs who invaded Persia in the early Middle Ages. The scientific name Solanum melongena is derived from a 16th century Arabic term for one kind of aubergine. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... World map showing the location of Asia. ... “Era Vulgaris” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are an ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


The name eggplant in the United States, Australia, and Canada developed from the fact that the fruits of some 18th century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs. Aubergine is the British name given to this fruit, from the French aubergine, derived from Catalan albergínia; from Arabic al-bãdhinjãn الباذنجان, Persian بادنجان bâdinjân, from Sanskrit vatinganah. In South Africa the fruit is known as a Brinjal. In India it is called by a variety of names. Baingan in Hindi and Urdu, and Katharikkaai in Tamil. In Mandarin Chinese the plant and fruit are referred to as qiezi (Simplified Chinese: 茄子; Traditional Chinese: 茄子; Pinyin: qiézi). In Spanish it is called Berenjena. In Trinidad & Tobago it is called Melongene or Baigan Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia (in the latter with the name of Valencian), and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is the official language of the Union along with English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; Traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of printed contemporary Chinese written language, simplified from traditional Chinese by the Peoples Republic of China in an attempt to promote literacy. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ...


Because of the aubergine's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family, it was at one time believed to be poisonous. Genera Acnistus Atropa (deadly nightshade) Browallia Brugmansia (angels trumpet) Brunfelsia Calibrachoa Capsicum (peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Juanulloa Lycianthes Lycium (boxthorn) Mandragora (mandrake) Nicandra Nicotiana (tobacco) Nierembergia or cupflower Nolana Petunia Physalis (tomatillo) Scopolia Solandra Solanum (tomato, potato, eggplant) Streptosolen Withania...


Cultivated varieties

A purple aubergine which has been sliced in half, showing the inside. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and turn brown just minutes after slicing.
A purple aubergine which has been sliced in half, showing the inside. The flesh surrounding the seeds is already beginning to oxidize and turn brown just minutes after slicing.

The most widely grown cultivars in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12-25 cm long and 6-9 cm broad with a dark purple skin. A much wider range of shapes, sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. There, cultivars that closely resemble a hen's egg in both size and shape are widely grown; colors vary from white to yellow or green as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Some cultivars have a color gradient, from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple, or even black, and green or purple cultivars with white striping also exist. Chinese aubergines are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (794x800, 404 KB) Summary Description: An eggplant (probably Solanum melongena) sliced in half, with the halves facing up, on a cutting board. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (794x800, 404 KB) Summary Description: An eggplant (probably Solanum melongena) sliced in half, with the halves facing up, on a cutting board. ... To oxidize an element or a compound is to increase its oxidation number. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Binomial name L. The cucumber (Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same genus as the muskmelon. ...


Numerous other names are used, many derived from the Sanskrit vatinganah, which has given birth to a number of names for this plant in various languages and dialects: brinjal, badingan, melongena, melanzana, berenjena, albergínia, aubergine, brown-jolly, and mad-apple (a misinterpretation of the Italian melanzana as mela insana). [1] The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ...


Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include: 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'.


Long, slim cultivars with purple-black skin include: 'Little Fingers', 'Pingtung Long' and 'Tycoon'; with green skin: 'Louisiana Long Green' and 'Thai (Long) Green'; with white skin: 'Dourga'.


Traditional, white-skinned, oval-shaped cultivars include 'Casper' and 'Easter Egg'.


Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include: 'Rosa Bianca', and 'Violetta di Firenze'.


Bicolored cultivars with striping include: 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'.


Matti Gulla or Matti brinjal is a unique variety of brinjal grown in the village of Matti in Udupi; it is light green in color and round in shape. Some brinjals of this variety weigh more than one kilogram. Matti may refer to: In sports: Matti Breschel, professional road bicycle racer who currently rides for UCI ProTour outfit Team CSC Matti Hautamäki, Finnish ski jumper Matti Nykänen, Finnish former ski jumper Matti Pitkänen, former Finnish cross-country skier who competed in the late 1970s and... Udupi (Kannada:ಉಡುಪಿ) is a temple town located in Udupi District, near Mangalore, Karnataka state, on the southwest coast of India. ...

Matti Gulla
Matti Gulla
Solanum melongena, fruit

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2576 × 1932 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...

Cookery

Melanzane alla Parmigiana, or Aubergine Parmesan (baked aubergines with Parmesan cheese).
Melanzane alla Parmigiana, or Aubergine Parmesan (baked aubergines with Parmesan cheese).

The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste but, when cooked, becomes tender and develops a rich, complex flavour. Salting and then rinsing the sliced aubergine will soften and remove much of the bitterness. This process is called degorging. Lightly sprinkling the slices with salt, and laying them out on a paper or cloth towel for 20-30 minutes will accomplish this. However, many modern varieties do not need this treatment as they are not that bitter. The aubergine is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces, allowing for very rich dishes. On the other hand, if it is undesirable for the fruit to absorb a lot of oil, then the salting process will reduce this effect. The fruit flesh is smooth; as in the related tomato, the numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. The thin skin is also edible, so that the aubergine need not be peeled. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1982x1486, 926 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aubergine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1982x1486, 926 KB) [edit] Summary [edit] Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Aubergine Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Parmesan cheese. ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Lycopersicon lycopersicum Lycopersicon esculentum Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... This writeup is about biological seeds; for other meanings see Seed (disambiguation). ...


