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Encyclopedia > Attacks on North America during World War II

Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continent's geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. This article includes attacks on continental territory (extending 200 miles [370 km] into the ocean) which is today under the sovereignty of the United States and Canada but excludes military action involving the Danish territory of Greenland and the Caribbean. North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... In warfare, a theater or theatre is normally used to define a specific geographic area within which armed conflict occurs. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... West Indies redirects here. ...


Although not an attack on North America, the December 7, 1941 Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor which drew the United States into World War II was the precursor to a number of Japanese assaults on the North American mainland. At the time, Hawaii was a United States territory and not a state; the Territory of Hawaii did not obtain statehood until 1959. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actual attack. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the U.S. State. ... United States territory is any extent of region under the jurisdiction of the federal government of the United States,[1] including all waters[2] (around islands or continental tracts). ... Territory of Hawaii Capital Honolulu Government Organized incorporated territory Governor  - 1900-1903 Sanford B. Dole  - 1957-1959 William F. Quinn Military Governor  - 1941-1944 Maj. ...

Contents

Ellwood shelling

The United States mainland was first shelled by the Axis on February 23, 1942 when the Japanese submarine I-17 attacked the Ellwood oil production facilities at Goleta, near Santa Barbara, California. Although only the pumphouse and catwalk were damaged, I-17 captain Nishino Kozo radioed Tokyo that he had left Santa Barbara in flames. No casualties were reported and the total cost of the damage was officially estimated at approximately $500-1000. [1] This article is about the geomorphological/geopolitical term; MAINLAND is also a cheese brand owned by Fonterra, a New Zealand dairy company. ... A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire directed against fortifications, troops or towns and buildings. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... Also in Spanish, Goleta means schooner. ... Nickname: Location in Santa Barbara County and the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Santa Barbara Government  - Mayor Marty Blum Area  - Total 41. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Battle of the Aleutian Islands

On June 3, 1942 the Aleutian Islands, running southwest from mainland Alaska, were invaded by Japanese forces as a diversion to deflect attention from the main Japanese attack on Midway Atoll. Having broken the Japanese military codes, however, the United States military knew it was a diversion and did not expend large amounts of effort defending the islands. Although most of the civilian population had been moved to camps on the Alaska Panhandle, some Americans were captured and taken to Japan as prisoners of war. Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... In World War II, Magic was the United States codename for intelligence derived from the cryptanalysis of PURPLE, a Japanese foreign office cipher. ... The Alaska Panhandle is the coast of the American state of Alaska, just west of the northern half of the Canadian province of British Columbia. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In what became known as the Battle of the Aleutian Islands, American forces engaged the Japanese on Attu Island and regained control by the end of May 1943, after taking significant casualties in difficult terrain in which hundreds died. A large invasion force, mainly US, but including some Canadian troops, assaulted Kiska Island on August 7, 1943, but the Japanese had already withdrawn, undetected, ten days earlier. Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... Attu Island Attu is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, making it the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska and the United States. ... Kiska is an island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska located at 52. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although Alaska was a U.S. territory and not yet a state (statehood was not granted until 1959) it was part of the North American continent. This battle also marks the only time since the War of 1812 that U.S. territory in North America has been occupied by a foreign power. This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ...


In response to the United States' success at the Battle of Midway, the invasion alert for San Francisco was canceled on June 8, 1942. Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi† Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Estevan Point lighthouse attack

On June 20, 1942, the Japanese submarine I-26, under the command of Yokota Minoru[2], fired 25-30 rounds of 5.5" shells at the Estevan Point lighthouse on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, Canada but failed to hit its target.[3] This marked the first enemy shelling of Canadian soil since the War of 1812. Though no casualties were reported, the subsequent decision to turn off the lights of outer stations was disastrous for shipping activity.[4] is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... I-26 was a Japanese B1 type submarine which saw service during World War 2. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ...


Fort Stevens attack

In what became the only attack on a mainland American military installation during World War II, the Japanese submarine I-25, under the command of Tagami Meiji[5], surfaced near the mouth of the Columbia River, Oregon on the night of June 21 and June 22, 1942, and fired shells toward Fort Stevens. The only damage officially recorded was to a baseball field's backstop. The Fort Stevens gunners were refused permission to return fire, since it would have helped the Japanese locate their target more accurately. American aircraft on training flights spotted the submarine, which was subsequently attacked by a US bomber, but escaped. Japanese submarine I-25 was under the command of Lieutenant Commander Meiji Tagami who had graduated from Class 51 at Etajima, Hiroshima. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fort Stevens guarded the mouth of the Columbia River in Oregon. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Lookout Air Raid

Main article: Lookout Air Raid
Nobuo Fujita standing by his Yokosuka E14Y "Glen" seaplane.

