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Encyclopedia > Attack on Pearl Harbor
Attack on Pearl Harbor
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II

The attackers came in two waves. The first wave was detected by U.S. Army radar at 136 nautical miles (252 km), but was misidentified as USAAF bombers from the mainland.[1]
Date December 7, 1941
Location primarily Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, USA
Result Decisive Japanese victory; United States declares war on the Empire of Japan and enters World War II on the side of Allies; Nazi Germany declares war on the United States.
Combatants
Flag of the United States United States Flag of Japan Empire of Japan
Commanders
Navy:
Husband Kimmel
Army:
Walter Short
Navy:
Chuichi Nagumo
Strength
8 battleships,
8 cruisers,
29 destroyers,
9 submarines,
~50 other ships,
~390 aircraft
6 aircraft carriers,
9 destroyers,
2 battleships,
2 heavy cruisers,
1 light cruiser,
8 tankers,
23 fleet submarines,
5 midget submarines,
414 aircraft
Casualties
2 battleships sunk,
6 battleships damaged,
3 cruisers damaged,
2 destroyers sunk, 1 damaged,
1 other ship sunk, 3 damaged,[2]
188 aircraft destroyed,
155 aircraft damaged,
2,333 military and 55 civilians killed,
1,139 military and 35 civilians wounded[3][4]
4 midget submarines sunk,
1 midget submarine run aground,
29 aircraft destroyed,
55 airmen, 9 submariners killed and 1 captured

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a pre-emptive military strike on the United States Pacific Fleet base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii by the Empire of Japan's Imperial Japanese Navy, on the morning of Sunday, 7 December 1941. Two attack waves, totalling 350 aircraft were launched from six IJN aircraft carriers which destroyed two U.S. Navy battleships, one minelayer, two destroyers and 188 aircraft. Personnel losses were 2,333 killed and 1,139 wounded. Damaged warships included three cruisers, a destroyer, and six battleships. Of those six, one was deliberately grounded and was later refloated and repaired. Two sank at their berths but were later repaired and both rejoined the fleet late in the war. Vital fuel storage, shipyards, and submarine facilities were not hit. Japanese losses were minimal at 29 aircraft and five midget submarines, with 65 Japanese servicemen killed or wounded. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Pearl_Harbor_bombings_map. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... President Roosevelt The Infamy Speech was delivered on December 8, 1941 by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, one day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_-_variant. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... Husband Edward Kimmel (February 26, 1882 - May 14, 1958) was an admiral in the United States Navy. ... Walter Campbell Short (March 30, 1880–March 9, 1949) was a Lieutenant General in the United States Army and the U.S. military Commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Hawaii at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. ... Chuichi Nagumo (Japanese: 南雲 忠一, Nagumo ChÅ«ichi, March 25, 1887–July 6, 1944) was a Vice Admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and Commander of the 1st Air Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy for a while. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants British Army Canadian Army British Indian Army Royal Hong Kong Regiment Imperial Japanese Army Commanders Mark Aitchison Young Christopher Michael Maltby Sakai Takashi Strength 15,000 troops 50,000 troops Casualties 4,500 killed 8,500 POWs 706 killed 1,534 wounded Pacific campaigns 1941-42 Pearl Harbor – Thailand... Combatants Empire of Japan United States Commanders Shigeyoshi Inoue Sadamichi Kajioka Shigematsu Sakaibara Winfield S. Cunningham Strength 2,500 infantry[1] 523 infantry of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion {understrength}, VMF-211, US Navy/US Army personnel, Others[2] Casualties 700-900 dead, 2 destroyers, 2 patrol boats, 20 aircraft... The Netherlands East Indies campaign was the shortlived defence of the Netherlands East Indies by Allied forces, against invasion by the Empire of Japan in 1941-42. ... The New Guinea campaign was one of the major military campaigns of World War II. Fighting in the Australian mandated Territory of New Guinea (the north-eastern part of the island of New Guinea and surrounding islands) and Dutch New Guinea, between Allied and Japanese forces, commenced with the Japanese... It has been suggested that Japanese Raids into Indian Ocean be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants  United States  Japan Commanders James H. Doolittle Hideki Tojo Strength 16 B-25 Mitchells Unknown number of troops and homeland defense Casualties 3 dead, 8 POWs (4 died in captivity); 5 interned in USSR all 16 B-25s About 50 dead, 400 injured Lt. ... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants United States Navy Royal Australian Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Commanders Frank J. Fletcher John G. Crace Shigeyoshi Inoue Takeo Takagi Strength 2 large carriers, 3 cruisers 2 large carriers, 1 light carrier, 4 cruisers Casualties 1 fleet carrier, 1 destroyer, 1 oil tanker sunk 543 killed 1 light carrier... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... Combatants United States Empire of Japan Commanders Chester W. Nimitz Frank J. Fletcher Raymond A. Spruance Isoroku Yamamoto Chuichi Nagumo Tamon Yamaguchi â€  Strength 3 carriers, ~50 support ships, 233 carrier aircraft, 127 land-based aircraft 4 carriers, 7 battleships, ~150 support ships, 248 carrier aircraft, 16 floatplanes Casualties 1 carrier... Combatants  United States  Australia New Guinea[1]  New Zealand  United Kingdom Colony of Fiji[2] Solomon Is. ... Combatants United States, Canada Empire of Japan Commanders Thomas C. Kinkaid (navy), Francis W. Rockwell (landings), Albert E. Brown (army), Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. ... In the Pacific Theater of World War II, the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaigns, from November 1943 through February 1944, were the first offensive operations of the United States Navy and Marine Corps in the Central Pacific. ... In the Pacific theater of World War II, the American Marianas Campaign, known as Operation Forager, pushed westward from the Marshall Islands in the summer of 1944 to capture the islands of Saipan, Tinian, and Guam. ... The Volcano and RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands campaign was a series of battles and engagements between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around January, 1945 until June, 1945. ... A preemptive attack (or preemptive war) is waged in an attempt to repel or defeat an imminent offensive or invasion, or to gain a strategic advantage in an impending (usually unavoidable) war. ... A military strike is a limited attack on a specified target. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a theater-level unit of the U.S. armed forces, under the operational control of the United States Pacific Command. ... Modern Naval Tactics It is tempting to regard modern naval combat as the purest expression of tactics. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... A minelayer is a naval ship used for deploying sea mines. ... A midget submarine is a small submarine, typically with one or two crew and no on-board living accommodation. ...


