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Encyclopedia > Attila the Hun
Attila the Hun
(King of the Huns), as seen in Chronicon Pictum
Reign 434453
Born 406
Died 453
Predecessor Bleda & Rugila
Successor Ellac
Father Mundzuk

Attila (406453), also known as Attila the Hun or the Scourge of God, was leader of the Huns from 434 until his death. He was leader of the Hunnic Empire which stretched from Germany to the Ural River and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea (see map below). During his rule he was one of the most fearsome of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires' enemies: he invaded the Balkans twice, he marched through Gaul (modern France) as far as Orleans before being defeated at the Battle of Chalons. He refrained from attacking either Constantinople or Rome. Attila is a traditional Magyar and Turkish name. ... See also Northern Chanyu (unnamed chief) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Image File history File links Attila-ChroniconPictum. ... Events Aetius a general in the service of emperor Valentinian III holds power in Rome for twenty years. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... Bleda (Priscus: Βλήδας; Procopius: Βλέδας; c. ... It has been suggested that Ruga be merged into this article or section. ... Ellac took over Hun power immediately after Attilas sudden death. ... Mundzuk was the brother of Rua, the Hunnish King. ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Events Aetius a general in the service of emperor Valentinian III holds power in Rome for twenty years. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... The Ural (Russian: , Kazakh: Жайық, Jayıq or Zhayyq), known as Yaik before 1775, is a river flowing through Russia and Kazakhstan. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about Orléans, France; for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Battle of Chalons (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. In contrast, some histories and Chronicles lionize him as a great and noble king, and he plays major roles in three Norse sagas. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Most often, Chronicles refers to the biblical Books of Chronicles. ... Norseman redirects here; for the town of the same name see Norseman, Western Australia. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...

Contents

Background

Main article: Huns

The origin of the Huns has been the subject of debate for centuries; however it can be said with general agreement that they were a confederation of Central Asian and European tribes, many of them horse nomads. Many experts think they were Turkic people, descended from the Xiongnu tribes that menaced China as early as the 5th century BC. The first emperor of China, Qin Shi Huangdi, built part of the Great Wall to keep the Xiongnu out. For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Central Asia is a region of Asia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... A Xiongnu belt buckle. ... Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇) (November or December 260 BC - September 10, 210 BC), personal name Zheng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First... The Great Wall in the winter The Great Wall of China (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: Wànlǐ Chángchéng; literally The long wall of 10,000 Li (里)¹) is a Chinese fortification built from the 5th century BC until the beginning of the 17th century, in order to protect...


Their united power appeared or began to form in Europe in the 400s. They achieved military superiority over their neighbours by their readiness for battle, unusual mobility, and weapons, including the composite bow. A composite bow is a bow made from disparate materials laminated together, usually applied under tension. ...


Shared kingship

The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea - albeit not simultaneously, as the Huns first appeared in Southern Russia and later moved to Central Europe
The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the River Danube to the Baltic Sea - albeit not simultaneously, as the Huns first appeared in Southern Russia and later moved to Central Europe

The death of Rugila (also known as Rua or Ruga) in 434 left his nephews Attila Dragomer and Bleda (the sons of his brother Mundzuk) in control over all the united Hun tribes. At the time of their accession, the Huns were bargaining with Byzantine emperor Theodosius II's envoys over the return of several renegades (possibly Hunnic nobles not in agreement with the brothers' leadership) who had taken refuge within the Byzantine Empire. The following year Attila and Bleda met with the imperial legation at Margus (present-day Požarevac) and, all seated on horseback in the Hunnic manner, negotiated a successful treaty: the Romans agreed not only to return the fugitives, but also to double their previous tribute of 350 Roman pounds (ca. 114.5 kg) of gold, open their markets to Hunnish traders, and pay a ransom of eight solidi for each Roman taken prisoner by the Huns. The Huns, satisfied with the treaty, decamped from the empire and returned to their home in the Hungarian Great Plain, perhaps to consolidate and strengthen their empire. Theodosius used this opportunity to strengthen the walls of Constantinople, building the city's first sea wall, and to build up his border defences along the Danube. I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... I, the creator of this image, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Hunnic Empire stretched from the steppes of Central Asia into modern Germany, and from the Black Sea to the Baltic Sea Hunnic Empire, the empire of the Huns. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... It has been suggested that Ruga be merged into this article or section. ... Events Aetius a general in the service of emperor Valentinian III holds power in Rome for twenty years. ... Mundzuk was the brother of Rua, the Hunnish King. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Theodosius II Flavius Theodosius II (April, 401 - July 28, 450 ). The eldest son of Eudoxia and Arcadius who at the age of 7 became the Roman Emperor of the East. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Požarevac. ... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely states and international organizations. ... Julian solidus, ca. ... Map showing Constantinople and its walls during the Byzantine era The Walls of Constantinople are a series of stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire by Constantine the Great. ... A seawall is a form of hard coastal defense that are constructed on the inland part of a coast to reduce the effects of strong waves, typically to defend the coast around a town or harbour from erosion. ... This article is about the Danube River. ...


Huns remained out of Roman sight for the next few years as a Hunnic force invaded the Persian Empire. A defeat in Armenia by the Sassanid Persians caused them to abandon this attempt and return their attentions to Europe. In 440 they reappeared in force on the borders of the Roman Empire, attacking the merchants at the market on the north bank of the Danube that had been established by the treaty. Crossing the Danube they laid waste to Illyrian cities and forts on the river, among them, according to Priscus, Viminacium, which was a city of the Moesians in Illyria. Their advance began at Margus, for when the Romans discussed handing over the offending bishop, he slipped away secretly to the Huns and betrayed the city to them. Persia redirects here. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... The Persians of Iran (officially named Persia by West until 1935 while still referred to as Persia by some) are an Iranian people who speak Persian (locally named Fârsi by native speakers) and often refer to themselves as ethnic Iranians as well. ... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... This article is about the ancient region in the south of Europe. ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). ... Viminacium was the capital of the Roman province of Moesia. ... In ancient geography, Moesia was a district inhabited chiefly by Thracian peoples. ...