The Lookout Air Raid occurred on September 9, 1942. The first aerial bombing of mainland America by a foreign power occurred when an attempt to start a forest fire was made by a Japanese Yokosuka E14Y1 seaplane dropping two 80 kg (170 pound) incendiary bombs over Mount Emily, near Brookings, Oregon. The seaplane, piloted by Nobuo Fujita, had been launched from the Japanese submarine aircraft carrier I-25. No significant damage was officially reported following the attack, nor after a repeat attempt on September 29. The Lookout Air Raid of 1942 was a minor, but historic World War II event that occurred in mountains and forests of Oregon on September 9, 1942. ... Image File history File links Fujita&Glen. ... Image File history File links Fujita&Glen. ... Nobuo Fujita Nobuo Fujita (1911 - September 30, 1997) (Jp:藤田信雄) was a Warrant Flying Officer of the Imperial Japanese Navy who flew a floatplane from a long-range submarine aircraft carrier, the I-25, and conducted the only wartime airplane-dropped bombing on the continental United States. ... The Yokosuka E14Y Glen The Yokosuka E14Y, codenamed Glen by United States forces, was an Imperial Japanese Navy seaplane transported aboard and launched from Japanese submarine aircraft carriers such as the I-25 during World War II. The Japanese Navy designation was Type 0 Small Reconnaisance Seaplane (零式小型水上偵察機). The aircraft was... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The aerial bombing of cities became a common tactic in World War II. // World War I The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, Kings... Fire in San Bernardino, California Mountains (image taken from the International Space Station) A wildfire, also known as a forest fire, vegetation fire, grass fire, or bushfire (in Australasia), is an uncontrolled fire in wildland often caused by lightning; other common causes are human carelessness and arson. ... Nobuo Fujita standing by his Yokosuka E14Y Glen. On the night of June 21/22 1942, two days after they shelled a Canadian radio compass station at Estevan Point on Vancouver Island a Japanese submarine surfaced near the Columbia River in Oregon, and fired shells at nearby Fort Stevens. ... A DeHavilland Single Otter floatplane in Harbour Air livery. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ... This article is about Mount Emily in southwestern Oregon. ... Brookings is a city located in Curry County, Oregon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Nobuo Fujita Nobuo Fujita (1911 - September 30, 1997) (Jp:藤田信雄) was a Warrant Flying Officer of the Imperial Japanese Navy who flew a floatplane from a long-range submarine aircraft carrier, the I-25, and conducted the only wartime airplane-dropped bombing on the continental United States. ... Submarine aircraft carriers are submarines equipped with airplanes for observation or attack missions. ... I-25 (Jp:イ-25) was a B1-Type (I-15 Class) submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy that served in World War II and took part in the Attack on Pearl Harbor. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fire balloons

Main article: Fire balloon

Between November 1944 and April 1945, Japan launched over 9,000 fire balloons toward North America. Carried by the recently-discovered Pacific jet stream, they were to sail over the Pacific Ocean and land in North America, where the Japanese hoped they would start forest fires and cause other damage. About three hundred were reported as reaching North America, but little damage was caused. Six people (five children and a woman) became the only deaths due to enemy action to occur on mainland America during World War II when one of the children tried to recover a balloon from a tree near Bly, Oregon in the United States and it exploded. Recently released reports by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and the Canadian military indicate that fire balloons reached as far inland as Saskatchewan. A fire balloon is also considered to be a possible cause of the final fire in the Tillamook Burn. Shotdown fire balloon reinflated by Americans in California The term fire balloon can mean a small unmanned hot air balloon for festivities; this is also called a sky lantern. ... For other uses, see jet stream (disambiguation). ... Bly is an unincorporated community in Klamath County, Oregon, about 44 miles east of Klamath Falls. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... RCMP redirects here. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... The Tillamook Burn was a series of forest fires in the Coast Range of Oregon in the United States that destroyed a total area of 355,000 acres (1,400 km&sup2) of old growth timber, as well as the location of these fires. ...


German assaults

German landings

United States

FBI file photo.
FBI file photo.

Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...

Duquesne Spy Ring
Main article: Duquesne Spy Ring

Even before the war, a large Nazi spy ring was found operating in the United States. The Duquesne Spy Ring is still the largest espionage case in United States history that ended in convictions. The 33 German agents that formed the Duquesne spy ring were placed in key jobs in the United States to get information that could be used in the event of war and to carry out acts of sabotage: one person opened a restaurant and used his position to get information from his customers; another person worked on an airline so that he could report allied ships that were crossing the Atlantic Ocean; others in the ring worked as delivery people so that they could deliver secret messages alongside normal messages. The ring was led by Captain Fritz Joubert Duquesne, a colorful South African Boer who spied for Germany in both World Wars and is best known as "The man who killed Kitchener" after he was awarded the Iron Cross for his key role in the sabotage and sinking of HMS Hampshire in 1916.[6] William G. Sebold, a double agent for the United States, was a major factor in the FBI's successful resolution of this case. For nearly two years, Sebold ran a radio station in New York for the ring, giving the FBI valuable information on what Germany was sending to its spies in the United States while also controlling the information that was being transmitted to Germany. On June 29, 1941, the FBI closed in. All 33 spies were arrested, found guilty, and sentenced to serve a total of over 300 years in prison. The 33 convicted members of the Duquesne spy ring (FBI print) The Duquesne Spy Ring is the largest espionage case in United States history that ended in convictions. ... Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne (sometimes spelt Du Quesne pronounced in English as “Doo-Cain’’) (born Cape Colony 21 September 1877, died New York City 24 May 1956) was a South African Boer soldier, prisoner of war, big game hunter, journalist, war correspondent, Anglophobe, stockbroker, saboteur, spy, and adventurer whose hatred... Field Marshal Horatio Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, ADC, PC (24 June 1850 – 5 June 1916) was an Anglo-Irish British Field Marshal, diplomat and statesman popularly referred to as Lord Kitchener. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... HMS Hampshire was a Devonshire-class armoured cruiser of the Royal Navy. ... William Sebold (posing as Harry Sawyer) with Fritz Duquesne. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Operation Pastorius
Main article: Operation Pastorius

When the United States entered World War II, Adolf Hitler ordered the remaining German saboteurs to wreak havoc on the country. The responsibility for carrying this out was given to German Intelligence (Abwehr). In June 1942, eight agents were recruited and divided into two teams: the first, commanded by George John Dasch, with Ernest Burger, Heinrich Heinck and Richard Quirin. The second, under the command of Edward Kerling, with Hermann Neubauer, Werner Thiel and Herbert Haupt. Operation Pastorius was a failed Nazi attack on the United States staged in June 1942. ... Hitler redirects here. ... This article is about Sabotage sabotage can also refer to: an early Black Sabbath album (Sabotage), the Alfred Hitchcock films (Sabotage or Saboteur), a Beastie Boys song, or a type of shock site. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... Colonel Dasch George John Dasch (1903- ) was a German spy and saboteur who landed on American soil during World War II. He helped to destroy Nazi Germany’s espionage program in the United States by defecting to the American cause, but was tried and convicted for treason and espionage. ...


On June 12, 1942, U-Boat U-202 landed Dasch's team with explosives and plans at East Hampton, Long Island, New York.[7] Their mission was to destroy power plants at Niagara Falls and three Aluminum Company of America (ALCOA) factories in Illinois, Tennessee and New York. However the team was observed following landing by a Coast Guardsman who immediately raised the alarm. After being captured Dasch and Burger gave a full confession to the FBI and obtained more lenient treatment. is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The town of East Hampton is located in southeastern Suffolk County, New York and is the easternmost town on the South Shore of Long Island. ... This article is about the island in New York State. ... This article is about the state. ... USCG HH-65 Dolphin USCG HH-60J JayHawk USCG HC-130H departs Mojave USCG HC-130H on International Ice Patrol duties The United States Coast Guard (USCG) is at all times a branch of the U.S. military, a maritime law enforcement agency, and a federal regulatory body. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