The pre-emptive strike's intent was to protect Imperial Japan's advance into Malaya and the Dutch East Indies – for their natural resources such as oil and rubber – by neutralizing the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Both the US and Japan had long-standing contingency plans for war in the Pacific, developed during the 1930s as tension between the two countries steadily increased, focusing on the other's battleships. Japan's expansion into Manchuria and later French Indochina were greeted with increasing levels of embargoes and sanctions from the United States. In 1940, the US halted further shipments of airplanes, parts, machine tools and aviation gas to Japan, which Japan interpreted as an unfriendly act.[5] America continued to export oil to Japan, as it was understood in Washington that cutting off exports could mean Japanese retaliation.[6] In the summer of 1941, the US ceased the export of oil to Japan due to Japan's continued aggressive expansionist policy and because an anticipated eventual American entrance to the war in Europe prompted increased stockpiling and less commercial use of gasoline.[7] President Franklin D. Roosevelt had moved the fleet to Hawaii, and ordered a buildup in the Philippines, to reduce Japanese aggression in China and deter operations against others, including European colonies in Asia. The Japanese high command was certain any attack on the United Kingdom's colonies would inevitably bring the U.S. into the war.[8] A pre-emptive strike appeared the only way Japan could avoid U.S. interference in the Pacific. Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Lubbock, Texas Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... The United States Pacific Fleet (USPACFLT) is a theater-level unit of the U.S. armed forces, under the operational control of the United States Pacific Command. ... For other uses, see Battleship (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... FDR redirects here. ... Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


The attack was one of the most important engagements of World War II. Occurring before a formal declaration of war, it shocked the American public out of isolationism. Roosevelt called December 7, 1941 "… a date which will live in infamy." President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Isolationism is a foreign policy which combines a non-interventionist military policy and a political policy of economic nationalism (protectionism). ... President Roosevelt The Infamy Speech was delivered on December 8, 1941 by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt, one day after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. ...

Background to conflict

Main article: Events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor

More than a decade's worth of events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred prior to the actual engagement. War between Japan and the United States had been a possibility that each nation's militaries planned for since the 1920s, though real tension did not begin until the 1931 invasion of Manchuria by Japan. Over the next decade, Japan expanded slowly into China leading to all out war between the two in 1937. In 1940 Japan invaded French Indochina in an effort to embargo all imports into China, including war supplies purchased from the US. This move prompted an eventual American embargo on exporting oil to Japan, which in turn led the Japanese to execute an attack on Pearl Harbor, ensuring the US fleet would be unable to interfere with their simultaneous invasion of the Dutch East Indies for its oil and other resources as part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere Japan envisioned in the Pacific. More than a decades worth of events leading to the attack on Pearl Harbor occurred prior to the actual attack. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Vichy France Commanders Akihito Nakamura Takuma Nishimura Maurice Martin Strength 34,000 men 2,000 men Casualties  ? 800 The Invasion of French Indochina ), also known as the Vietnam Expedition, the Japanese Invasion of Vietnam, was an attempt by the Empire of Japan, during the Second Sino... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ...


Planning for an attack had begun in late 1940 early 1941, by Isoroku Yamamoto. Over the next year pilots were trained, and ships prepared for its execution. Despite all this preparation, the actual order to attack was not given until December 1st, after it was apparent all diplomatic means had failed to achieve their goals. Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ...


Approach and attack

Nakajima nicknamed "Kate" taking off from aircraft carrier Shokaku for Pearl Harbor on the morning while a crewman with hachimaki works
Nakajima nicknamed "Kate" taking off from aircraft carrier Shokaku for Pearl Harbor on the morning while a crewman with hachimaki works

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Background notes: Pearl Harbor attack Edit Info:Pearl Harbor attack source of image and caption text: http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 727 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (740 × 610 pixel, file size: 96 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Background notes: Pearl Harbor attack Edit Info:Pearl Harbor attack source of image and caption text: http://www. ... Shokaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Kiyoshi Ogawa wearing a hachimaki. ...

First wave

The first wave of attack consisted of 49 B5Ns, 51 D3As, 40 B5Ns, and 43 A6Ms (a total of 183 aircraft), launched north of Oahu, commanded by Captain Mitsuo Fuchida. It comprised: Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... Fuchida in training for attack on Pearl Harbor Mitsuo Fuchida (December 3, 1902 - May 30, 1976) was a Lieutenant-Commander (少佐) in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and a pilot before and during World War II. He headed the formation that led the first wave of attacks on Pearl Harbor...