As Theodosius had conquered the river's defences, the Vandals, under the leadership of Geiseric, captured the Western Roman province of Africa with its capital of Carthage in 440 and the Sassanid Yazdegerd II invaded Armenia in 441. Stripping the Balkan defenses of forces requested by the West Romans, in order to launch an attack on the Vandals in Africa (which was the richest province of the Western empire and a main source of the food supply of Rome, left Attila and Bleda a clear path through Illyria into the Balkans, which they invaded in 441. The Hunnish army, having sacked Margus and Viminacium, took Singidunum (modern Belgrade) and Sirmium before halting. A lull followed in 442 and during this time Theodosius recalled his troops from Sicily and ordered a large new issue of coins to finance operations against the Huns. Having made these preparations, he thought it safe to refuse the Hunnish kings' demands. Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Events September 29 - Leo succeeds Sixtus as Pope. ... The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty (Persian: []) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian Empire (226–651). ... A coin of Yazdegerd II. Yazdegerd II, (made by God, Izdegerdes), King of Persia, was the son of Bahram V of Persia (421–438) and reigned from 438 to 457. ... Events The Huns invade the Balkans. ... Events The Huns invade the Balkans. ... Singidunum was an ancient Roman city, first settled by the Scordisci in the 3rd century B.C., and later garrisoned and fortified by the Romans who romanized the name. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Ruins of Sirmium Julian solidus, ca. ... Events The Romans conclude a treaty with Geiseric, acknowledging the conquests of the Vandal nation in North Africa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


Attila responded by their campaign in 443. Striking along the Danube, they overran the military centres of Ratiara and successfully besieged Naissus (modern Niš) with battering rams and rolling towers — military sophistication that was new to the Hun repertoire — then pushing along the Nisava they took Serdica (Sofia), Philippopolis (Plovdiv), and Arcadiopolis. They encountered and destroyed the Roman army outside Constantinople and were stopped by the double walls of the Eastern capital. A second army was defeated near Callipolis (modern Gallipoli) and Theodosius, now without any armed forces to respond, admitting defeat, sent the court official Anatolius to negotiate peace terms, which were harsher than the previous treaty: the Emperor agreed to hand over 6,000 Roman pounds (ca. 1,963 kg) of gold as punishment for having disobeyed the terms of the treaty during the invasion; the yearly tribute was tripled, rising to 2,100 Roman pounds (ca. 687 kg) in gold; and the ransom for each Roman prisoner rose to 12 solidi. In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Events The Burgundians create a kingdom on the banks of the Rhone Attila destroys Naissus. ... Nis redirects here. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ... The gorge of NiÅ¡ava in the east of Serbia NiÅ¡ava (Нишава in Cyrillic) is a river in Serbia and Bulgaria and a right tributary of South Morava. ... This article is about the capital of Bulgaria. ... Plovdiv (Bulgarian: ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria after Sofia, with a population of 343,662. ... Lüleburgaz is a city in the Kırklareli Province in Turkey. ...


Their demands met for a time, the Hun kings withdrew into the interior of their empire. According to Jordanes (following Priscus), sometime during the peace following the Huns' withdrawal from Byzantium (probably around 445), Bleda died (killed by his brother, according to the classical sources), and Attila took the throne for himself.[1] Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). ... Events Attila murders his brother and co-king Bleda. ...


The Huns gave the name to Hungary and Atilla, their fierce, bloodthirsty leader, was known as "The Scourge of God". Atilla means "little daddy" in their tongue.


Sole ruler

Mór Than's painting The Feast of Attila, based on a fragment of Priscus (depicted at right, dressed in white and holding his history): "When evening began to draw in, torches were lighted, and two barbarians came forward in front of Attila and sang songs which they had composed, hymning his victories and his great deeds in war. And the banqueters gazed at them, and some were rejoiced at the songs, others became excited at heart when they remembered the wars, but others broke into tears—those whose bodies were weakened by time and whose spirit was compelled to be at rest.
Mór Than's painting The Feast of Attila, based on a fragment of Priscus (depicted at right, dressed in white and holding his history):
"When evening began to draw in, torches were lighted, and two barbarians came forward in front of Attila and sang songs which they had composed, hymning his victories and his great deeds in war. And the banqueters gazed at them, and some were rejoiced at the songs, others became excited at heart when they remembered the wars, but others broke into tears—those whose bodies were weakened by time and whose spirit was compelled to be at rest.

In 447 Attila again rode south into the empire through Moesia.The Roman army under the Gothic magister militum Arnegisclus met him on the River Vid and was defeated, though not without inflicting heavy losses. The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae. Constantinople itself was saved by the intervention of the prefect Flavius Constantinus who organized the reconstruction of the walls that had been previously damaged by earthquakes, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old. An account of this invasion survives: Download high resolution version (999x680, 128 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (999x680, 128 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Mór Than was a Hungarian painter (1828–1899). ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). ... Events Synod of Toledo: The filioque clause is added to the Nicene Creed Merovech becomes king of the Franks Battle of the Utus: Attila the Hun meets the Eastern Romans in an indecisive battle. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Soldiers of the Roman Army (on manoeuvres in Nashville, Tennessee) Rome was a militarized state whose history was often closely entwined with its military history over the 1228 years that the Roman state is traditionally said to have existed. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Vid is a Slavic toponym used for: Vit, a river in Bulgaria Vid, a small settlement and archeological site on the border of Croatia and Herzegovina This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the clipper ship, see Thermopylae (clipper). ...

