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Encyclopedia > Attis
Greek deities
series
Primordial deities
Titans and Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic deities
Personified concepts
Other deities
Anatolian deities
  • Attis
  • Artemis of Ephesus
  • Cybele
Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. Terracotta thymiaterion from Tarsus, 1st or 2nd century BC, Louvre
Attis wearing the Phrygian cap. Terracotta thymiaterion from Tarsus, 1st or 2nd century BC, Louvre

Attis (sometimes written as "Atys"), a life-death-rebirth deity, was the lover of Cybele,[1] her eunuch attendant and driver of her lion-driven chariot; he was driven mad by her and castrated himself. Attis was originally a local semi-deity of Phrygia, associated with the great Phrygian trading city of Pessinos, which lay under the lee of Mount Agdistis. The mountain was personified as a daemon, whom foreigners associated with the Great Mother Cybele. The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... Twelve Olympians, also known as the Dodekatheon (Greek: Δωδεκάθεον < δωδεκα, dodeka, twelve + θεον, theon, of the gods), in Greek religion, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, the Muses (Greek , Mousai: perhaps from the Proto-Indo-European root *men- think[1]) are a number of goddesses or spirits who embody the arts and inspire the creation process with their graces through remembered and improvised song and stage, writing, traditional music and dance. ... Asclepius (Greek also rendered Aesculapius in Latin and transliterated Asklepios) was the god of medicine and healing in ancient Greek mythology, according to which he was born a mortal but was given immortality as the constellation Ophiuchus after his death. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The site of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Turkey. ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 323 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 2600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 323 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1400 × 2600 pixel, file size: 1. ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ... A thymiaterion is a type of censer or incense burner, formerly used in the Mediterranean region for spiritual and religious purposes and especially in religious ceremonies. ... 68. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The category life-death-rebirth deity also known as a dying-and-rising god is a convenient means of classifying the many divinities in world mythology who are born, suffer death or an eclipse or other death-like experience, pass a phase in the underworld among the dead, and are... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ... Castration (also referred as: gelding, neutering, orchiectomy, orchidectomy, and oophorectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a male loses the functions of the testes or a female loses the functions of the ovaries. ... In antiquity, Phrygia (Greek: ) was a kingdom in the west central part of the Anatolian Highland, part of modern Turkey. ... Pessinus was the city in Asia Minor (presently Anatolia, the Asian part of Turkey) on the upper course of the river Sangarios (modern day Sakarya River), 120 km SW of Ankara, from which the mythological King Midas is said to have ruled a greater Phrygian realm. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The story of his origins from Agdistis, as told to the traveller Pausanias, have some distinctly non-Greek elements: Pausanias was told that the daemon Agdistis initially bore both male and female attributes. But the Olympian gods, fearing Agdistis, cut off the male organ and cast it away. There grew up from it an almond-tree, and when its fruit was ripe, Nana who was a daughter of the river Sangarios picked the fruit and laid it in her bosom. It at once disappeared, but she was with child. In time her son was born and exposed on the hillside, but the infant was tended by a he-goat. As Attis grew, his long-haired beauty was godlike, and Agdistis as Cybele, then fell in love with him. But the foster parents of Attis sent him to Pessinos, where he was to wed the king's daughter. According to some versions the King of Pessinos was Midas. Just as the marriage-song was being sung, Agdistis/Cybele appeared in her transcendent power, and Attis went mad and cut off his genitals. Attis' father-in-law-to-be, the king who was giving his daughter in marriage, followed suit, prefiguring the self-castrating corybantes who devoted themselves to Cybele. But Agdistis repented and saw to it that the body of Attis should neither rot at all nor decay. (Pausanias, Greece, 7.19) In Greek mythology heavily influenced by cultures from the East, Cybele was a goddess pursued by Zeus who raped her after she disguised herself as a rock called Agdistis. ... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ... The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... According to Greek mythology, Nana was a nymph of Sangarius, a river located in present-day Turkey. ... The Sakarya (Greek Σαγγάριος, Latinized as Sangarius) is a river in Asia Minor. ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... The Korybantes, called the Kurbantes in (Phrygia), are the crested dancers who worship the Phrygian goddess Cybele with drumming and dancing. ...


Attis was reborn as the evergreen pine. At the temple of Cybele/Rhea in Pessinos, the mother of the gods was still called Agdistis, the geographer Strabo recounted. (Geography, 12.5.3) The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ...

Sculpture of Attis. Museum of Ephesus, Efes, Turkey.
Sculpture of Attis. Museum of Ephesus, Efes, Turkey.

