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Encyclopedia > Attention
Psychology
Cognitive psychology
Perception
Visual perception
Object recognition
Face recognition
Pattern recognition
Attention
Attention
Memory
Aging and memory
Emotional memory
Learning
Long-term memory
Language
Language
Thinking
Concepts
Reasoning
Decision making
Problem solving

Attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on one aspect of the environment while ignoring other things. Examples include listening carefully to what someone is saying while ignoring other conversations in a room (the cocktail party effect) or listening to a cell phone conversation while driving a car.[1] Sometimes attention shifts to matters unrelated to the external environment, a phenomenon referred to as mind-wandering or "spontaneous thought". Attention is one of the most intensely studied topics within psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Look up attention in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... Image File history File links Human_brain_NIH.jpg NIH image of human brain Source: http://lbc. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... In psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret visible light information reaching the eyes which is then made available for planning and action. ... Computer vision is the study of methods which allow computers to understand images, or multidimensional data in general. ... Face perception is the process by which the brain and mind understand and interpret the face, particularly the human face. ... Pattern recognition is a field within the area of machine learning. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... One of the key concerns of older adults is experiencing memory loss, especially as it is one of the hallmark symptoms of Alzheimers Disease. ... Emotional memory is an element of the Stanislavski System, an approach to acting. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... Long-term memory (LTM) is memory, stored as meaning, that can last as little as 30 seconds or as long as decades. ... Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ... A concept is an abstract, universal psychical entity that serves to designate a category or class of entities, events or relations. ... Reasoning is the mental (cognitive) process of looking for reasons to support beliefs, conclusions, actions or feelings. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... The term cognition is used in several different loosely related ways. ... The cocktail party effect describes the ability to focus ones listening attention on a single talker among a mixture of conversations and background noises, ignoring other conversations[1]. This effect reveals one of the surprising abilities of our auditory system, which enables us to talk in a noisy place. ... See also daydreaming and attention. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ...


William James, in his monumental Principles of Psychology (1890), remarked: This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The Principles of Psychology is a monumental text in the history of psychology, written by William James and published in 1890. ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ...

"Everyone knows what attention is. It is the taking possession by the mind, in clear and vivid form, of one out of what seem several simultaneously possible objects or trains of thought. Focalization, concentration, of consciousness are of its essence. It implies withdrawal from some things in order to deal effectively with others, and is a condition which has a real opposite in the confused, dazed, scatterbrained state which in French is called distraction, and Zerstreutheit in German."[2]

Contents

History of the study of attention

1850s to 1900s

In James' time, the method more commonly used to study attention was introspection. However, as early as 1858, Franciscus Donders used mental chronometry to study attention and it was considered a major field of intellectual inquiry by such diverse authors as Sigmund Freud, Walter Benjamin, and Max Nordau. One major debate in this period was whether it was possible to attend to two things at once (split attention). Walter Benjamin described this experience as "reception in a state of distraction." This disagreement could only be resolved through experimentation. This article is about the psychological process of introspecting. ... Franciscus Cornelis Donders Franciscus Cornelis Donders (Tilburg, May 27, 1818 - Utrecht, March 24, 1889) was a Dutch ophthalmologist and medical scientist who did pioneering work on animal and vegetable heat, among many other things. ... // Definition and history Psychologists have investigated mental chronometry for over 100 years. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Walter Bendix Schönflies Benjamin (July 15, 1892 – September 27, 1940) was a German Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher. ... Max Simon Nordau (July 29, 1849 - January 23, 1923), born Simon Maximilian Südfeld, Südfeld Simon Miksa in Pest, Hungary, was a Zionist leader, physician, author, and social critic. ...


1950s to present

In the 1950s, research psychologists renewed their interest in attention when the dominant epistemology shifted from positivism (i.e., behaviorism) to realism during what has come to be known as the "cognitive revolution" [3] The cognitive revolution admitted unobservable cognitive processes like attention as legitimate objects of scientific study. A psychologist is an expert in psychology, the systematic investigation of the human body, including behavior, cognition, and affect. ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... The cognitive revolution is a name for an intellectual movement in the 1950s that combined new thinking in psychology, anthropology and linguistics with the nascent fields of computer science and neuroscience. ...