The barbarian nation of the Huns, which was in Thrace, became so great that more than a hundred cities were captured and Constantinople almost came into danger and most men fled from it. … And there were so many murders and blood-lettings that the dead could not be numbered. Ay, for they took captive the churches and monasteries and slew the monks and maidens in great numbers.
— Callinicus, in his Life of Saint Hypatius

Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... This article is about the Christian buildings of worship. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ...

Attila in the west

In 450 Attila had proclaimed his intent to attack the powerful Visigoth kingdom of Toulouse, making an alliance with Emperor Valentinian III in order to do so. He had previously been on good terms with the Western Roman Empire and its de facto ruler Flavius Aëtius. Aëtius had spent a brief exile among the Huns in 433, and the troops Attila provided against the Goths and Bagaudae had helped earn him the largely honorary title of magister militum in the west. The gifts and diplomatic efforts of Geiseric, who opposed and feared the Visigoths, may also have influenced Attila's plans. Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... Migrations The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... New city flag (Occitan cross) Traditional coat of arms Motto: (Occitan: For Toulouse, always more) Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Midi-Pyrénées Department Haute-Garonne (31) Intercommunality Community of Agglomeration of Greater Toulouse Mayor Jean-Luc Moudenc  (UMP) (since 2004) City Statistics Land... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Bagaudae (also spelled Bacaudae) was the name for groups of peasant insurgents during the Crisis of the Third Century, particularly in Gaul. ... Geiseric the Lame (circa 389 – January 25, 477), also spelled as Gaiseric or Genseric the Lame, was the King of the Vandals and Alans (428–477) and was one of the key players in the troubles of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century. ...


However Valentinian's sister was Honoria, who, in order to escape her forced betrothal to a Roman senator, had sent the Hunnish king a plea for help — and her engagement ring — in the spring of 450. Though Honoria may not have intended a proposal of marriage, Attila chose to interpret her message as such. He accepted, asking for half of the western Empire as dowry. When Valentinian discovered the plan, only the influence of his mother Galla Placidia convinced him to exile, rather than kill, Honoria. He also wrote to Attila strenuously denying the legitimacy of the supposed marriage proposal. Attila, not convinced, sent an emissary to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his. Honoria crowned Augusta by the hand of God. ... The Roman Senate (Latin: Senatus) was the main governing council of both the Roman Republic, which started in 509 BC, and the Roman Empire. ... A yellow gold wedding ring and a single-diamond, gold-banded engagement ring. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage. ... Portrait of Galla Placidia, from her mausoleum in Ravenna. ... Province of Ravenna Ravenna is a city and comune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ...

The general path of the Hun forces in the invasion of Gaul, leading up to the Battle of Chalons.
The general path of the Hun forces in the invasion of Gaul, leading up to the Battle of Chalons.

Attila also interfered in a succession struggle after the death of a Frankish ruler. Attila supported the elder son, while Aëtius supported the younger.[2] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other uses, see Battle of Chalons (disambiguation). ...


Attila gathered his vassalsGepids, Ostrogoths, Rugians, Scirians, Heruls, Thuringians, Alans, Burgundians, among others and began his march west. In 451 he arrived in Belgica with an army exaggerated by Jordanes to half a million strong. J.B. Bury believes that Attila's intent, by the time he marched west, was to extend his kingdom — already the strongest on the continent — across Gaul to the Atlantic Ocean.[3] Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Rugians (Latin rugii) were an East Germanic tribe whose ultimate origins have been traced to Rogaland in Norway, whose population probably was the Rugii that Jordanes mentioned as a tribe that still remained in Scandza. ... Scirians (cf. ... The Heruli (spelled variously in Latin and Greek) were a nomadic Germanic people, who were subjugated by the Ostrogoths and Huns in the 3rd to 5th centuries. ... The Thuringii was a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Belgica was and is the name of two Belgian research vessels, with a name derived ultimately from the Latin Gallia Belgica. ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


On April 7, he captured Metz. Other cities attacked can be determined by the hagiographic vitae written to commemorate their bishops: Nicasius was slaughtered before the altar of his church in Rheims; Servatus is alleged to have saved Tongeren with his prayers, as Saint Genevieve is to have saved Paris.[4] Lupus, bishop of Troyes, is also credited with saving his city by meeting Attila in person.[5] April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Si paix dedans, paix dehors (French: If peace inside, peace outside) Cathedral St. ... Hagiography is the study of saints. ... Vita or VITA can refer to any of a number of things: Vita (Latin for life) can also refer to a brief biography, often that of a saint (i. ... Saint Nicasius of Rheims ( Saint-Nicaise) (d. ... Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Servatus (d. ... Tongeren is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Limburg near Hasselt. ... In Eastern Orthodoxy and Catholicism, Saint Geneviève (Nanterre near Paris, ca 419/422 - Paris 512) is the patron of Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... City flag City coat of arms A street in Troyes. ...


Aëtius moved to oppose Attila, gathering troops from among the Franks, the Burgundians, and the Celts. A mission by Avitus, and Attila's continued westward advance, convinced the Visigoth king Theodoric I (Theodorid) to ally with the Romans. The combined armies reached Orleans ahead of Attila,[6] thus checking and turning back the Hunnish advance. Aëtius gave chase and caught the Huns at a place usually assumed to be near Châlons-en-Champagne. The two armies clashed in the Battle of Chalons, whose outcome is commonly considered to be a victory for the Visigothic-Roman alliance. Theodoric was killed in the fighting and Aëtius failed to press his advantage, according to Edward Gibbon and Edward Creasy because he feared the consequences of an overwhelming Visogothic triumph as much as he did a defeat. From Aëtius' point of view, the best outcome was what occurred: Theodoric died, Attila was in retreat and disarray, and the Romans had the benefit of appearing victorious. This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Diachronic distribution of Celtic peoples:  core Hallstatt territory, by the 6th century BC  maximal Celtic expansion, by the 3rd century BC  the six Celtic nations which retained significant numbers of Celtic speakers into the Early Modern period  areas where Celtic languages remain widely spoken today Celts (pronounced or , see pronunciation... This article is about the Roman Emperor. ... Theodoric I, sometimes called Theodorid and in Spanish Teodorico, was the King of the Visigoths from 419–451. ... This article is about Orléans, France; for other meanings see Orleans (disambiguation). ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... For other uses, see Battle of Chalons (disambiguation). ...