The first attack wave divided into 3 groups. One unit went to Wheeler Field. Each of the aerial waves started with the bombers and ended with the fighters to deter pursuit. Nakajima B5N2 Kate in flight. ... “Kg” redirects here. ... The pound or pound-mass (abbreviations: lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States, #) is a unit of mass (sometimes called weight in everyday parlance) in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... ... The Type 91 was a 17. ... Aichi D3A1 in flight. ... For other uses, see Ford Island (disambiguation). ... Wheeler Army Airfield (IATA: HHI, ICAO: PHHI), formerly Wheeler Air Force Base, is a U.S. Army post located in the City & County of Honolulu and in the Wahiawa District of the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. ... Warfare Strafing (adaptation of German strafen - to punish) is the practice of shooting a machine gun, from an airplane in flight, at objects or people on the ground. ... Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH), formerly Kaneohe Marine Corps Air Station (KMCAS), is a U.S. Marine Corps base facility and air station located on the Mokapu Peninsula of windward Oahu in the City & County of Honolulu. ... Wheeler Army Airfield (IATA: HHI, ICAO: PHHI), formerly Wheeler Air Force Base, is a U.S. Army post located in the City & County of Honolulu and in the Wahiawa District of the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ...


At 03.42[10] Hawaiian Time, even before Nagumo began launching, the minesweeper USS Condor spotted a midget submarine outside the harbor entrance and alerted destroyer USS Ward. Ward carried out an unsuccessful search. The first shots fired, and the first casualties in the attack, occurred when Ward eventually attacked and sank a midget submarine, possibly the same one, at 06:37. The Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone includes the state of Hawaii, and the Aleutian Islands west of 169º 30 W. It is the time zone located just west of the Alaska Standard Time Zone. ... USS Pivot (AM 276) World War II United States Admirable Class Minesweeper shown in the Gulf of Mexico on sea trials 12 July 1944 Image:Hameln Class. ... The USS Condor (AMc-14) was constructed as New Example in 1937 at Tacoma, Washington; Acquired by the U.S. Navy, 28 October 1940 for conversion to a coastal minesweeper; Commissioned as USS Condor (AMc 14), 18 April 1941. ... USS Ward (DD-139) was a 1247-ton Wickes-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War I, later APD-16 in World War II. She was the first Navy ship to engage the Japanese during the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... There was debate for several years concerning which shots fired by Americans during the Attack on Pearl Harbor where the first American shots of World War II. It was found that the first American shots fired (and the first American-caused casualties) actually occurred when USS Ward attacked and sank...

Kazuo Sakamaki, first POW for the United States in World War II.
Kazuo Sakamaki, first POW for the United States in World War II.

Five midget submarines had been assigned to torpedo U.S. ships after the bombing started. None of these returned, and only four have since been found. Of the ten sailors aboard, nine died; the only survivor, Kazuo Sakamaki, was captured, becoming the first Japanese prisoner of war.[11] United States Naval Institute analysis of photographs from the attack, conducted in 1999, indicates one of these mini-subs entered the harbor and successfully fired a torpedo into the USS West Virginia, what may have been the first shot by the attacking Japanese. Her final disposition is unknown.[12] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kazuo Sakamaki (酒巻和男 Sakamaki Kazuo, November 8, 1918 - November 29, 1999) was a Japanese naval officer. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled explosive projectile weapon, launched above or below the water surface, propelled underwater toward a target, and designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Kazuo Sakamaki (酒巻和男 Sakamaki Kazuo, November 8, 1918 - November 29, 1999) was a Japanese naval officer. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The United States Naval Institute is a non-profit, professional organization in the United States related to the Navy. ... For other ships of this name, see USS West Virginia. ...


On the morning of the attack, the Army's Opana Point station (an SCR-270 radar, located near the northern tip of Oahu, which had not entered official service, having been in training mode for months), detected the first wave of Japanese planes and called in a warning. Although the operators at Opana Point reported a target echo larger than anything they had ever seen, an untrained new officer at the new and only partially activated Intercept Center, Lieutenant Kermit A. Tyler, presumed the scheduled arrival of six B-17 bombers was the cause because of the direction from which the aircraft were coming (only a few degrees separated the two inbound courses);[13] because he presumed the operators had never seen a formation as large as the U.S. bombers' on radar;[14] and possibly because the operators had only seen the lead element of incoming attack. The Opana Radar Site is a National Historic Landmark that commemorates the first operational use of radar by the United States in wartime, during the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... The U.S. Army SCR-270 radar, also known as The Pearl Harbor Radar was one of the first radars. ...


Several U.S. aircraft were shot down as the first wave approached land; one at least radioed a somewhat incoherent warning. Other warnings were still being processed, or awaiting confirmation, when the planes began bombing and strafing. It is not clear any warnings would have had much effect even had they been interpreted correctly and much more promptly. For instance, the results the Japanese achieved in the Philippines were essentially the same as at Pearl Harbor, though MacArthur had almost nine hours warning the Japanese had attacked at Pearl (and specific orders to commence operations) before they actually struck his command. The air portion of the attack on Pearl Harbor began at 7:48 a.m. December 7 Hawaiian Time (3:18 a.m. December 8 Japanese Standard Time, as used by the Kido Butai), with the attack on Kaneohe.[15] Japanese planes attacked in two waves; a total of 353 planes reached Oʻahu. Slow, vulnerable torpedo bombers led the first wave, exploiting the first moments of surprise to attack the most important ships present (the battleships), while dive bombers attacked U.S. air bases across Oʻahu, starting with Hickam Field, the largest, and Wheeler Field, the main AAC fighter base. The 170 planes in the second wave attacked the Air Corps' Bellows Field near Kaneohe on the windward side of the island, and Ford Island. The only significant air opposition came from a handful of P-36 Hawks and P-40 Warhawks that flew 25 sorties.[16] This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Imperial Ordinance issued on December 27, Meiji 28 (1895) Japan Standard Time (日本標準時 or 中央標準時) is the standard timezone in Japan that is 9 hours ahead of UTC; i. ... Bellows Air Force Station is a United States military reservation located in Waimanalo, Hawaii. ... For other uses, see Ford Island (disambiguation). ... The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, also know as Curtiss Hawk Model 75, was a U.S.-built fighter aircraft of the 1930s. ... The Curtiss P-40 was an American fighter aircraft which first flew in 1938 and played a vital role in the crucial middle stages of World War II. Developed from the pre-war radial-engined P-36 Hawk, the P-40 became known as the Tomahawk, the Kittyhawk, and finally... Sortie is a term for deployment of one military aircraft or a ship for the purposes of a specific mission, whether alone, or with other aircraft or vessels. ...