Colin Cherry and Donald Broadbent, among others, performed experiments on dichotic listening. In a typical experiment, subjects would use a set of headphones to listen to two streams of words in different ears and selectively attend to one stream. After the task, the experimenter would question the subjects about the content of the unattended stream.[citation needed] Donald E. Broadbent (Birmingham, 1926-1993) was an influential fucktard British experimental psychologist. ... Dichotic Listening is a procedure used commonly in investigating selective attention in the auditory domain. ... For other uses, see Headphones (disambiguation). ... For an alternative meaning, see ear (botany). ...


During this period, the major debate was between early-selection models and late-selection models. In the early selection models (first proposed by Donald Broadbent and Anne Treisman), attention shuts down or attenuates processing in the unattended ear before the mind can analyze its semantic content. In the late selection models (first proposed by J. Anthony Deutsch and Diana Deutsch), the content in both ears is analyzed semantically, but the words in the unattended ear cannot access consciousness.[citation needed] This debate has still not been resolved.[not specific enough to verify] Donald E. Broadbent (Birmingham, 1926-1993) was an influential fucktard British experimental psychologist. ... Anne Treisman is a psychologist, working currently at Princeton University, Department of Psychology. ... Diana Deutsch Diana Deutsch is a perceptual and cognitive psychologist, born in London, England. ...


Anne Treisman developed the highly influential feature integration theory[4]. According to this model, attention binds different features of an object (e.g., color and shape) into consciously experienced wholes. Although this model has received much criticism, it is still widely accepted or held up with modifications as in Jeremy Wolfe's Guided Search Theory.[5] Anne Treisman is a psychologist, working currently at Princeton University, Department of Psychology. ... The feature integration theory, developed by Treisman and Gelade since the early 1980s has been one of the most influential models of human visual attention until recent years. ...


In the 1960s, Robert Wurtz at the National Institutes of Health began recording electrical signals from the brains of macaques who were trained to perform attentional tasks. These experiments showed for the first time that there was a direct neural correlate of a mental process (namely, enhanced firing in the superior colliculus).[citation needed] National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Ministry of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... The concept of a neural correlate of a mental state is an important concept for materialists, those philosophers who believe that all mental states are equivalent to brain states. ... The superior colliculus is part of the brain that sits below the thalamus and surrounds the pineal gland in the mesencephalon of vertebrate brains. ...


In the 1990s, psychologists began using PET and later fMRI to image the brain in attentive tasks. Because of the highly expensive equipment that was generally only available in hospitals, psychologists sought for cooperation with neurologists. Pioneers of brain imaging studies of selective attention are psychologist Michael I. Posner (then already renown for his seminal work on visual selective attention) and neurologist Marcus Raichle.[citation needed] Their results soon sparked interest from the entire neuroscience community in these psychological studies, which had until then focused on monkey brains. With the development of these technological innovations neuroscientists became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology with these new brain imaging techniques. Although the older technique of EEG had long been to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by cognitive psychophysiologists, the ability of the newer techniques to actually measure precisely localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers. The results of these experiments have shown a broad agreement with the psychological, psychophysiological and monkey literature.[citation needed] Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three-dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is the use of MRI to measure the haemodynamic response related to neural activity in the brain or spinal cord of humans or other animals. ... Michael I. Posner is the editor of numerous cognitive and neuroscience compilations and is an eminent researcher in the field. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Electroencephalography is the neurophysiologic exploration of the electrical activity of the brain by the application of electrodes to the scalp. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Current research

[improper synthesis?]


Attention remains a major area of investigation within education, psychology and neuroscience. Many of the major debates of James' time remain unresolved. For example, although most scientists accept that attention can be split, strong proof has remained elusive. And there is still no widely accepted definition of attention more concrete than that given in the James quote above. This lack of progress has led many observers to speculate that attention refers to many separate processes without a common mechanism. Psychological science redirects here. ... Drawing of the cells in the chicken cerebellum by S. Ramón y Cajal Neuroscience is a field that is devoted to the scientific study of the nervous system. ...


Areas of active investigation involve determining the source of the signals that generate attention, the effects of these signals on the tuning properties of sensory neurons, and the relationship between attention and other cognitive processes like working memory. A relatively new body of research is investigating the phenomenon of traumatic brain injuries and their effects on attention. TBIs are a fairly common occurrence in a significant segment of the population and often result in diminished attention. Neuronal tuning refers to the property of brain cells to selectively represent a particular kind of sensory, motor or cognitive information. ... Neurons (also called nerve cells) are the primary cells of the nervous system. ... Working memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ...