Kerling's team landed from U-584 at Ponte Vedra Beach (25 miles [40 km] south-east of Jacksonville, Florida), on June 17. They were tasked with laying mines in four areas; the Pennsylvania Railroad in Newark NJ., canal sluices in both St. Louis and Cincinnati, and New York City's water supply pipes. The team made their way to Cincinnati, Ohio and split up, with two going to Chicago, Illinois and the others to New York. However, the Dasch confession led to the arrest of all of the men by July 10. Ponte Vedra Beach is a seaside village 20 miles south east of Jacksonville, Florida. ... The Jacksonville skyline and the Acosta Bridge. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Florida. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1893 map The Pennsylvania Railroad (AAR reporting mark PRR) was an American railroad that was founded in 1846 and merged in 1968 into Penn Central Transportation. ... Nickname: Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: , Country State County Essex Founded/Incorporated 1666/1836 Government  - Mayor Cory Booker, term of office 2006–2010 Area [1]  - Total 26. ... Cincinnati redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


All eight were tried and convicted by Military Commission. President Roosevelt approved the sentences. The constitutionality of the military commissions was upheld by the Supreme Court in Ex parte Quirin and six of the eight men were executed by electrocution on August 8. Dasch and Burger, were given thirty-year prison sentences. Both were released in 1948 and deported to Germany.[8] Dasch (aka George Davis) who had been a longtime American resident prior to the war, suffered a difficult life in Germany after his return from U.S. custody due to his cooperation with U.S. authorities. As a condition of his deportation, he was not permitted to return to the United States, even though he spent many years writing letters to prominent American authorities (J. Edgar Hoover, President Eisenhower, etc) requesting permission to return. He eventually fled to Switzerland and wrote a book, titled Eight Spies Against America. [9] Holding The Court upheld the jurisdiction of a United States military tribunal over the trial of several German saboteurs in the United States. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Operation Elster

In 1944 there was another attempt at infiltration, codenamed Operation Elster ("Magpie"). Elster involved Erich Gimpel and German American defector William Colepaugh. Their mission objective was to gather intelligence on the Manhattan Project and attempt sabotage if possible. The pair sailed from Kiel on U-1230 and landed at Hancock Point, Maine on November 30, 1944. Both made their way to New York, but the operation degenerated into total failure. Colepaugh turned himself in to the FBI on December 26, confessing the whole plan; Gimpel was arrested four days later in New York. Both men were sentenced to death but eventually had their sentences commuted. Gimpel spent 10 years in prison; Colepaugh was released in 1960 and operated a business in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania before retiring to Florida. Erich Gimpel was a German spy of World War II. He seems to have been an excellent and very professional spy, who resisted interrogation - indeed, his interrogators seem to have had a high degree of respect for his abilities, and distrusted what information he gave up. ... William Curtis Colepaugh was an American traitor of World War II who, following his 1943 discharge from the US Naval Reserve (for the good of the service, according to official reports), defected to Nazi Germany in 1944. ... This article is about the World War II nuclear project. ... Unterseeboot 1230 (U-1230) was a German Type IXC/40 U-boat of World War Two. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... King of Prussia is an unincorporated community in Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, United States. ...


Canada

At about the same time as the Dasch operation (on April 25), a solitary Abwehr agent (Marius A Langbein) was landed by U-boat (possibly U-217) near St. Martins, New Brunswick, Canada. His mission was to observe and report shipping movements at Halifax, Nova Scotia (a busy departure port for North Atlantic convoys). Langbein changed his mind, however, and moved to Ottawa where he lived off his Abwehr funds, before surrendering to the Canadian authorities in December 1944. is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Abwehr was a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944. ... St. ... The City of Halifax (1841-1996) was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia, and the largest city in Atlantic Canada. ...



In November, the U-518 sank two iron ore freighters and damaged another off Bell Island in Conception Bay, Newfoundland, en route to the Gaspé Peninsula where, despite an attack by a Royal Canadian Air Force aircraft, it successfully landed a spy, Werner von Janowski, at New Carlisle, Quebec on November 9, 1942. He was soon apprehended after Earl Annett Jr., manager of the New Carlisle Hotel, at which Janowski was staying, became suspicious and alerted authorities to a stranger using obsolete currency at the hotel bar.[10] The R.C.M.P. arrested Janowski on a CNR passenger train headed for Montreal. Inspection of Janowski's personal effects upon his arrest revealed that he was carrying a powerful radio transmitter, among other things. Janowski later spent some time as a double agent, sending false messages to the Abwehr in Germany, while gathering valuable intelligence for the Allies. Bell Island, Newfoundland Bell Island is an island located off Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula in Conception Bay. ... Conception Bay bounded by Cape St. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... NASA satellite image of the Gaspé Peninsula. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... New Carlisle, Quebec is a small town in the Gaspé region best known as the birthplace of René Lévesque, although he was actually born in Campbellton, New Brunswick. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... RCMP redirects here. ... CN redirects here, as its the most common usage of the abbreviation in Canada; for more uses, see CN (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


