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Encyclopedia > Attar
"The Conference of the Birds" painted by Habib Allah.
"The Conference of the Birds" painted by Habib Allah.

Farid od-Din Attar (Persian:فریدالدین عطار; ca. 1142 – ca. 1220) was born in Neishapour, in the Iranian province of Khorasan and died in the same city.
He was the son of a prosperous chemist, receiving an excellent education in Arabic, theosophy and medicine. He helped his father in the store and, on his father's death, owned his own store. The people he helped in the pharmacy used to confide their troubles in Attar and this affected him deeply. Eventually, he abandoned his pharmacy store and travelled widely - Kufa, Mecca, Damascus, Turkistan, and India, meeting with Sufi shaykhs - and returned promoting Sufi (Islamic mysticism) ideas[1].
Some scholars believe he was killed during the raid and destruction of his city by the Mongol invaders. His tomb is in Neishapour. His death has quite a story: It's said that a Mongol soldier found out who he was and was taking him to his officer when a man offered some money to buy Attar. The soldier wanted to accept but Attar tells the soldier that he is worth more. After they walk more, another man comes and offers more money, again Attar tells the soldier to decline, because he is worth much more. After a while an old man comes along and offers his firewood to buy Attar and Attar tells the soldier to sell him to the old man because "he is not worth more than that". The angry soldier kills Attar right away. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x707, 107 KB)The Concourse of the Birds from The Conference of the Birds, painted by Habib Allah in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (450x707, 107 KB)The Concourse of the Birds from The Conference of the Birds, painted by Habib Allah in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. ... Persian (Local names: فارسی Fârsi or پارسی Pârsi)* is an Indo-European language spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan as well as by minorities in Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, India, Pakistan, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Southern Russia, neighboring countries, and elsewhere. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Sutoku, emperor of Japan Emperor Konoe ascends to the throne of Japan Henry the Lion becomes Duke of Saxony Births Farid od-Din Mohammad ebn Ebrahim Attar, Persian mystical poet (died 1220) Hugh III, Duke of Burgundy (died 1192) Bornin1142, a GameFAQs user... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... Nishapur (or Neyshâbûr; نیشابور in Persian) is a town in the province of Khorasan in northeastern Iran, situated in a fertile plain at the foot of the Binalud Mountains, near the regional capital of Mashhad. ... Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan; Horasan in Turkish) is a region located in eastern Iran. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Emblem of the Theosophical Society (Adyar) described at [1] Theosophy, literally wisdom of the divine (in the Greek language), designates several bodies of ideas. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


Attar is one of the most famous mystic poets of Iran. His works were the inspiration of Rumi and many other mystic poets. Attar, along with Sanaie were two of the greatest influences on Rumi in his Sufi views. Rumi has mentioned both of them with the highest esteem several times in his poetry. Rumi praises Attar as such: Mysticism from the Greek μυστικός (mystikos) an initiate (of the Eleusinian Mysteries, μυστήρια (mysteria) meaning initiation[1]) is the pursuit of achieving communion or identity with, or conscious awareness of, ultimate reality, the divine, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, or insight; and the belief that such experience is an... Mawlana Rumi Mawlānā Jalāl ad-DÄ«n Muhammad RÅ«mÄ«[1] (Arabic:مولانا جلال الدين محمد رومي) ‎ (1207 – 1273 CE), also known as Muhammad BalkhÄ« (Persian: محمد بلخى) or Celâladin Mehmet Rumi (Turkish), was a Persian poet, jurist, theologian and teacher of Sufism. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Sufism (Arabic تصوف taṣawwuf) is a system of esoteric philosophy commonly associated with Islam. ...

"Attar roamed the seven cities of love -- We are still just in one alley".

Attar was a pen-name which he took for his occupation. Attar means herbalist, druggist and perfumist, and during his lifetime in Persia, much of medicine and drugs were based on herbs. Therefore, by profession he was similar to a modern-day town doctor and pharmacist. A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... The term Herbalism refers to folk and traditional medicinal practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a pleasant smell. ... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and at times extending into central and mid-east Asia. ... medicines, see medication and pharmacology. ... Herbs: basil Herbs (IPA: hə(ɹ)b, or əɹb; see pronunciation differences) are plants grown for any purpose other than food, wood or beauty. ... The mortar and pestle is an international symbol of pharmacists and pharmacies. ...


attar


References used

  • E.G. Browne. Literary History of Persia. (Four volumes, 2,256 pages, and twenty-five years in the writing). 1998. ISBN 0-7007-0406-X.
  • Jan Rypka, History of Iranian Literature. Reidel Publishing Company. 1968 OCLC 460598. ISBN 90-277-0143-1

OCLC Online Computer Library Center was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center (OCLC). ...

See also

A Meeting of Some Iranian Poets: (L to R) Morteza Keyvan, Ahmad Shamlou, Nima Yooshij, Siavash Kasraie, and Hushang Ebtehaj. ... Persian literature (in Persian: ‎ ) spans two and a half millennia, though much of the pre-Islamic material has been lost. ... Sufism is a mystic tradition that found a home in Islam encompassing a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to God, divine love and sometimes to help a fellow man. ...

External links

v  d  e
Sufism
Philosophy : Ihsan | Lataif | Tajalli | Noor | Maqaam | Haal | Yaqeen | Fanaa | Baqaa | Haqiqah | Marifah | Mast | Wajad | Wahdat-ul-Wujood | see also: Sufi cosmology
Practices : Dhikr | Muraqaba | Sama | Qawwali | Sufi whirling | Hadhra
Orders : Chishti | Jerrahi | Darqawi | Naqshbandi | Qadri | Oveyssi | Galibi | Suhrawardiyya | Rifa'i | Mevlevi | Shadhili | see also: Tariqah
Medieval Sufis : Oveys Gharani | Hassan Basri | Bayazid | Jazouli | Junayd | Ghazali | Jilani | Ibn Arabi | Hallaj | Rumi | Saadi | Attar | Suhrawardi | Data Gunj | Gharib Nawaz | Amir Khusro | Rabia | Baba Farid | Kabir | Alf Sani | Shah Waliullah | Bhittai
Modern Sufis : Salaheddin Ali Nader Shah Angha | Bawa Muhaiyaddeen | Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu | Shah Maghsoud Sadegh Angha | Idries Shah | Omar Ali Shah | Mawlana Faizani | Muhammad al-Maliki | Hisham Kabbani | Kabir Helminski | Inayat Khan | Shamsuddin Azeemi | Reshad Feild | Akram Awan | Nuh Ha Mim Keller | Martin Lings | Nazim Qubrusi | Shaykh Abdalqadir As-Sufi
Other : History | Sufi texts | Sufi poetry | Sufi studies | Shrines | List of Sufis

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