Neuropsychology
 
Topics

Brain-computer interfacesTraumatic Brain Injury
Brain regionsClinical neuropsychology
Cognitive neuroscienceHuman brain
NeuroanatomyNeurophysiology
Phrenology • Common misconceptions
Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... // A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain-machine interface, is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain (or brain cell culture) and an external device. ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI), traumatic injuries to the brain, also called intracranial injury, or simply head injury, occurs when a sudden trauma causes brain damage. ... // medulla oblongata medullary pyramids pons paramedian pontine reticular formation fourth ventricle cerebellum cerebellar vermis cerebellar hemispheres anterior lobe posterior lobe flocculonodular lobe cerebellar nuclei fastigial nucleus globose nucleus emboliform nucleus dentate nucleus tectum inferior colliculi superior colliculi mesencephalic duct (cerebral aqueduct, Aqueduct of Sylvius) cerebral peduncle midbrain tegmentum ventral tegmental... Clinical neuropsychology is a subdiscipline of psychology that specialises in the clinical assessment and treatment of patients with brain injury or neurocognitive deficits. ... The field of cognitive neuroscience concerns the scientific study of the neural mechanisms underlying cognition and is a branch of neuroscience. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... Neurophysiology is a part of physiology as a science, which is concerned with the study of the nervous system. ... Phrenology (from Greek: φρήν, phrēn, mind; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is a theory which claims to be able to determine character, personality traits and criminality on the basis of the shape of the head (i. ... The human brain controls the central nervous system (CNS), by way of the cranial nerves and spinal cord, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and regulates virtually all human activity. ...

Brain functions

arousalattention
consciousnessdecision making
executive functionslanguage
learningmemory
motor coordinationsensory perception
planningproblem solving
thought
Visual system Auditory system Olfactory system Gustatory system Somatosensory system Visual perception Motor cortex Brocas area (aka Language Area) Lateralization of brain function Phrenology Cybernetics Connectionism Modularity of mind Artificial intelligence Society of Mind Neuropsychology Electroencephalography Electrophysiology Magnetoencephalography Functional MRI Positron emission tomography Categories: | ... Arousal is a physiological and psychological state of being awake. ... Consciousness is a quality of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... Executive functions is a term synonymous with cognitive control, and used by psychologists and neuroscientists to describe a loosely defined collection of brain processes whose role is to guide thought and behaviour in accordance with internally generated goals or plans. ... Learning is the acquisition and development of memories and behaviors, including skills, knowledge, understanding, values, and wisdom. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... Explain the dystonias connected with motor coordination. ... In psychology and the cognitive sciences, perception is the process of acquiring, interpreting, selecting, and organizing sensory information. ... For planning in AI, see automated planning and scheduling. ... Problem solving forms part of thinking. ... Personification of thought (Greek Εννοια) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Thought or thinking is a mental process which allows beings to model the world, and so to deal with it effectively according to their goals, plans, ends and desires. ...

People

Arthur L. BentonDavid Bohm
António Damásio • Kenneth Heilman •
Phineas GageNorman Geschwind
Elkhonon Goldberg • Donald Hebb
Alexander LuriaMuriel D. Lezak
Brenda MilnerKarl Pribram
Oliver Sacks
Rodolfo LlinasRoger Sperry• H.M.• K.C.
Arthur Lester Benton, Ph. ... David Bohm. ... António Rosa Damásio, GOSE (IPA: ) (b. ... Kenneth M. Heilman is an American behavioral neurologist. ... Phineas P. Gage (1823 – May 21, 1860) was a railroad construction foreman who suffered a traumatic brain injury when a tamping iron accidentally passed through his skull, damaging the frontal lobes of his brain. ... Norman Geschwind can be considered the father of modern behavioral neurology in America. ... Elkhonon Goldberg (1946) is a neuropsychologist and cognitive neuroscientist. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Alexander Romanovich Luria Александр Романович Лурия (July 16, 1902-1977) was a famous Russian neuropsychologist. ... Muriel Deutsch Lezak is an American neuropsychologist best known for her book Neuropsychological Assessment, widely accepted as the standard in the field. ... Dr. Brenda Milner CC (born 15 July 1918, Manchester England) has contributed extensively to the research literature on various topics in the field of clinical neuropsychology. ... Karl H. Pribram (born February 25, 1919 in Vienna, Austria) is a research professor of Psychology and Cognitive Science at Georgetown University, Washington DC. He trained as a neurosurgeon and became a professor at Stanford University, where he did pioneering work on the cerebral cortex. ... Oliver Sacks in 2005. ... Rodolfo Llinás (1934-) is the Thomas and Suzanne Murphy Professor of Neuroscience and Chairman of the department of Physiology & Neuroscience at the NYU School of Medicine. ... Image:Roger W Sperry. ... HM (also known as H.M. and Henry M., born 1926 in Connecticut) is an anonymous memory-impaired patient who has been widely studied since the late 1950s and has been very important in the development of theories that explain the link between brain function and memory, and in the...