Newfoundland

Accurate weather reporting was important to the sea war and on 18 September 1943, U-537 sailed from Kiel, via Bergen (Norway), with a meteorological team lead by Professor Kurt Sommermeyer. They landed at Martin Bay near the northern tip of Labrador on 22 October 1943 and successfully set up an automatic weather station ("Weather Station Kurt" or "Wetter-Funkgerät Land-26"), despite the constant risk of Allied air patrols; this only worked for a short time, however. At the beginning of July 1944, U-867 left Bergen to replace the failed equipment, but was sunk en route. The weather station was recovered in the 1980s and is now at the Canadian War Museum. is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Weather Station Kurt on display at the Canadian War Museum Weather Station Kurt, officially Wetter-Funkgerät Land-26, was a weather station erected by a German U-boat crew in northern Labrador, Newfoundland in 1943. ... The Canadian War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario. ...


U-Boat operations

United States

The Atlantic Ocean was a major strategic battle zone (Second Battle of the Atlantic) and when Germany declared war on the U.S., the East Coast of the United States offered easy pickings for German U-Boats (referred to as the Second happy time). After a highly successful foray by five Type IX long-range U-boats, the offensive was maximised by the use of short-range Type VII U-boats, with increased fuel stores, replenished from supply U-boats or "Milchkuh". From February to May, 1942, 348 ships were sunk, for the loss of 2 U-boats during April and May. U.S. naval commanders were reluctant to introduce the convoy system that had protected trans-Atlantic shipping and, without coastal blackouts, shipping was silhouetted against the bright lights of American towns and cities. Combatants Royal Navy Royal Canadian Navy United States Navy Kriegsmarine Regia Marina Commanders Sir Percy Noble Sir Max K. Horton Ernest J. King Erich Raeder Karl Dönitz Casualties 30,248 merchant sailors 3,500 merchant vessels 175 warships 28,000 sailors 783 submarines The Second Battle of the Atlantic... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... U-boat is also a nickname for some diesel locomotives built by GE; see List of GE locomotives October 1939. ... The second happy time was a phase in the Second Battle of the Atlantic during which Axis submarines attacked merchant shipping along the east coast of North America. ... The Type IX U-boat was designed by Germany in 1935 and 1936 as a large ocean-going submarine for sustained operations far from the home support facilities. ... Type VII U-boats were the workhorses of the German World War II U-boot-waffe. ... -1...


Several ships were torpedoed within sight of East Coast cities such as New York and Boston; indeed, some civilians sat on beaches and watched battles between U.S. and German ships. The only documented World War II sinking of a U-boat close to New England shores occurred on May 5, 1945, when the U-853 torpedoed and sank the collier ship Black Point off Newport, Rhode Island. When the Black Point was hit, the U.S. Navy immediately chased down the sub and began dropping depth charges. The next day, when an oil slick and floating debris appeared, they confirmed that the U-853 and its entire crew had been destroyed. In recent years, the U-853 has become a popular dive site. Its intact hull, with open hatches, is located in 130 feet of water off Block Island, Rhode Island.[11] Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... For other uses, see Beach (disambiguation). ... Unterseeboot 853 (U-853) was a Type IXC/40 submarine of the Kriegsmarine. ... Black Point is an estate on the south shore of Geneva Lake in Wisconsin, built in 1888 as a summer home by Conrad Seipp, a beer tycoon from Chicago. ... Southeast Light, a famous Block Island landmark Block Island, shown in red, off the coast of the State of Rhode Island. ...


Once convoys and air cover were introduced, sinking numbers were reduced and the U-boats shifted to attack shipping in the Gulf of Mexico, with 121 losses in June. In one instance, the tanker Virginia was torpedoed in the mouth of the Mississippi River by the German U-Boat U-507 on May 12, 1942, killing 26 crewmen. There were 14 survivors. Again, when defensive measures were introduced, ship sinkings decreased and U-boat sinkings increased. Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Commercial crude oil supertanker AbQaiq. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... U-507 was a German U-Boat during world war 2. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The cumulative effect of this campaign was severe; a quarter of all wartime sinkings—3.1 million tons. There were several reasons for this. The naval commander, Admiral Ernest King, was averse to taking British recommendations to introduce convoys, U.S. Coast Guard and Navy patrols were predictable and could be avoided by U-boats, poor inter-service co-operation, and the U.S. Navy did not possess enough suitable escort vessels (British and Canadian warships were transferred to the U.S. east coast). Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 – June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH, he directed the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs...