USS California sinking
USS California sinking

Men aboard U.S. ships awoke to the sounds of bombs exploding and cries of "Away fire and rescue party" and "All hands on deck, we're being bombed" and other various calls to General Quarters. (The famous message, "Air raid Pearl Harbor. This is not drill.",[17] was originated from the headquarters of Patrol Wing Two, the first senior comand in Hawaii to respond.) Despite the lack of preparation, which included locked ammunition lockers, aircraft parked wingtip to wingtip to prevent sabotage, and no heightened alert status, and on at least one battleship, all watertight doors open throughout the ship in preparation for an inspection, many American military personnel served with distinction during the battle. Rear Admiral Isaac C. Kidd, and Captain Franklin Van Valkenburgh, commander of USS Arizona, both rushed to the bridge to direct her defense, until both were killed by an explosion in the forward magazine from an armor piercing bomb hit next to turret two. Both were posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. Ensign Joe Taussig got his ship, USS Nevada, under way from a dead cold start during the attack. One of the destroyers, USS Aylwin, got underway with only four officers aboard, all Ensigns, none with more than a year's sea duty. That ship operated at sea for four days before her commanding officer managed to get aboard. Captain Mervyn Bennion, commanding USS West Virginia (Kimmel's flagship), led his men until he was cut down by fragments from a bomb hit in USS Tennessee, moored alongside. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (740x615, 95 KB) USS California sinking. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (740x615, 95 KB) USS California sinking. ... USS California (BB-44), a Tennessee-class battleship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 31st state. ... Captain (future Rear Admiral) Isaac C. Kidd, USN in a picture taken while he was Chief of Staff to the Commander, Base Force, U.S. Fleet Isaac Campbell Kidd (March 26, 1884 – December 7, 1941) was an American Rear Admiral in the United States Navy who was killed on the... Franklin van Valkenburgh (5 April 1888 – 7 December 1941) was the last captain of the USS Arizona. ... For the memorial to USS Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... The second United States Navy Nevada (BB-36) was a battleship, lead ship of her class of two (Oklahoma (BB-37) being the other). ... USS Aylwin (DD-355), a Farragut-class destroyer, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for John Cushing Aylwin. ... Mervyn Sharp Bennion (5 May 1887 – 7 December 1941) was an officer in the United States Navy. ... For other ships of this name, see USS West Virginia. ... It has been suggested that USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 2, USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 3, USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 4 and USS Tennessee (BB-43) Part 5 be merged into this article or section. ...


Gallantry was a commonplace. In all, 14 officers and sailors were awarded the Medal of Honor.[18] A special military award, the Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal, was later authorized for all military veterans of the attack. The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Awards and decorations of the United States military are military decorations which recognize a service members service and personal accomplishments while a member of the United States armed forces. ... Pearl Harbor Survivors Medal The Pearl Harbor Commemorative Medal, also known as the Pearl Harbor Survivor’s Medal, is a decoration of the United States military which was established by the United States Congress in 1991. ...


Second wave composition

Fighter Combat Units (Mitsubishi A6M Zeros) preparing to take off from aircraft carrier Shokaku for Pearl Harbor
Fighter Combat Units (Mitsubishi A6M Zeros) preparing to take off from aircraft carrier Shokaku for Pearl Harbor

The second wave consisted of 54 B5Ns, 78 D3As, and 35 A6Ms (a total of 167), launched from much the same location, commanded by Lieutenant-Commander Shigekazu Shimazaki. This wave and its targets comprised: From U.S. Naval Historical Center Public Domain Photographs [1] Japanese naval aircraft prepare to take off from an aircraft carrier (reportedly Shokaku) to attack Pearl Harbor during the morning of 7 December 1941. ... From U.S. Naval Historical Center Public Domain Photographs [1] Japanese naval aircraft prepare to take off from an aircraft carrier (reportedly Shokaku) to attack Pearl Harbor during the morning of 7 December 1941. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Shokaku (Japanese: 翔鶴 shōkaku meaning flying crane) was an aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy, the lead ship of her class. ... Lieutenant Commander (Lieutenant-Commander in the Royal Navy) is a commissioned officer rank in many navies superior to a Lieutenant and subordinate to a Commander. ... â™  Shigekazu Shimazaki was a Lieutenant-Commander in the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and leader of the 2nd wave of the attack on Pearl Harbor by planes. ...

  • 1st Group - 54 B5Ns armed with 550 lb and 120 lb general purpose bombs
    • 27 B5Ns - Aircraft and hangars on Kaneohe, Ford Island and Barbers Point
    • 27 B5N - Hangars and aircraft on Hickam Field
  • 2nd Group
    • 78 D3As armed with 550 lb general purpose bombs, in four sections
  • 3rd Group - 36 A6Ms for defense and strafing
    • 9 A6M - Ford Island
    • 9 A6M - Hickam Field
    • 9 A6M - Wheeler Field
    • 9 A6M - MCAS Kāneʻohe

The second wave was divided into three groups. One unit was tasked to attack Kāneʻohe, the rest Pearl Harbor proper. The separate sections arrived at the attack point almost simultaneously, from several directions.