Tests

Bender-Gestalt Test
Benton Visual Retention Test
Clinical Dementia Rating
Continuous Performance Task
Glasgow Coma Scale
Hayling and Brixton tests
Lexical decision task
Mini-mental state examination
Stroop effect
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
Wisconsin card sorting task Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway. ... The Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test or simply the Bender-Gestalt test is a psychological test first developed by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. ... The Benton Visual Retention Test (or simply Benton Test) is an individually administered test for ages 8-adult that measures visual perception and visual memory . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Continuous Performance Task, or CPT, is a psychological test that consists of a series of stimuli. ... The Glasgow Coma Scale is a neurological scale which aims to give a reliable, objective way of recording the conscious state of a person, for initial as well as continuing assessment. ... The Hayling and Brixton tests[1] are neuropsychological tests of executive function created by psychologists Paul W. Burgess and Tim Shallice. ... A lexical decision task is a type of experiment in psycholinguistics. ... The mini-mental state examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a brief 30-point questionnaire test that is used to assess cognition. ... Demonstration Say the color of these words as fast as you can: According to the Stroop effect, the first set of colors would have had a faster reaction time. ... Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale or WAIS is a general test of intelligence (IQ), published in February 1955 as a revision of the Wechsler-Bellevue test (1939), standardised for use with adults over the age of 16. ... The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) is a neuropsychological test of set-shifting, i. ...

Tools

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Clinical model of attention

Clinical models frequently differ from investigation models. This is the case of attention models. One of the most used models for the evaluation of attention in patients with very different neurologic pathologies is the model of Sohlberg and Mateer.[6] This hierarchic model is based in the recovering of attention processes of brain damage patients after coma. Five different kinds of activities of growing difficulty are described in the model; connecting with the activities that patients could do as their recovering process advanced. Neurology is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system. ... Brain damage or brain injury is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells. ... For other uses, see Coma (disambiguation). ...

  • Focused attention: This is the ability to respond discretely to specific visual, auditory or tactile stimuli.
  • Sustained attention: This refers to the ability to maintain a consistent behavioral response during continuous and repetitive activity.
  • Selective attention: : This level of attention refers to the capacity to maintain a behavioral or cognitive set in the face of distracting or competing stimuli. Therefore it incorporates the notion of "freedom from distractibility"
  • Alternating attention: it refers to the capacity for mental flexibility that allows individuals to shift their focus of attention and move between tasks having different cognitive requirements.
  • Divided attention: This is the highest level of attention and it refers to the ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands.

This model has been shown to be very useful in evaluating attention in very different pathologies, correlates strongly with daily difficulties and is especially helpful in designing stimulation programmes such as APT (attention process training), a rehabilitation programme for neurologic patients of the same authors.


Overt and covert attention

Attention may be differentiated according to its status as 'overt' versus 'covert' [7]. Overt attention is the act of directing sense organs towards a stimulus source. Covert attention is the act of mentally focusing on one of several possible sensory stimuli. Covert attention is thought to be a neural process that enhances the signal from a particular part of the sensory panorama. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the senses of living organisms (vision, taste, etc. ...


There are studies that suggest the mechanisms of overt and covert attention may not be as separate as previously believed. Though humans and primates can look in one direction but attend in another, there may be an underlying neural circuitry that links shifts in covert attention to plans to shift gaze. For example, if individuals attend to the right hand corner field of view, movement of the eyes in that direction may have to be actively suppressed.