The aubergine is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain. In particular, the Turkish cuisine is said to know one thousand recipes for preparing aubergine.[citation needed] It is often served stewed, as in the French ratatouille, the italian melanzane alla parmigiana, the Greek moussaka, and many South Asian dishes. It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so that the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, as in the Middle Eastern dish baba ghanoush and the similar Greek dish melitzanosalata or the Indian dishes of Baigan Bhartha or Gojju. It can be sliced, battered, and deep-fried, then served with various sauces: yoghurt-based, tahini-based, or tamarind-based. The aubergine can also be stuffed with meat, rice, or other fillings and then baked. In the Caucasus for example, it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. Ratatouille is a traditional French Provençal stewed vegetable dish which can be served as a meal on its own (accompanied by rice, potatoes, or simply French bread), or as a side dish. ... Musakka/Moussakas Moussaka ([musaka]; Greek: ; Romanian: ; Turkish: ; South Slavic: мусака/​musaka; Armenian: ; Arabic: musaqqaa) is a traditional eggplant (aubergine)-based dish in the Balkans and the Middle East, but most closely associated with Greece and Turkey. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Egyptian baba ghanoush with pita bread Baba ganoush, babaghanoush,, babaghanouj (Arabic بابا غنوج), melitzanosalata (Greek μελιτζανοσαλάτα), or simply eggplant salad or aubergine salad is a family of popular Middle Eastern dishes made primarily of eggplant (aubergine). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Walnut sauce (also known as walnut paste) is a food paste with origins in Iranian cuisine made primarily from walnuts and especially popular in Georgian cuisine. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


As a native plant, it is widely used in the South Indian cuisine, for example in sambhar, chutney, curries, and oil preserves/aachaar. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use, in both everyday and festive South Indian food, it is often described (under the name brinjal) as the 'King of Vegetables' in South India. A chutney (British spelling), chatni (Urdu or Hindi transliteration) or catni (archaic transliteration) is a term for a variety of sweet and spicy condiments, originally from South Asia. ... This article is about the dish. ...


Grilled and mashed aubergine/eggplant, mixed with onions, tomatoes, and spices for flavour, makes the Indian dish called baingan ka bhartha or the Arabian dish called Baba Ghanuj. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Nutritionally, aubergines are low in energy (30 kcal/100g), protein (1.2%) and vitamin C (5 mg/100g), but rich in potassium and calcium.


Cultivation

In tropical and subtropical climates, the aubergine can be sown directly into the garden. Aubergine grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is past. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date. In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ... Frost on black pipes Frost is a solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. ...


Many pests and diseases which afflict other solanaceous vegetables, i.e. tomato, pepper (capsicum), potato, etc. are also troublesome to aubergines. For this reason, it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Four years should separate successive crops of aubergines. Common North American pests include the potato beetle, flea beetle, aphids and spider mites. Many of these can be controlled using Bacillus thurengensis (Bt), a bacterium that attacks the soft-bodied larvae. (Adults can be removed by hand, though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control.) Good sanitation and crop-rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which in the aubergine is Verticillium. Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ... Genera many; see text. ... Families There are 10 families: Adelgidae Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Homomasagymibutae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Phylloxeridae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly, blackfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the homopterous division of the order Hemiptera. ... Binomial name Tetranychus urticae C.L. Koch, 1836 Tetranychus urticae (an animal with over 60 common names, including red spider mite and two-spotted spider mite) is one of many species of plant-feeding mites found in dry environments, and generally considered a pest. ... Binomial name Berliner 1915 Bacillus thuringiensis is a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Verticillium lecanii. ...


Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in) to 60 cm (24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 cm (24 in) to 90 cm (36 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Mulching will help conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Hand pollination will improve the set of the first blossoms. Fruits are typically cut from the vine just above the calyx owing to the semi-woody stems. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hand pollination (also called mechanical pollination) is a technique used when natural, or open pollination is insufficient or undesirable. ...


Statistics

According to the USDA, production of aubergine is highly concentrated, with 93 percent of output coming from seven countries. China (55 percent of world output) and India (28 percent) are the top producers, with the United States a distant 20th. Egypt, Turkey, and Japan round out the top five producing nations. More than 4 million acres (16,000 km²) are devoted to the cultivation of aubergine in the world.[1]


Health

Studies of the Instituto de Biociências of the UNESP de Botucatu, São Paulo showed that aubergine is effective in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and in the control of cholesterol (about 30% reduction).[citation needed] The University which spans the whole State of São Paulo - UNESP in http://www. ... Botucatu is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in Brazil, located 224. ... Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ... Hypercholesterolemia (literally: high blood cholesterol) is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood [1]. It is not a disease but a metabolic derangement that can be secondary to many diseases and can contribute to many forms of disease, most notably cardiovascular disease. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ...


See also



References

  1. ^ Vegetables and Melons Outlook/VGS-318 (PDF). Economic Research Service 23. USDA (2006-12-14). Retrieved on 2007-04-24.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (115th in leap years). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on
Eggplant
  • Aubergine: Plants for a Future database
  • Solanum melongena L. on Solanaceae Source - Images, specimens and a full list of scientific synonyms previously used to refer to the eggplant.
  • Nutrition facts

  Results from FactBites:
 
Aubergine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1197 words)
The aubergine, eggplant, or brinjal (Solanum melongena) is a solanaceous plant bearing a fruit of the same name, commonly used as a vegetable in cooking.
The aubergine is an important food crop grown for its large pendulous purple or white fruit.
Aubergine is used in cuisines from Japan to Spain.
Aubergine (1639 words)
From India the aubergine spread both East and West becoming an important ingredient in the kitchens of China, South East Asia and Japan as well as in the sophisticated kitchens of Persia, Turkey and the rest of the Middle East.
To salt an aubergine, sprinkle the exposed flesh with a little salt and leave, either in a colander or on a tray in the sun for about 1 hour.
Although not containing vitamins, the aubergine is rich in minerals - calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorous and fibre which is mainly in the skin.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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