Ninety minutes after it began, the attack was over. 2,386 Americans died (55 were civilians, most killed by unexploded American anti-aircraft shells landing in civilian areas), a further 1,139 wounded. Eighteen ships were sunk, including five battleships.[3][4]

B-17 after the attack on Hickam Field.
B-17 after the attack on Hickam Field.
USS Pennsylvania, behind the wreckage of the USS Downes and USS Cassin.
USS Pennsylvania, behind the wreckage of the USS Downes and USS Cassin.

Nearly half of the 1102 American fatalities were caused by the explosion and sinking of USS Arizona, the result of her forward magazine exploding after it was hit by a modified 40 cm (16in) shell.[19] Image File history File links NARA_28-1277a. ... Image File history File links NARA_28-1277a. ... A B_17 nicknamed Sally B in England in 2001 The B_17 Flying Fortress was the first mass_produced, four_engine heavy bomber. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (610x765, 158 KB) USS Pennsylvania Cassin Downes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (610x765, 158 KB) USS Pennsylvania Cassin Downes. ... The second USS Pennsylvania (BB-38) was the lead ship of her class of US Navy super-dreadnought battleships. ... The second USS Downes (DD-375) was a Mahan-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for John Downes. ... USS Cassin (DD-372) was launched at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard simultaneously with a sister ship, the USS Shaw on Navy Day, 1935. ... For the memorial to USS Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ...


Nevada attempted to exit the harbor, but was deliberately beached to avoid blocking the harbor entrance. Already damaged by a torpedo and on fire forward, Nevada was targeted by many Japanese bombers as she got underway, sustaining more hits from 250 lb (113 kg) bombs as she beached.


USS California was hit by two bombs and two torpedoes. The crew might have kept her afloat, but were ordered to abandon ship just as they were raising power for the pumps. Burning oil from Arizona and West Virginia drifted down on her, and probably made the situation look worse than it was. The disarmed target ship USS Utah was holed twice by torpedoes. USS West Virginia was hit by seven torpedoes, the seventh tearing away her rudder. USS Oklahoma was hit by four torpedoes, the last two above her belt armor, which caused her to capsize. USS Maryland was hit by two of the converted 40 cm shells, but neither caused serious damage. USS California (BB-44), a Tennessee-class battleship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 31st state. ... USS Utah (BB-31), a Florida-class dreadnought battleship, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the US State of Utah. ... For other ships of this name, see USS West Virginia. ... USS Oklahoma (BB-37), a Nevada-class battleship was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 46th state. ... A team at the 2005 ISAF Team Racing World Championship narrowly avoids capsizing. ... USS Maryland (BB-46), a Colorado-class battleship, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named in honor of the seventh state. ...


Although the Japanese concentrated on battleships (the largest vessels present), they did not ignore other targets. The light cruiser USS Helena was torpedoed, and the concussion from the blast capsized the neighboring minelayer USS Oglala. Two destroyers in dry dock were destroyed when bombs penetrated their fuel bunkers. The leaking fuel caught fire; flooding the dry dock in an effort to fight fire made the burning oil rise, and so the ships were burned out. The light cruiser USS Raleigh was holed by a torpedo. The light cruiser USS Honolulu was damaged but remained in service. The destroyer USS Cassin capsized, and destroyer USS Downes was heavily damaged. The repair vessel USS Vestal, moored alongside Arizona, was heavily damaged and beached. The seaplane tender USS Curtiss was also damaged. USS Shaw was badly damaged when two bombs penetrated her forward magazine.[20] USS Helena (CL-50) was a -class light cruiser of the United States Navy, damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor, and subsequently active in the Pacific War until she was sunk at the battle of Kula Gulf in 1943. ... USS Oglala (CM-4, later ARG-1) was a minelayer in the United States Navy. ... Bunkers in Albania A bunker is a defensive military fortification. ... The third USS Raleigh (CL-7) was laid down by Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Quincy, Massachusetts, 16 August 1920; launched 25 October 1922; sponsored by Miss Jennie Proctor; and commissioned in the Boston Navy Yard 6 February 1924, Capt. ... USS Honolulu (CL-48) of the United States Navy was a Brooklyn-class light cruiser active in the Pacific War. ... USS Cassin (DD-372) was launched at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard simultaneously with a sister ship, the USS Shaw on Navy Day, 1935. ... The second USS Downes (DD-375) was a Mahan-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for John Downes. ... The USS Vestal began life with a civilian crew in 1909 when she entered service as a fleet collier. ... USS Curtiss (AV-4) was launched 20 April 1940 by New York Shipbuilding Corp. ... The second USS Shaw (DD-373), a Mahan-class destroyer was laid down on 1 October 1934 at the United States Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; launched on 28 October 1935; sponsored by Miss. ...

Destroyer USS Shaw exploding after her forward magazine was detonated

Almost all of the 188 American aircraft in Hawaii were destroyed or damaged, 155 of those on the ground. Almost none were actually ready to take off to defend the base, having been parked wingtip to wingtip as a sabotage protection measure. Of 33 PBYs in Hawaii, 24 were destroyed, and six others damaged beyond repair. (The three on patrol returned undamaged.) Attacks on barracks killed additional personnel. Friendly fire brought down several U.S. planes, including at least one inbound from USS Enterprise. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1200, 368 KB)A navy photographer snapped this photograph of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941, just as the USS Shaw exploded. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1500x1200, 368 KB)A navy photographer snapped this photograph of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941, just as the USS Shaw exploded. ... The second USS Shaw (DD-373), a Mahan-class destroyer was laid down on 1 October 1934 at the United States Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; launched on 28 October 1935; sponsored by Miss. ... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ...