Invasion of Italy and death

Raphael's The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila shows Leo I, with Saint Peter and Saint Paul above him, going to meet Attila
Raphael's The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila shows Leo I, with Saint Peter and Saint Paul above him, going to meet Attila

Attila returned in 452 to claim his marriage to Honoria anew, invading and ravaging Italy along the way. The city of Venice was founded as a result of these attacks when the residents fled to small islands in the Venetian Lagoon. His army sacked numerous cities and razed Aquileia completely, leaving no trace of it behind. Legend has it he built a castle on top of a hill north of Aquileia to watch the city burn, thus founding the town of Udine, where the castle can still be found. Aëtius, who lacked the strength to offer battle, managed to harass and slow Attila's advance with only a shadow force. Attila finally halted at the River Po. By this point disease may have broken out in Attila's camp, thus helping to stop his invasion. Raphaels The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Raphaels The Meeting between Leo the Great and Attila The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Events Attila, king of the Huns, invades Italy Northern Wei Tai Wu Di is succeeded by Northern Wei Nan An Wang, then by Northern Wei Wen Cheng Di as ruler of the Northern Wei Dynasty in China. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholicism Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... The Venetian Lagoon The Venetian Lagoon or the Venetian Riviera is a lagoon off the Adriatic Sea in which the city of Venice is situated. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... Aquileia (Friulian Aquilee, Slovene Oglej) is an ancient Roman town of Italy, at the head of the Adriatic at the edge of the lagoons, about 10 km from the sea, on the river Natiso (modern Natisone), the course of which has changed somewhat since Roman times. ... Udine (Friulian Udin, Slovene Videm) is a city in northeastern Italy, capital of the historical region of Friuli, in the middle of Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche), less than 40 km from the Slovenian border. ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ...


At the wish of Emperor Valentinian III, Pope Leo I, accompanied by the Consul Avienus and the Prefect Trigetius, met Attila at Mincio in the vicinity of Mantua, and obtained from him the promise that he would withdraw from Italy and negotiate peace with the emperor.[7] Prosper of Aquitaine gives a short reliable description of the historic meeting. The later anonymous account,[8] a pious "fable which has been represented by the pencil of Raphael and the chisel of Algardi" (as Gibbon called it) says that the Pope, aided by Saint Peter and Saint Paul, convinced him to turn away from the city, promising Attila that in case he leaves in peace, one of his successor will receive a Holy Crown[9]. Priscus reports that superstitious fear of the fate of Alaric—who died shortly after sacking Rome in 410—gave him pause. Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ... Pope Saint Leo I or Pope Saint Leo the Great was Pope from September 29, 440 to November 10, 461) He was a Roman aristocrat and the first Pope to receive the title the Great. He is perhaps best known for having met Attila the Hun outside Rome near Governolo... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Avienus was a Latin writer of the 4th century. ... A prefect (from the Latin praefectus, perfect participle of praeficere: make in front, i. ... Mincio (IPA: ) is a river in the Lombardy region of northern Italy. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ... Saint Prosper of Aquitaine (c. ... This article is about the Renaissance artist. ... Alessandro Algardi (July 31, 1598 - June 10, 1654), was an Italian sculptor and architect. ... Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... St Peter redirects here. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ...

An illustration of the meeting from the Chronicon Pictum, c. 1360.
An illustration of the meeting from the Chronicon Pictum, c. 1360.

After Attila left Italy and returned to his palace across the Danube, he planned to strike at Constantinople again and reclaim the tribute which Marcian had cut off. (Marcian was the successor of Theodosius and had ceased paying tribute in late 450 while Attila was occupied in the west; multiple invasions by the Huns and others had left the Balkans with little to plunder.) However Attila died in the early months of 453. The conventional account, from Priscus, says that at a feast celebrating his latest marriage to the beautiful and young Ildico (if uncorrupted, the name suggests a Gothic origin)[10] he suffered a severe nosebleed and choked to death in a stupor. An alternative theory is that he succumbed to internal bleeding after heavy drinking or a condition called esophageal varices, where a hemorrhoid in the lower part of the esophagus ruptures leaving the person to choke on his/her own blood. Image File history File links Attila-PopeLeo-ChroniconPictum. ... Image File history File links Attila-PopeLeo-ChroniconPictum. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ... Events August 25 - Marcian proclaimed Eastern Roman Emperor by Aspar and Pulcheria. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... For a 2005 European windstorm, see Gudrun (storm). ... For the plant referred to as nosebleed plant, see Yarrow. ...


Another account of his death, first recorded 80 years after the events by the Roman chronicler Count Marcellinus, reports that "Attila, King of the Huns and ravager of the provinces of Europe, was pierced by the hand and blade of his wife."[11] The Volsunga saga and the Poetic Edda also claim that King Atli (Attila) died at the hands of his wife, Gudrun.[12] Most scholars reject these accounts as no more than hear-say, preferring instead the account given by Attila's contemporary Priscus. Priscus' version, however, has recently come under renewed scrutiny by Michael A. Babcock.[13] Based on detailed philological analysis, Babcock concludes that the account of natural death, given by Priscus, was an ecclesiastical "cover story" and that Emperor Marcian (who ruled the Eastern Roman Empire from 450-457) was the political force behind Attila's death. Marcellinus Comes (fl. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... Gudrun and Sigurd In Norse mythology, Gudrun, who is called Kriemhild in the Nibelungenlied, was the sister of Gunnar. ... Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ...


