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Encyclopedia > Attic numerals
Numeral systems by culture
Hindu-Arabic numerals
Western Arabic
Eastern Arabic
Indian family
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Chinese counting rods
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Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodian. They are also known as acrophonic numerals because all of the symbols used (except for 1) derive from the first letters of the words that the symbols represent: 'five', 'ten', 'hundred', 'thousand' and 'ten thousand'. See Greek numerals and acrophony. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols, or a word in a natural language that represents a number. ... The Hindu-Arabic numeral system (also called Algorism) is a positional decimal numeral system documented from the 9th century. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... The counting rods (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: chou2) were used by ancient Chinese before the invention of the abacus. ... The Abjad numerals are a decimal numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Hindu-Arabic numerals from the 8th century, and in parallel with the latter until Modern times. ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... The Sanskrit alphabetic numerals were created in about A.D. 510 by Āryabhaa. ... The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. ... During the beginning of the Urnfield culture, around 1200 BC, a series of votive sickles of bronze with marks that have been interpreted as a numeral system, appeared in Central Europe. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... Mayan numerals. ... This is a list of numeral system topics, by Wikipedia page. ... A positional notation or place-value notation system is a numeral system in which each position is related to the next by a constant multiplier, a common ratio, called the base or radix of that numeral system. ... The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... The decimal (base ten or occasionally denary) numeral system has ten as its base. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F, or a–f. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... It has been suggested that Radix-64 be merged into this article or section. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... The Temple to Athena, the Parthenon Ancient Greece is a period in Greek history that lasted for around three thousand years. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Aelius Herodianus (c. ... Greek numerals are a system of representing numbers using letters of the Greek alphabet. ... In an acrophonic alphabet the initial (Greek: acro) sound (phonos) of a word gives the name to the whole. ...

Decimal Symbol Greek numeral
1 Ι --
5 Π πεντε ("pente")
10 Δ δέκα ("deka")
100 Η ἑκατόν ("hekaton")
1000 Χ χίλιοι ("khilioi")
10000 Μ μυριάς ("myrias")

The use of Η for 100 reflects the early date of this numbering system: Η (Eta) in the early Attic alphabet represented the sound /h/. In later, "classical" Greek, with the adoption of the Ionic alphabet throughout the majority of Greece, the letter eta had come to represent the long e sound while the rough aspiration was no longer marked.[1][2] It wasn't until Aristophanes of Byzantium introduced the various accent markings during the Hellenistic period that the spiritus asper began to represent /h/. Thus the word for a hundred would originally have been written ΗEΚΑΤΟΝ, as compared to the now more familiar spelling ἑκατόν. In modern Greek, the /h/ phoneme has disappeared altogether, but this has had no effect on the basic spelling. Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 10 (ten) is an even natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... Look up one thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up Η, η in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Aristophanes of Byzantium, Gr. ... The spiritus asper (rough breathing) or dasy pneuma (Greek: dasu, δασύ) is a diacritical mark used in Greek. ...

Unlike the more familiar Modern Roman numeral system, the Attic system contains only additive forms. Thus, the number 4 is written ΙΙΙΙ, like the ancient Roman system, rather than the medieval and modern Roman style IV. The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...

In addition, numerals representing 50, 500, 5,000 and 50,000 were composites of the old pi (with a short right leg) and a tiny version of the applicable power of ten. Thus, pi and delta combined into one symbol represented 50, pi and eta represented 500, and so on.

See also

Numerals (often called numbers in Unicode) are characters that denote a number. ...

External links

  • Herbert Weir Smyth, Greek Grammar, section 348a, on Greek acrophonic numerals

Notes and references

  1. ^ See A.G. Woodhead "The Study of Greek Inscriptions, Second Edition" p.18: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23188-X.
  2. ^ See Herbert Weir Smyth "Greek Grammar, Revised Edition" p.10 (§14): Harvard University Press. ISBN 0674362500.

  Results from FactBites:
Wikipedia search result (3587 words)
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century).
In chemistry, Roman numerals were used to denote the group in the periodic table of the elements.
Since the French use capital Roman numerals to refer to the quarters of the year ('III' is the third quarter), and this has become the norm in some European standards organisation, the mixed Roman-Arabic method of recording the date has switched to lowercase Roman numerals in many circles, as '4-viii-1961'.
Decimal - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (1484 words)
It is the most widely used numeral system, perhaps because a human usually has four fingers and a thumb on each hand, giving a total of ten digits on both hands.
Decimal notation is the writing of numbers in the base-ten numeral system, which uses various symbols (called digits) for ten distinct values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9) to represent numbers.
The symbols for the digits in common use around the globe today are called Arabic numerals by Europeans and Indian numerals by Arabs, the two groups' terms both referring to the culture from which they learned the system.
  More results at FactBites »



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