Canada

From June 10, 1942 until December 1944, sinkings took place in the St. Lawrence River. Although this area was never a prime target for U-boats, it did offer easy pickings until late in the war, due to the state of the Canadian defenses and their naval commitments elsewhere. The period is sometimes referred to as the Battle of the St. Lawrence. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Saint Lawrence River (French fleuve Saint-Laurent) is a large west-to-east flowing river in the middle latitudes of North America, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Battle of the St. ...


Newfoundland

Three significant attacks took place in 1942 when German U-boats attacked four iron ore carriers serving the DOSCO iron mine at Wabana on Bell Island in Newfoundland's Conception Bay. The ships S.S. Saganaga and the S.S. Lord Strathcona were sunk by U-513 on September 5, 1942, while the S.S. Rosecastle and P.L.M 27 were sunk by U-518 on November 2 with the loss of 69 lives. However, one of the most dramatic incidents of the attack occurred after the sinkings when the submarine fired a torpedo that missed its target, the 3000 ton collier Anna T, and struck the DOSCO loading pier and exploded. As a result of the torpedo missing its target, Bell Island became the only location in North America to be subject to direct attack by German forces during World War II. On October 14, 1942, the Newfoundland Railway ferry SS Caribou was torpedoed by the German U-boat U-69 and sunk in the Cabot Strait south of Port aux Basques. Caribou was carrying 45 crew and 206 civilian and military passengers. 137 lost their lives, many of them Newfoundlanders. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... The Dominion Steel and Coal Corporation (also DOSCO) was a Canadian coal mining and steel manufacturing company. ... Wabana is a Canadian town and the largest and only incorporated community on Bell Island in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Bell Island, Newfoundland Bell Island is an island located off Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula in Conception Bay. ... Motto: Quaerite Prime Regnum Dei (Latin: Seek ye first the kingdom of God) Anthem: Ode to Newfoundland Capital St. ... Conception Bay bounded by Cape St. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bell Island, Newfoundland Bell Island is an island located off Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula in Conception Bay. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Newfoundland Railway logo or herald (used 1926-1949) The Newfoundland Railway was a historic railway that operated on the island of Newfoundland and was the longest narrow gauge railway system in North America. ... The SS Caribou a passenger ferry used by the Newfoundland government ferry service between Port aux Basques, Newfoundland and North Sydney, Nova Scotia was torpedoed by a German U-boat and sunk in the Cabot Strait October 14, 1942. ... Cabot Strait is a strait in eastern Canada approximately 110 kilometres wide between Cape Ray, Newfoundland Island and Cape North, Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia. ... Port aux Basques and the other Marine Atlantic ferry ports Channel-Port aux Basques (also Port aux Basques) is a town at the extreme southwestern tip of the island of Newfoundland fronting on the eastern end of the Cabot Strait. ...


Caribbean

German submarines shelled a Standard Oil refinery on Dutch-owned Aruba on February 16, 1942, causing no damage.[12][13] Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A German sub shelled the island of Mona, some 40 miles from Puerto Rico, on March 2. No damage or casualties resulted. Mona Island redirects here. ... is the 61st day of the year (62nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


An oil refinery on Curacao was shelled on April 19. Curaçao and Bonaire are two Caribbean islands Curaçao [pronounced koo-rah-sow] (population 150,000) is an island in the southern part of the Caribbean Sea, one of the Windward Islands of the Netherlands Antilles, a self-governing part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Mexico

Although not an attack on Mexican territory, the sinking of the Mexican tanker Faja de Oro by the German U-boat, U-160, on May 21, 1942 off Key West, prompted the entry of Mexico into World War II. Faja de Oro (Golden Belt), a Mexican oil transporter, it was originally an Italian ship, classified as a tanker and identified by the name Genoano. In 1941 this vessel was seized by the Mexican government when the ship was anchored in the Port of Tampico, Mexico one day after the... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Key West Key West is a city located in Monroe County, Florida. ...