Jordanes says, "the greatest of all warriors should be mourned with no feminine lamentations and with no tears, but with the blood of men." His horsemen galloped in circles around the silken tent where Attila lay in state, singing in his dirge, according to Cassiodorus and Jordanes, "Who can rate this as death, when none believes it calls for vengeance?" then celebrated a strava (lamentation) over his burial place with great feasting. Legend says that he was laid to rest in a triple coffin made of gold, silver, and iron, along with some of the spoils of his conquests. His men diverted a section of the river Tisza, buried the coffin under the riverbed, and then were killed to keep the exact location a secret. Look up Dirge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cassiodorus at his Vivarium library ( in Codex Amiatinus, 8th century). ... The Tisza or Tisa is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. ...


His sons Ellac (his appointed successor), Dengizich, and Ernakh fought over the division of his legacy, specifically which vassal kings would belong to which brother. As a consequence they were divided, defeated and scattered the following year in the Battle of Nedao by the Ostrogoths and the Gepids under Ardaric. According to Jordanes, Ardaric, who was once Attila's most prized chieftain, turned against the feuding brothers when he felt that they were treating the nations they ruled as slaves. Ellac took over Hun power immediately after Attilas sudden death. ... Son of Attila. ... Ernakh or Ernac (Priscus: Ήρνάχ Hernach) was the 3rd son of Attila. ... The Battle of Nedao, the Nedava, a tributary of the Sava, was a battle fought in Pannonia in 454. ... Ardaric was the most renowned king of the Gepids. ...


Attila's many children and relatives are known by name and some even by deeds, but soon valid genealogical sources all but dry up and there seems to be no verifiable way to trace Attila's descendants. This hasn't stopped many genealogists from attempting to reconstruct a valid line of descent for various medieval rulers. One of the most credible claims has been that of the tsars of Bulgaria (see Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans). A popular, but ultimately unconfirmed attempt tries to relate Attila to Charlemagne (see Attila the Hun to Charlemagne). Descent from antiquity is an ultimate challenge in prosopography and genealogy, the idea of establishing a well-researched, generation by generation descent of living persons from people acting in antiquity. ... The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. ... For other uses, see Charlemagne (disambiguation). ... Many genealogists attempted to reconstruct a valid line of descent from Attila the Hun to Charlemagne but noone succeeded in working out a generally accepted route. ...


Appearance, character, and name

An artist's rendition of Attila, date unknown.
An artist's rendition of Attila, date unknown.

There is no surviving first-person account of Attila's appearance. There is, however, a possible second hand source, provided by Jordanes, who claimed Priscus described Attila as: Attila the Hun Various online sources, for example: http://www. ... Attila the Hun Various online sources, for example: http://www. ... Priscus (left) with the Roman embassy at the court of Attila, holding his ΙΣΤΟΡΙΑ (History, which the painter has incorrectly spelled ΙΣΤΩΡΙΑ). ...

short of stature, with a broad chest and a large head; his eyes were small, his beard thin and sprinkled with grey; and he had a flat nose and tanned skin, showing evidence of his origin.

Attila from an illustration to the Poetic Edda.
Attila from an illustration to the Poetic Edda.

Attila is known in Western history and tradition as the grim flagellum dei (Latin: "Scourge of God"), and his name has become a byword for cruelty and barbarism. Some of this may have arisen from confusion between him and later steppe warlords such as Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. All are considered to be cruel, clever, and blood-thirsty lovers of battle and pillage. The reality of his character is probably more complex. The Huns of Attila's era had been mingling with Roman civilisation for some time, largely through the Germanic foederati of the border, so that by the time of Theodosius's embassy in 448 Priscus could identify two primary languages among the Huns, Gothic and Hunnic, with some people knowing Latin and Greek. Priscus also recounts his meeting with an eastern Roman captive who had so fully assimilated into the Huns' way of life that he had no desire to return to his former country, and the Byzantine historian's description of Attila's humility and simplicity is unambiguous in its admiration. Image File history File links Attila the Hun, also known as Atli, in an illustration to the Poetic Edda. ... Image File history File links Attila the Hun, also known as Atli, in an illustration to the Poetic Edda. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... For other uses, see Barbarian (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... This article is about the person. ... For the similar-sounding word Timor, see Timor (disambiguation). ... Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... The Hunnic language is an extinct language of the Huns. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single natural language in the Indo-European language family. ... Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ...


According to Jacques Le Goff, the women of Attila's time were fascinated by him and often fantasised about him, thus Attila became something of a 5th century "sex symbol." [14] A French medievalist, representative of the Annales School of historiography. ...


The origin of Attila's name is not known with confidence, because very little is known about Hunnic names. In the Hunnic language Danube-Bulgarian, the etymology "oceanic (universal) [ruler]" has been proposed.[15] Others believe that the name may be Gothic (or Gepid), from the word atta ("father") and the diminutive suffix -ila.[16] Attila was not a rare name in Central Europe prior to Attila making his mark on history; the historical record shows numerous persons with the name preceding him. 'Attila' has many variants: Atli and Atle in Norse, Ætla, Attle and Atlee in English, Attila/Atilla/Etele in Hungarian (all the three name variants are used in Hungary; Attila is the most popular variant), Etzel in modern German or Attila, Atila or Atilla in modern Turkish. Also the word possibly originates from Turkic Atyl/Atal/Atil (ancient name of Volga river) with adjective suffix -ly. (Compare also Turkic medieval notable title atalyk - "senior as father").[17][18][19]
The Gepids (Latin Gepidae) were a Germanic tribe most famous in history for defeating the Huns after the death of Attila. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... “Volga” redirects here. ...


Fictional representations

Attila has been portrayed in various ways, sometimes as a noble ruler, sometimes as a cruel barbarian.