The current view is that visual covert attention is a mechanism for quickly scanning the field of view for interesting locations. This shift in covert attention is linked to eye movement circuitry that sets up a slower saccade to that location. A saccade is a fast movement of an eye, head, or other part of an animals body or of a device. ...


Executive attention

Inevitably situations arise where it is advantageous to have cognition independent of incoming sensory data or motor responses. There is a general consensus in psychology that there is an executive system based in the frontal cortex that controls our thoughts and actions to produce coherent behavior. This function is often referred to as executive function, executive attention, or cognitive control. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The executive system is a theorised cognitive system in psychology that controls and manages other cognitive processes. ...


No exact definition has been agreed upon. However, typical descriptions involve maintaining behavioral goals, and using these goals as a basis for choosing what aspects of the environment to attend to and which action to select.


Neural correlates of attention

Most experiments show that one neural correlate of attention is enhanced firing. If a neuron has a certain response to a stimulus when the animal is not attending to the stimulus, then when the animal does attend to the stimulus, the neuron's response will be enhanced even if the physical characteristics of the stimulus remain the same. The concept of a neural correlate of a mental state is an important concept for materialists, those philosophers who believe that all mental states are equivalent to brain states. ...


In a recent review, Knudsen[8] describes a more general model which identifies four core processes of attention, with working memory at the center: Working memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ...

  • Working memory temporarily stores information for detailed analysis.
  • Competitive selection is the process that determines which information gains access to working memory.
  • Through top-down sensitivity control, higher cognitive processes can regulate signal intensity in information channels that compete for access to working memory, and thus give them an advantage in the process of competitive selection. Through top-down sensitivity control, the momentary content of working memory can influence the selection of new information, and thus mediate voluntary control of attention in a recurrent loop.
  • Bottom-up saliency filters automatically enhance the response to infrequent stimuli, or stimuli of instinctive or learned biological relevance.

Neurally, at different hierarchical levels spatial maps can enhance or inhibit activity in sensory areas, and induce orienting behaviors like eye movement. Working memory is a theoretical framework within cognitive psychology that refers to the structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information. ...

  • At the top of the hierarchy, the frontal eye fields (FEF) on the dorsolateral frontal cortex contain a retinocentric spacial map. Microstimulation in the FEF induces monkeys to make a saccade to the relevant location. Stimulation at levels too low to induce a saccade will nonetheless enhance cortical responses to stimuli located in the relevant area.
  • At the next lower level, a variety of spacial maps are found in the parietal cortex. In particular, the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) contains a saliency map and is interconnected both with the FEF and with sensory areas.
  • Certain automatic responses that influence attention, like orienting to a highly salient stimulus, are mediated subcortically by the superior colliculi.
  • At the neural network level, it is thought that processes like lateral inhibition mediate the process of competitive selection.

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The frontal lobe is an area in the brains of vertebrates. ... A saccade is a fast movement of an eye, head, or other part of an animals body or of a device. ... The parietal lobe is a lobe in the brain. ... The Superior collici is an area in the mesencephalon of vertebrate brains. ...

References

  1. ^ Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A. & Johnston, W. A. (2003). Cell phone induced failures of visual attention during simulated driving. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 9, 23-32.
  2. ^ James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology. New York: Henry Holt, Vol. 1, pp. 403-404.
  3. ^ Harré, Rom. Cognitive science: A philosophical introduction. London: SAGE Publications, 2002. ISBN 0761947469.
  4. ^ Treisman, A., & Gelade, G. (1980). A feature-integration theory of attention. Cognitive Psychology, 12, 97-136.
  5. ^ Wolfe, J. M. (1994). "Guided search 2.0: a revised model of visual search." Psychonomic Bulletin Review 1: 202-238.
  6. ^ McKay Moore Sohlberg, Catherine A. Mateer (1989). Introduction to cognitive rehabilitation: theory and practice. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 0-89862-738-9. 
  7. ^ Wright, R.D. & Ward, L.M. (2008). Orienting of Attention. Oxford University Press
  8. ^ Knudsen, Eric I (2007). "Fundamental Components of Attention". Annual Review of Neuroscience 30 (1): 57-78. PMID 17417935. 