As neighboring Lydia came to control Phrygia, the cult of Attis was given a Lydian context too. Attis is said to have introduced to Lydia the cult of the Mother Goddess Cybele, incurring the jealousy of Zeus, who sent a boar to destroy the Lydian crops. Then certain Lydians, with Attis himself, were killed by the boar. Pausanias adds, to corroborate this story, that the Gauls who inhabited Pessinos abstained from pork. This myth element may have been invented solely to explain the unusual dietary laws of the Lydian Gauls. In Rome, the eunuch followers of Cybele were known as Galli, or "Gauls." (For the Gauls in Anatolia see Galatia.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 422 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1812 pixel, file size: 748 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 422 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1275 × 1812 pixel, file size: 748 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Taboo food and drink. ... Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


As the orgiastic cult of Cybele spread from Anatolia to Greece and eventually to Rome in the time of Claudius, the cult of Attis, her reborn eunuch consort, accompanied her. The first literary reference to Attis is the subject of one of the most famous poems by Catullus.[2] but it appears that the cult of Attis at Rome was not attached to the earlier-establish cult of Cybele until the early Empire.[3] The much later Imperial Roman calendar given in the Fasti Philocali was set thus: March 15 - Canna Intrat (procession of the reed-bearers and syrinx-blowers); March 22 - Arbor Intrat [equinox]- (entrance of the sacred pine tree; burial of Attis in effigy strapped to a stake); March 24 - Sanguis (day of mourning, sacrifice, and bloodletting); March 25 - Hilaria (day of Attis' resurrection); March 27 - Lavatio (day of ablution). Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... For other persons named Claudius, see Claudius (disambiguation). ... Fresco from Herculaneum, presumably showing a love couple. ... The Chronography of 354 was an important historical codex, containing a number of individually important documents. ... According to Bulfinchs Mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity. ...


A marble bas-relief of Cybele in her chariot and Attis, from Magna Graecia, is in the archaeological museum, Venice. A finely executed silvery brass Attis that had been ritually consigned to the Mosel was recovered during construction in 1963 and is kept at the Rheinisches Landesmuseum of Trier (see link for illustration). It shows the typically Anatolian costume of the god: trousers fastened together down the front of the legs with toggles and the Phrygian cap. Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Mosel may mean the following: the river Moselle in its German spelling a part of the wine-growing-region Mosel-Saar-Ruwer in Germany Mosel, Iraq This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... A Phrygian cap The Phrygian cap or Bonnet Phrygien is a soft, red, conical cap with the top pulled forward, worn in antiquity by the inhabitants of Phrygia, a region of central Anatolia. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Compare Semele and Endymion, Aphrodite and Adonis.
  2. ^ Poem LXIII. Grant Showerman, "Was Attis at Rome under the Republic?" Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 31 (1900:46-59)
  3. ^ Lambrechts 1962 takes the position that previously Attis had been a mortal follower of Cybele, and that his resurection was a reflection of Christianity in the second century CE. .

Stimula redirects here. ... Endymion may be: Fictional character: Endymion (mythology), Greek shepherd A form of Mamoru Chiba in the Sailor Moon series Titled work: Endymion (poem), by Keats Endymion (Longfellow), poem Endymion, 1996 science fiction novel within Dan Simmonss Hyperion Cantos: Endymion Endymion (Disraeli), 1880 novel Endymion (play), by John Lyly Astronomy... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... Adonis is an archetypal life-death-rebirth deity in Greek mythology, and a central cult figure in various mystery religions. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is...

External links

  • Attis
  • Brass Roman statuette of Attis, RheinischesLandesmuseum, Trier

Literature:

  • P. Lambrechts , Attis: Van Herdersknaap tot God (Brussels:Vlaamse Akademie) 1962. (French summary) Reviewed by J.A.North in The Journal of Roman Studies 55.1/2 (1965:278-279).
  • E.N. Lane (ed.), Cybele, Attis and Related Cults. Essays in Memory of M.J. Vermaseren (Religions in the Graeco-Roman World 131), Leiden-Köln, 1996.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Chapter 34. The Myth and Ritual of Attis. Frazer, Sir James George. 1922. The Golden Bough (2420 words)
Attis was said to have been a fair young shepherd or herdsman beloved by Cybele, the Mother of the Gods, a great Asiatic goddess of fertility, who had her chief home in Phrygia.
to have sprung from the blood of Attis, as roses and anemones from the blood of Adonis; and the effigy of a young man, doubtless Attis himself, was tied to the middle of the stem.
Some confirmation of this conjecture is furnished by the savage story that the mother of Attis conceived by putting in her bosom a pomegranate sprung from the severed genitals of a man-monster named Agdestis, a sort of double of Attis.
Attis - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (541 words)
Attis, a life-death-rebirth deity, was both the son and the lover of Cybele, her eunuch attendant and driver of her lion-driven chariot; he was driven mad by her and castrated himself.
Attis was originally a local semi-deity of Phrygia, associated with the great Phrygian trading city of Pessinos, which lay under the lee of Mount Agdistis.
Attis is said to have introduced to Lydia the cult of the Mother Goddess Cybele, incurring the jealousy of Zeus, who sent a boar to destroy the Lydian crops.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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