Fifty-five Japanese airmen and nine submariners were killed in the action. Of Japan's 387[21] available planes (350 took part in the attack), 29 were lost during the battle (nine in the first attack wave, 20 in the second),[22] with another 74 damaged by antiaircraft fire from the ground.


Possible third wave

Several Japanese junior officers, including Fuchida and Genda, urged Admiral Nagumo to carry out a third strike in order to destroy as much of Pearl Harbor's fuel storage, maintenance, and dry dock facilities as possible.[23] Some military historians have suggested the destruction of these oil tanks and repair facilities would have crippled the U.S. Pacific Fleet far more seriously than did loss of its battleships. If these vital facilities had been wiped out, "serious [American] operations in the Pacific would have been postponed for more than a year."[24] Nagumo, however, decided to forgo a third attack in favor of withdrawal for several reasons:

  • American anti-aircraft performance had improved considerably during the second strike, and two-thirds of Japan's losses were incurred during the second wave (20 out of 29 lost planes).[25] Nagumo felt if he launched a third strike, he would be risking three-quarters of the Combined Fleet's strength to wipe out the remaining targets (which included the port facilities) while suffering higher aircraft losses.[26]
  • The location of the American carriers remained unknown to Nagumo. In addition, the Admiral was concerned his force was now within range of American land-based bombers.[27] Nagumo was uncertain whether the U.S. had enough surviving planes remaining on Hawaii to launch an attack against Japan's carriers.[28]
  • A third wave attack would have required substantial preparation and turn-around time, and would have meant returning planes would have faced night landings. At the time, no Navy had developed night carrier techniques, so this was a substantial risk.
  • The task force's fuel situation did not permit him to remain in waters north of Pearl Harbor much longer since he was at the very limits of logistical support. To do so risked running unacceptably low on fuel, perhaps even having to abandon destroyers en route home.[29]
  • He believed the second strike had essentially satisfied the main objective of his mission—the neutralization of the Pacific Fleet—and did not wish to risk further losses.[30]

At a conference aboard Yamato the following morning, Yamamoto initially supported Nagumo's decision to withdraw.[31] In retrospect, however, Nagumo's decision to spare the vital dockyards, maintenance shops, and oil depots meant the U.S. could respond relatively quickly to Japanese activities in the Pacific. Yamamoto later regretted Nagumo's decision and categorically stated it had been a great mistake not to order a third strike.[32]


Aftermath

American response

President Franklin D. Roosevelt signing the Declaration of War against Japan on the day following the attack

On December 8, 1941, Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress, calling December 7, 1941 "a date which will live in infamy". Amid outrage at the attack and the late delivery of the note breaking off relations, actions considered treacherous, Congress declared war on Japan with Jeannette Rankin (Republican of Montana) casting the only dissenting vote. Roosevelt signed the declaration the same day. Continuing to intensify its military mobilization, the U.S. government finished converting to a war economy, a process begun by provision of weapons to the Soviet Union and Great Britain. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (923x1162, 169 KB) Description President Franklin Roosevelt signing the declaration of war against Japan, December 1941. ... FDR redirects here. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ... Jeannette Rankin (June 11, 1880 – May 18, 1973) was the first woman elected to the United States House of Representatives and the first female member of Congress. ... The Republican Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States of America, along with the Democratic Party. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... ... War economy is the term used to describe the contingencies undertaken by the modern state to mobilize its economy for war production. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Lend-Lease This article is about the World War II program. ...


The Pearl Harbor attack immediately galvanized a divided nation into action. Public opinion had been moving towards support for entering the war during 1941, but considerable opposition remained until the Pearl Harbor attack. Overnight, Americans united against Japan, and probably made possible the unconditional surrender position later taken by the Allied Powers.[citation needed] Some historians believe the attack on Pearl Harbor doomed Japan to defeat simply because it awakened the "sleeping beast", regardless of whether the fuel depots or machine shops had been destroyed or even if the carriers had been caught in port and sunk. U.S. industrial and military capacity, once mobilized, was able to pour overwhelming resources into both the Pacific and Atlantic theaters. Others believe Japanese trade protection was so incompetent, U.S. submarines could have strangled Japan into defeat alone. Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A convoy is a group of vehicles traveling together for mutual support. ...


Perceptions of treachery in the attack before a declaration of war sparked fears of sabotage or espionage by Japanese sympathizers residing in the U.S., including citizens of Japanese descent and was a factor in the subsequent Japanese internment in the western United States. Other factors included misrepresentations of intelligence information (none) suggesting sabotage, notably by General John DeWitt, commanding Coast Defense on the Pacific Coast, who had personal feelings against Japanese Americans.[33] In February 1942, Roosevelt signed United States Executive Order 9066, requiring all Japanese Americans to submit themselves for an internment. Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Jerome Relocation Camp The Japanese American internment refers to the exclusion and subsequent removal of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, officially described as persons of Japanese ancestry, 62% of whom were United States citizens, from the west coast of the United States during World War... John Lesesne DeWitt was an American Army general, best known for his role in the internment of Japanese-Americans during World War II. In the course of carrying out policy, he issued military proclamations that applied to American men, women and children who happened to have Japanese ancestry, restricting their... United States Executive Order 9066 was signed into law on February 19, 1942 (during World War II), by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, utilizing his authority as Commander in Chief to exercise war powers. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ...