See also

Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), is a neurobehavioural developmental disorder[1] [2] [3] affecting about 3-5% of the worlds population under the age of 19[4]. It typically presents itself during childhood, and is characterized by a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity, as well as forgetfulness... A widely accepted idea regarding the function of prefrontal cortex (PF) is that it serves as a storage of short-term memory. ... The binding problem is, basically, the problem of how the unity of conscious perception is brought about by the distributed activities of the central nervous system (Revonsuo and Newman (1999)). In its most general form it arises whenever information from distinct populations of neurons must be combined. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Change Blindness (also known as Change Detection) is a phenomenon in visual perception where large changes in a visual scene are not noticed by the viewer. ... The dot-probe paradigm is test used by cognitive psychologists in order to assess selective attention. ... For emotional memory in Stanislavskis system of acting and American Method acting, see Affective memory. ... The feature integration theory, developed by Treisman and Gelade since the early 1980s has been one of the most influential models of human visual attention until recent years. ... Inattentional blindness, Also known as perceptual blindness which is the phenomenon of not being able to see things that are actually there. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Split attention effect is a learning effect inherent within some poorly designed instructional materials. ... Visual search is a type of perceptual task requiring attention. ... Weapon focus is a factor affecting the reliability of eyewitness testimony. ...

External links

Further reading

  • Bryden, M.P., (1971) "Attentional strategies and short-term memory in dichotic listening." Cognitive Psychology, 2, 99-116.
  • Cherry, E.C., (1953) "Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and with two ears," Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 25, 975-979.
  • Deutsch, J.A. & Deutsch, D., (1963) "Attention: some theoretical considerations," Psychological Review, 70, 80-90.
  • Eriksen, B.A. and Eriksen, C.W., (1974) "Effects of noise letters on the identification of a target letter in a non-search task," Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 143-149.
  • Kahneman, D. (1973). Attention and effort. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Kanwisher, N. & Wojciulik, E. (November 2000). Visual Attention: Insights from Brain Imaging. Nature Reviews: Neuroscience, Volume 1, 91-98.
  • Lebedev, M.A., Messinger, A., Kralik, J.D., Wise, S.P. (2004) Representation of attended versus remembered locations in prefrontal cortex. PLoS Biology, 2: 1919-1935.
  • Moray, N., (1959) "Attention in dichotic listening: affective cues and the influence of instructions," Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27, 56-60.
  • Neisser, U. Cognitive Psychology, New York: Appleton, 1967.
  • Pashler, H. E. (Ed.) (1998). Attention, East Sussex, UK: Psychology Press ISBN 0-86377-813-5
  • Posner, M. I., Snyder, C.R.R., & Davidson, D.J. (1980). Attention and the detection of signals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 109, 160-174.
  • Posner, M.I., Raichle, M. (1994). Images of Mind. Scientific American Library.
  • Raz A. 2004. Anatomy of attentional networks. The Anatomical Record Part B: The New Anatomist;281(1):21-36 PMID 15558781
  • Sperling, G. (1960) "The information in brief visual presentations," Psychological Monographs, 74 (Whole number 11).
  • van Swinderen, B. (2005) "The remote roots of consciousness in fruit-fly selective attention?" BioEssays, 27, 321-330.
  • Treisman, A.M. (1969) "Strategies and models of selective attention," Psychological Review, 76, 282-299.
  • Wright, R.D., & Ward, L.M. (2008). Orienting of Attention. Oxford University Press.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Attention - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1713 words)
Attention can also be split, as when a person drives a car, puts on makeup, and talks on a cell phone at the same time.
In the 1950s, psychologists renewed their interest in attention when the dominant epistomology shifted from Positivism to Realism during what has come to be known as the cognitive revolution (Harré, 2002).
Covert attention is thought to be a neural process that enhances the signal from a particular part of the sensory panorama.
Attention - definition of Attention in Encyclopedia (974 words)
Attention can also be split, such as driving, putting on makeup, and talking on the cell phone at the same time.
Attention is one of the most intensely studied subjects within psychology and cognitive neuroscience.
This can be seen in what is considered news where a spectacular auto accident easily outweighs a report on particulate pollution by diesel engines although only a few may have died in the accident while thousands may suffer and die due to diesel pollution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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