False alarms

The Battle of Los Angeles

Main article: Battle of Los Angeles

In an incident now known as The Battle of Los Angeles, the U.S. Army fired several thousand anti-aircraft shells into the air over Los Angeles, California during the night of February 24-February 25, 1942 at two stationary Unidentified Flying Objects, in which none of the targets were intercepted or damaged at all. The target was later officially determined to be a lost weather balloon. [14][15] The Battle of Los Angeles is the third studio album by Rage Against the Machine. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UFO redirects here. ... Rawinsonde weather balloon just after launch. ...


The San Francisco Bay Area on alert

In May and June 1942, the San Francisco Bay Area underwent a series of alerts: Bay Area redirects here. ...

is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemys defense and/or retaliation. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Colorado (BB-45), the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 38th state, was the lead ship of her class of battleships. ... USS Maryland (BB-46), a Colorado-class battleship, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the seventh state. ... The Golden Gate The Golden Gate, looking south towards San Francisco. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...

Radio silences

On June 2, 1942 , a nine-minute air-raid alert, including at 9:22pm a radio silence order applied to all radio stations from Mexico to Canada. is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In telecommunications, radio silence is a status maintained where all fixed or mobile radio stations in an area stop transmitting. ... A radio station is an audio (sound) broadcasting service, traditionally broadcast through the air as radio waves (a form of electromagnetic radiation) from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. ...


Notes

  1. ^ http://www.militarymuseum.org/Ellwood.html
  2. ^ http://www.combinedfleet.com/I-26.htm
  3. ^ http://www.army.mil/cmh/books/wwii/Guard-US/ch4.htm#b1
  4. ^ http://www.pinetreeline.org/rds/detail/rds99-34.html
  5. ^ http://www.combinedfleet.com/I-25.htm
  6. ^ Wood, Clement (1932). The man who killed Kitchener; the life of Fritz Joubert Duquesne. New York: William Faro, inc. 
  7. ^ See [1] details].
  8. ^ See [details http://www.uboatwar.net/1ufbkagents.htm]
  9. ^ [2]
  10. ^ Essex, James W. 2004. Victory in the St. Lawrence: the unknown u-boat war. Erin, Ontario: Boston Mills Press
  11. ^ http://www.ecophotoexplorers.com/u853.asp
  12. ^ http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,884455,00.html
  13. ^ http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist9/aaf1.html
  14. ^ http://www.militarymuseum.org/BattleofLA.html
  15. ^ http://www.sfmuseum.net/hist9/aaf2.html

See also

The Black Tom explosion of July 30, 1916 in Jersey City, New Jersey was an act of sabotage on American munition supplies by German agents to prevent the materials from being used by the Allies in World War I. // Black Tom Island, lying off a Jersey City pier. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Bell Island, Newfoundland Bell Island is an island located off Newfoundlands Avalon Peninsula in Conception Bay. ... North America North America is a continent [1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Weather Station Kurt on display at the Canadian War Museum Weather Station Kurt, officially Wetter-Funkgerät Land-26, was a weather station erected by a German U-boat crew in northern Labrador, Newfoundland in 1943. ...

Further reading

  • Dobbs, Michael. Saboteurs: The Nazi Raid on America ISBN 0-375-41470-3 (2004)
  • Duffy, J.P. TARGET: AMERICA, Hitler's Plan to Attack the United States, Praeger Publishers; PB: The Lyons Press (A Booklist review)
  • Gimpel, Erich. Agent 146: The True Story of a Nazi Spy in America ISBN 0-312-30797-7 (2003)
  • Griehl, Manfred. Luftwaffe over America: The Secret Plans to Bomb the United States in World War II ISBN 1-85367-608-X (2004)
  • Horn, Steve (2005). The Second Attack on Pearl Harbor: Operation K And Other Japanese Attempts to Bomb America in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-388-8. 
  • Mikesh, Robert C. Japan's World War II Balloon Bomb Attacks on North America, Smithsonian Institution Press, (1973)
  • Kesich, Gregory D., 1944: When spies came to Maine[3], Portland Press Herald (2003)
  • Webber, Bert. Silent Siege: Japanese Attacks Against North America in World War II, Ye Galleon Press, Fairfield, Washington (1984). ISBN 0-87770-315-9 (hardcover). ISBN 0-87770-318-3 (paperbound).

Booklist is the digital counterpart of the American Library Associations Booklist magazine that provides a critical review of books. ...

External links


 
 

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