  • In the German epic Nibelungenlied Etzel is portrayed as a noble and generous ally, while Atli in the Volsunga Saga and the Poetic Edda (and Ætla in Widsith) is a cruel miser.
  • In The Divine Comedy, Attila appears in the seventh circle of Hell, immersed in a river of boiling blood, and is called "the scourge of Earth". Dante also charges him with the destruction of Florence, but this is a blunder by the author, who has confused him with the Ostrogothic warlord Totila.
  • Giuseppe Verdi made him the title character of an opera.
  • Hungarian Géza Gárdonyi's novel A láthatatlan ember (1901) (published in English as Slave of the Huns and largely based on Priscus) offered a sympathetic portrait of Attila as a wise and beloved leader. This reflects the positive way in which Attila, his last wife Ildikó and his brother Bleda are viewed in Hungary and Turkey.
  • The novel The White Stag, the Newbery Medal winning book of 1938, is a retelling of the legend of the rise of Attila the Hun written in lyric prose.
  • Thomas Costain's The Darkness and Dawn (1959) is written from the point of view of Nicolan, carried into slavery from his home on the Danube and after many adventures becoming Attila's aide - but also becoming romantically involved with the beautiful Ildico, which is quite dangerous.
  • The Death of Attila by Cecelia Holland (1973) takes place in 453, with the tensions and uncertainty of Attila's last year being the background for an unlikely friendship between Tacs, a young, ne'er-do-well Hunnish warrior, and Dietric, son of a Germanic subject king.
  • The British writer Anthony Burgess wrote a biographical novella about Attila entitled Hun which was published in the story collection The Devil's Mode (1989).
  • Anthony Quinn played the role of Attila in a film co-starring Sophia Loren as Honoria.
  • Attila was portrayed by Jack Palance in Douglas Sirk's Sign of the Pagan (1954).
  • A TV miniseries, Attila, which was produced in 2000 and was broadcast in 2001 stars Gerard Butler as Attila and Powers Boothe as Flavius Aëtius.
  • He is a powerful and charismatic figure in Bill Napier's ongoing trilogy, Attila (volume one published in 2005, see [2]).
  • The black metal band Dimmu Borgir made a song praising Attila called "Hunnerkongens Sorgsvarte Ferd Over Steppene", "The King of the Huns' Sorrowful Black Journey over the Steppes".
  • Hungarian musician Levente Szörényi (from the band Illés), wrote a rock opera titled Attila, Isten kardja (Attila, Sword of God).
  • The PC game Age of Empires II: The Conquerors Expansion has a single player campaign involving Attila's conquests.
  • Hungarian poet János Arany wrote an epic poem about Attila and his brother Bleda called Buda halála (The Death of King Buda) which is part of a larger work titled A Csaba-trilógia (The Csaba Trilogy).

The Nibelungenlied, translated as The Song of the Nibelungs, is an epic poem in Middle High German. ... Etzel is The common Israeli name for Irgun Tzvai-Leumi, or Irgun, a militant group operating in the British Mandate of Palestine from 1931 to 1948. ... The Ramsund carving in Sweden depicts 1) how Sigurd is sitting naked in front of the fire preparing the dragon heart, from Fafnir, for his foster-father Regin, who is Fafnirs brother. ... The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems primarily preserved in the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... Widsith is an Old English poem of 144 lines. ... For other uses see The Divine Comedy (disambiguation), Dantes Inferno (disambiguation), and The Inferno (disambiguation) Dante shown holding a copy of The Divine Comedy, next to the entrance to Hell, the seven terraces of Mount Purgatory and the city of Florence, with the spheres of Heaven above, in Michelino... DANTE is also a digital audio network. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... Totila, born in Treviso, was king of the Ostrogoths, chosen after the death of his uncle Ildibad, having engineered the assassination of Ildibads short-lived successor his cousin Eraric in 541. ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ... Attila is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on the play Attila, König der Hunnen by Zacharias Werner. ... Géza Gárdonyi (August 3, 1863 – October 30, 1922) was a Hungarian author. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The White Stag is a book by Kate Seredy that won the Newbery Medal for excellence in American childrens literature in 1938 Categories: | ... The John Newbery Medal is a literary award given by the Association for Library Service to Children of the American Library Association (ALA) to the author of the outstanding American book for children. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas B. Costain (1954) Thomas Bertram Costain (May 8, 1885 - October 8, 1965) was a Canadian journalist who, at the age of 57, became a best-selling author of historical novels. ... Cecelia Anastasia Holland is an American historical novelist. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... Anthony Burgess (February 25, 1917 – November 22, 1993) was a British novelist, critic and composer. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... The Devils Mode (1989) is a collection of short stories by the English author Anthony Burgess. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... For other people named Anthony Quinn see Anthony Quinn (disambiguation) Anthony Quinn (April 21, 1915 – June 3, 2001) was a two-time Academy Award-winning Mexican/American actor, as well as a painter and writer. ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress. ... Jack Palance (February 18, 1919 - November 10, 2006) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Douglas Sirk - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Attila (also known as Attila the Hun in the UK), takes place during the waning days of Roman Empire, the barbarian Huns are making their way toward Europe. ... Gerard James Butler (born November 13, 1969) is a Scottish actor perhaps best known for his portrayal of King Leonidas in 300 and The Phantom in the 2004 film version of The Phantom of the Opera. ... Powers Allen Boothe (born June 1, 1948) is an American television and film actor. ... Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, ( 396–454), was a Roman general of the closing period of the Western Roman Empire. ... Christopher Hart (born 1965) is an English novelist. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... For the geologic feature in Iceland, see Dimmuborgir. ... Illés was a Hungarian rock band, and was one of the biggest groups of the early 1970s rock boom in Hungary. ... The Conquerors is the expansion to the 2000 real-time strategy game Age of Empires II, itself the second installment of the Empires series by Microsoft and Ensemble Studios. ... The poet Arany. ...