Germany declares war

Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy declared war on the United States on December 11, allowing the US to formally enter the war in Europe. Hitler and Mussolini were under no obligation to declare war under the mutual defense terms of the Tripartite Pact. However, relations between the European Axis Powers and the United States had deteriorated since 1937. Earlier in 1941, the Nazis learned of the U.S. military's contingency planning to get troops in Continental Europe by 1943; this was Rainbow Five, made public by sources unsympathetic to Roosevelt's New Deal, and published by the Chicago Tribune. Hitler decided war with the United States was unavoidable, and the Pearl Harbor attack, the publication of Rainbow Five, and Roosevelt's post-Pearl Harbor address, which focused on European affairs as well as the situation with Japan, probably contributed to the declaration. Hitler underestimated American military production capacity, the nation's ability to fight on two fronts, and the time his own Operation BARBAROSSA would require. Similarly, the Nazis may have hoped the declaration of war, a showing of solidarity with Japan, would result in closer collaboration with the Japanese in Eurasia, particularly against the Soviet Union. Regardless of Hitler's reasons, the decision was an enormous strategic blunder and allowed the United States to enter the European war in support of the United Kingdom and the Allies without much public opposition. Fascism (in Italian, fascismo), capitalized, was the authoritarian political movement which ruled Italy from 1922 to 1943 under the leadership of Benito Mussolini. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ... During the 1920s, the United States Army developed a number of Color-coded War Plans to outline potential U.S. strategies for a variety of hypothetical war scenarios. ... The New Deal was the title President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave to the series of programs he initiated between 1933 and 1938 with the goal of providing relief, recovery, and reform (3 Rs) to the people and economy of the United States during the Great Depression. ... // The Chicago Tribune is a major daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois and owned by the Tribune Company. ... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Maresal Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Joseph Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ...


Hitler awarded Imperial Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany Hiroshi Oshima the Grand Cross of the Order of the German Eagle in Gold (1st class) after the attack, praising Japan for striking hard and without first declaring war.[34] The ensign of Imperial Japanese Navy was a prominent symbol of Imperial Japan. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Baron Hiroshi Oshima (男爵 大島 ひろし Danshaku ÅŒshima Hiroshi) (1886 - 1975) was the Japanese ambassador to Nazi Germany during World War II — and unknowingly a major source of communications intelligence for the Allies. ... asdfsdfasasdfasdfasdsssd This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Logistical and strategic analysis

Carrier Striking Task Force two-way route. Legend:      Kido Butai      USS Enterprise (CV-6)      USS Lexington (CV-2)

The attack on Pearl Harbor failed to sight or destroy any of the Pacific Fleet's aircraft carriers that, alongside any present battleships, were the primary targets of Japanese attack plans.[35] At the time of the Japanese attack, the United States was itself preparing for hostile Japanese action directed at US interests closer to Japan such as the Philippines or Allied bases in Borneo.[36] The carriers Lexington and Enterprise were ferrying additional fighters to American bases on the islands of Wake and Midway.[37] The attack resulted in the permanent loss of Arizona and Oklahoma, and removed several other battleships (including Nevada, West Virginia, and California) from the order of battle for months. However, all of these were older designs, too slow to serve as escorts for the carrier task forces which became central to the Pacific War, in any case. The most immediate consequences of the attack were the destruction of over 155 aircraft and shock to American pride. Download high resolution version (1004x710, 213 KB)Public Domain chart from Reports of General MacArthur, prepared by his General Staff. ... Download high resolution version (1004x710, 213 KB)Public Domain chart from Reports of General MacArthur, prepared by his General Staff. ... This is the Attack on Pearl Harbor order of battle Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy Imperial Japanese Navy Naval General Staff—Admiral Nagano Osami Combined Fleet Admiral Yamamoto Isoroku First Air Fleet Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi First Carrier Division Vice Admiral Nagumo Chuichi CV Akagi—Captain Hasegawa Kiichi Air... USS Enterprise (CV-6) was the sixth aircraft carrier of the United States Navy and the seventh US Navy ship of that name. ... The fourth USS Lexington (CV-2), nicknamed the Gray Lady or Lady Lex, was the second aircraft carrier of the United States Navy. ... USGS Landsat 7 ETM+ satellite image of Wake Island. ... Midway Atoll (also known as Midway Island or Midway Islands) is a 6. ... An order of battle (often abbreviated as ORBAT, OOB, or OB) is an organizational tool used by military intelligence to list and analyze enemy military units. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Genda's plan and Nagumo's execution, left the shore installations at Pearl Harbor almost untouched, excluding aircraft hangars. The Arizona was sunk and beyond repair. Its hull underlies the Arizona Memorial. The Oklahoma capsized, was raised, stripped of guns and superstructure, sold for scrap and sunk under tow to San Francisco Bay in 1947. These were the only battleships lost that day. California, Tennessee, West Virginia, Maryland, Nevada, and Pennsylvania were repaired and would later exact some revenge on Japanese battleships during the Battle of Surigao Strait. Cruisers, essential to carrier task forces later in the war, were considered tertiary targets and three suffered damage. Of 27 destroyers present, only two were lost: Cassin, and Downes. (Even so, machinery, stores, and weapons were salvaged from all ships written off.) Tank farms, containing 140 million gallons (530 million liters) of bunker oil, were unscathed providing a ready source of fuel for American submarines at the submarine base. Critical to the initial phase of the War and to commerce raiding throughout, these facilities would later illustrate the folly in Japanese planning. The Navy Yard, critical to ship maintenance, and repair of ships damaged in the attack was undamaged. The engineering and initial repair shops, as well as the torpedo store, were intact. Other items of base infrastructure and operation such as the power station continued to operate. Also most critical, the cryptanalysis unit, HYPO, located in the basement of the old Administration Building, was undamaged and benefited by gaining staff from unemployed ship's bands.[38] Combatants  United States  Australia  Philippines Empire of Japan Commanders William Halsey, Jr (3rd Fleet) Thomas C. Kinkaid (7th Fleet) Takeo Kurita (Centre Force) Shoji Nishimura â€  (Southern Force) Kiyohide Shima (Southern Force) Jisaburo Ozawa (Northern Force) Strength 17 aircraft carriers 18 escort carriers 12 battleships 24 cruisers 141 destroyers and destroyer... The USS Port Royal (CG-73), a Ticonderoga class cruiser. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers (originally torpedo boats, later submarines and aircraft). ... In the history of United States cryptographic efforts, Station HYPO (for Hawaii) has a very important part, and has been the subject of considerable controversy, both at the time and since. ...