Comedic examples

Though not typically associated with light-heartedness, Attila (or his stereotype) has been invoked in a comedic way from time to time:

  • Attila is the protagonist of the Italian comedy movie, Attila, flagello di Dio, directed by Castellano and Pipolo, and staring Diego Abatantuono. This 1982 film has become a cult classic, and is a prime example of Italian cinema trash of the 1980s. It is still very well known among Italy's younger generations.
  • The comic strip character Broom-Hilda is supposedly Attila's ex-wife.
  • Another comic strip, The Wizard of Id, features occasional invasions by The Huns.
  • In Woody Allen's satirical film Love and Death, Diane Keaton's character justifies a plan to assassinate Napoleon based on this alleged quote by Attila: "Violence is justified in the service of mankind".
  • In Will Cuppy's satirical European history book, The Decline and Fall of Practically Everybody, he makes fun of the question of how to pronounce Attila's name: "Attila does not rhyme with vanilla as it used to in my day. It is believed that, if children can be taught to accent Attila on the first syllable, things may take a turn for the better."
  • Episode 20 of Monty Python's Flying Circus is titled "The Attila the Hun Show", featuring Attila and his family as sitcom characters, as well as parody characters Attila the Nun and Attila the Bun.
  • In Shawn Levy's children's film Night at the Museum, a wax mannequin of Attila at the Museum of Natural History, along with everything else in the museum, is brought to life on a nightly basis via an ancient egyptian curse and acts as an enemy though eventually a friend to the protagonist; a museum night-watchman. He is incorrectly depicted in the film as being East Asian. His destructiveness as an adult is attributed to a heartbreaking experience he had as a child.
  • In an episode of the early 1960s sitcom The Dick Van Dyke Show, the character Rob Petrie belts out a ditty called "I'm In Love With Attila the Hun" which he co-wrote with an old army buddy. In a 1967 episode of That Girl entitled "Author, Author", Ann's fiance, the character of Donald Hollinger, sings and claims credit to the exact same tune. The song was also used in an episode of Good Morning World.
  • Margaret Thatcher was widely nicknamed 'Attila the Hen' when she was British Prime Minister
  • Attila shared his name in a TMNT episode Invasion Of The Punk Frogs with one of the frogs Shredder found and trained. He carries a flail.

Diego Abatantuono portrayed on the poster of Il toro (1994), directed by Carlo Mazzacurati. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Broom-Hilda is an American newspaper comic strip created by Russell Myers. ... The Wizard of Id on the cover of an Italian collection of his stories. ... Woody Allen (born Allen Stewart Konigsberg; December 1, 1935) is a three-time Academy Award-winning American film director, writer, actor, jazz musician, comedian and playwright. ... Love and Death is a 1975 comedy by Woody Allen. ... Diane Keaton (née Hall; January 5, 1946) is an Academy Award-winning American film actress, director and producer. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Will Cuppy, born William Jacob Cuppy (August 23, 1884 - September 19, 1949) in Auburn, Indiana, was an American humorist and journalist known for his satirical books about nature and historical figures. ... List of all 45 episodes from the television series Monty Pythons Flying Circus: // (episode 1; aired October 5, 1969; recorded September 7, 1969) Its Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Italian Lesson Whizzo Butter Its the Arts Arthur Two Sheds Jackson Picasso/Cycling Race The Funniest Joke in the World... Monty Python, or The Pythons,[2][3] is the collective name of the creators of Monty Pythons Flying Circus, a British television comedy sketch show that first aired on the BBC on 5 October 1969. ... Shawn Adam Levy (born 1967) is a Canadian director and actor. ... Night at the Museum is a 2006 American adventure comedy film. ... Main Lobby in the Theodore Roosevelt Memorial. ... The Dick Van Dyke Show is an American television situation comedy which initially aired on CBS from October 3, 1961 to June 1, 1966, created by Carl Reiner and starring Dick Van Dyke and Mary Tyler Moore. ... That Girl was an American television situation comedy that ran on ABC from 1966 to 1971. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... In the United Kingdom, the Prime Minister is the head of government, exercising many of the executive functions nominally vested in the Sovereign, who is head of state. ... Michaelangelo toy The Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (TMNT), created by Kevin Eastman and Peter Laird in 1984, debuted in the world of American comics. ... A flail is an agricultural tool used for threshing, separating grains from their husks, or a similarly constructed weapon or punishing implement. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Priscus of Panium: fragments from the Embassy to Attila
  2. ^ The location and identity of these kings is not known and subject to conjecture.
  3. ^ J.B. Bury, The Invasion of Europe by the Barbarians, lecture IX (e-text)
  4. ^ The vitae are summarized in Thomas Hodgkin, Italy and Her Invaders (New York: Russell & Russell, 1967 reprint of the original 1880–89 edition), volume II pp. 128ff.
  5. ^ http://www.catholic.org/saints/saint.php?saint_id=712
  6. ^ Later accounts of the battle site the Huns either already within the city or in the midst of storming it when the Roman-Visigoth army arrived; Jordanes mentions no such thing. See Bury, ibid.
  7. ^ "Pope St. Leo I (the Great)" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  8. ^ Medieval Sourcebook, Leo I and Attila, [1]
  9. ^ Chronicon Pictum
  10. ^ Thompson, The Huns, p. 164.
  11. ^ Marcellinus Comes, Chronicon (e-text), quoted in Hector Munro Chadwick: The Heroic Age (London, Cambridge University Press, 1926), p. 39 n. 1.
  12. ^ Volsunga Saga, Chapter 39; Poetic Edda, Atlamol En Grönlenzku, The Greenland Ballad of Atli
  13. ^ Babcock, Michael A. The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun, Berkley Books, 2005 ISBN 0-425-20272-0
  14. ^ Jacques Le Goff, Medieval Civilisation, 400-1500. (orig. pub. 1964), p. 22.
  15. ^ Omeljan Pritsak (1982), "Hunnic names of the Attila clan", Harvard Ukrainian Studies VI: p. 444, <http://www.huri.harvard.edu/pdf/hus_volumes/vVI_n4_dec1982.pdf> 
  16. ^ Maenchen-Helfen, Otto (1973). "Chapter 9.4", The World of the Huns. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0520015968. 
  17. ^ "Europe: The Origins of the Huns", by Kessler Associate, based on conversations with Kemal Cemal, Turkey, 2002
  18. ^ The World of the Huns. Chapter IX. Language - O. Maenchen-Helfen
  19. ^ Gene Expression

John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ... A French medievalist, representative of the Annales School of historiography. ... Omeljan Pritsak (b. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...

References

Primary sources

  • Priscus: Byzantine History, available in the original Greek in Ludwig Dindorf : Historici Graeci Minores (Leipzig, Teubner, 1870) and available online as a translation by J.B. Bury: Priscus at the court of Attila
  • Jordanes: The Origin and Deeds of the Goths

The covers of Bibliotheca Teubneriana Greek texts through the years: Philodemi De ira liber, ed. ... John Bagnell Bury (16 October 1861 – 1 June 1927) was an eminent British historian, classical scholar, and philologist. ...

Literature

  • Babcock, Michael A. (2005) The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun (Berkley Publishing Group, ISBN 0-425-20272-0)
  • Blockley, R.C. (1983) The Fragmentary Classicising Historians of the Later Roman Empire, vol. II (ISBN 0-905205-15-4). This is a collection of fragments from Priscus, Olympiodorus, and others, with original text and translation.
  • Gordon, C. D. (1960) The Age of Attila: Fifth-century Byzantium and the Barbarians (Ann Arbor, University of Michigan Press, ISBN 0472061119). This is a translated collection, with commentary and annotation, of ancient writings on the subject, including Priscus.
  • Heather, Peter (2005) The Fall of the Roman Empire—A New History of Rome and the Barbarians (Oxford University Press, ISBN 0195159543)
  • Howarth, Patrick (1994) Attila, King of the Huns: The Man and the Myth (ISBN 0786709308).
  • Maenchen-Helfen, J. Otto (1973) The World of the Huns: Studies in Their History and Culture (Berkeley, University of California Press, ISBN 0520015967)
  • Man, John (2005) Attila: A Barbarian King and the Fall of Rome (Bantam Press, ISBN 0-593-05291-9)
  • Thompson, E. A. (1948) A History of Attila and the Huns (London, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0837176409). This is the authoritative English work on the subject. It was reprinted in 1999 as The Huns in the Peoples of Europe series (ISBN 0-631-21443-7). Thompson did not enter controversies over Hunnic origins and considers his victories to have been achieved only when there was no concerted opposition.

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Historical Fiction based on Attila the Hun

  • Napier, William, The Attila Trilogy:
    • Attila (Orion Books Ltd, 2005) ISBN 0-7528-7787-9)
    • The Gathering of the Storm (Orion Books Ltd, 2007) ISBN 978-0-75287-433-3)
    • Date of publishing of the third book in the trilogy unknown.
Preceded by
Rugila
Hunnic rulers
jointly with Bleda
434 – 445
Succeeded by
Ellac

Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... It has been suggested that Ruga be merged into this article or section. ... See also Northern Chanyu (unnamed chief) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Bleda (Priscus: Βλήδας; Procopius: Βλέδας; c. ... Ellac took over Hun power immediately after Attilas sudden death. ...

Musical References

  • The black metal band Dimmu Borgir made a song praising Attila called "Hunnerkongens Sorgsvarte Ferd Over Steppene", "The King of the Huns' Sorrowful Black Journey over the Steppes".
Persondata
NAME Attila the Hun
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Scourge of God
SHORT DESCRIPTION Khan of the Huns from 434 until his death
DATE OF BIRTH 406
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH 453
PLACE OF DEATH

Heavy metals, in chemistry, are chemical elements of a particular range of atomic weights. ... Iced Earth is an American heavy metal band that combine influences from thrash metal, power metal, progressive metal, opera, speed metal and NWOBHM. In 1999 their leader and songwriter Jon Schaffer teamed up with Blind Guardian vocalist Hansi Kürsch to form a side project called Demons & Wizards. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Glorious Burden is an album by the American Heavy Metal band Iced Earth. ... This article is about the musical genre. ... For the geologic feature in Iceland, see Dimmuborgir. ... This article is about the title. ... Many historians consider the Huns (meaning person in Mongolian language) the first Mongolian and Turkic people mentioned in European history. ... Events Aetius a general in the service of emperor Valentinian III holds power in Rome for twenty years. ... Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... For other uses, see 453 (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Royalty.nu - The Hun Empire - Attila the Hun (2109 words)
Attila, King of the Huns: The Man and the Myth by Patrick Howarth.
The Night Attila Died: Solving the Murder of Attila the Hun by Michael A. Babcock.
Attila the Hun and the Battle of Chalons
Attila the Hun - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4209 words)
Attila and Bleda threatened further war, claiming that the Romans had failed to fulfill their treaty obligations and that the bishop of Margus (not far from modern Belgrade) had crossed the Danube to ransack and desecrate the royal Hun graves on the Danube's north bank.
The Huns were left unopposed and rampaged through the Balkans as far as Thermopylae; Constantinople itself was saved by the intervention of the prefect Flavius Constantinus, who organized the citizenry to reconstruct the earthquake-damaged walls, and, in some places, to construct a new line of fortification in front of the old.
Attila, not convinced, sent an embassy to Ravenna to proclaim that Honoria was innocent, that the proposal had been legitimate, and that he would come to claim what was rightfully his.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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