The Army Air Force's loss of aircraft must be balanced against the fact its P-40s were obsolete (already scheduled for replacement by the P-38) and P-36. Japan might have achieved a good deal more with not much additional effort or loss.[39] The Curtiss P-40 was a US single-engine, single-seat, low-wing, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft which first flew in 1938, and was used in great numbers in World War II. It was a direct adaptation of the existing P-36 airframe to enable mass production... The Lockheed P-38 Lightning was one of the most important American fighters of the Second World War. ... The Curtiss P-36 Hawk, or as it was originally called, the Curtiss Hawk Model 75, was a US fighter aircraft of WW2. ...


Nagumo's hesitation, and failure to find and destroy the American carriers, may have been a product of his lack of faith in the attack plan, and of the fact he was a gunnery officer, not an aviator. In addition, Yamamoto's targeting priorities, placing battleships first in importance, reflected an out-of-date Mahanian doctrine, and an inability to extrapolate from history, given the damage German submarines did to British trade in World War I. In the end, Japan achieved surprisingly little for all her daring and apparent success.[40] Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (27 September 1840 - 1 December 1914) was a United States Navy officer, naval strategist, and educator, widely considered the foremost theorist of sea power. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The politics of a "Europe First" strategy, loss of air cover over Pearl Harbor, and subsequent loss of the Philippines, meant the U.S. Navy and Army Air Force were unable to play a significant role in the Pacific War for several months. Japan was temporarily free of worries about the rival Pacific naval power, which was at least part of what had been intended for the attack. Japan conquered Southeast Asia, the Southwest Pacific, and extended her reach far into the Indian Ocean, without interference. For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


In retrospect, the attack was a strategic disaster for Japan. It spurred the United States into a determination to fight to complete victory. The War resulted in the destruction of the Japanese armed forces, the Occupation of the Home Islands (a state never before achieved in Japan's history), and the loss of Okinawa and the Ryukyu Islands to the United States until 1972, while the Soviet Russian re-annexation of the Kurile islands and Sakhalin Island's southern part, and China's seizure of Formosa [Taiwan], and the loss of Korea have not been reversed to this day. Flag Capital Not specified Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Historical era Post-WWII  - Battle of Okinawa April 1–June 21, 1945  - Treaty of San Francisco April 28, 1952  - Disestablished May 14, 1972 Currency United States dollar The Government of the Ryukyu Islands ) or U.S. Military government of... The Kuril Islands The Kuril Islands (Russian: Кури́льские острова́), also known as Kurile Islands, stretch northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the North Pacific Ocean. ...

Capital ships prior to attack[41]
Location Battleships Aircraft carriers
United States
Atlantic 6 (8*) 4 (5*)
Pacific 9 3
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan Flag of Japan
Pacific 10 (11*) 9
*Including ships completed but not yet commissioned.
US: North Carolina, Washington and Hornet
Japan: Yamato
Capital ships after attack
Location Battleships Aircraft carriers
United States
Atlantic 6 (8*) 4 (5*)
Pacific 1 (6**) 3
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan Flag of Japan
Pacific 10 (11*) 9
**Ships which can be repaired.
Capital ships 12/1942
Location Battleships Aircraft carriers
United States
Atlantic 4 1
Pacific 12 (3**) 3
Flag of Japan Empire of Japan Flag of Japan
Pacific 10 6
**Ships which can be repaired.

Image File history File links US_Naval_Jack_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links US_Naval_Jack_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links US_Naval_Jack_48_stars. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Naval_Ensign_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...

Investigations and blame

President Roosevelt appointed an investigating commission, headed by U.S. Supreme Court Justice Owen Roberts to report facts and findings with respect to the attack on Pearl Harbor. It was the first of many official investigations (nine in all). Both the Fleet commander, Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel, and the Army commander, Lieutenant General Walter Short (the Army had been responsible for air defense of Hawaii, including Pearl Harbor, and for general defense of the islands against hostile attack), were relieved of their commands shortly thereafter. They were accused of "dereliction of duty" by the Roberts Commission for not making reasonable defensive preparations. None of the investigations conducted during the War, nor the Congressional investigation afterward, provided enough reason to reverse those actions. The decisions of the Navy and War Departments to relieve both was controversial at the time and has remained so. However, neither was court-martialed as would normally have been the result of dereliction of duty. On May 25, 1999, the U.S. Senate voted to recommend both officers be exonerated on all charges, citing "denial to Hawaii commanders of vital intelligence available in Washington". The Roberts Commission was a presidentially-appointed commission formed in December 1941, shortly after the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese in 1941, to investigate and report the facts relating to the attack. ... Owen Josephus Roberts (May 2, 1875 – May 17, 1955) was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court for fifteen years. ... Husband Edward Kimmel (February 26, 1882 – May 14, 1968) was an admiral in the United States Navy. ... Walter Campbell Short (March 30, 1880–March 9, 1949) was a Lieutenant General in the United States Army and the U.S. military Commander responsible for the defense of U.S. military installations in Hawaii at the time of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Japanese views

Japanese depiction of nine midget submarine crewmembers lost during the attack, excluding the POW, Kazuo Sakamaki.
Japanese depiction of nine midget submarine crewmembers lost during the attack, excluding the POW, Kazuo Sakamaki.

Although the Imperial Japanese government had made some effort to prepare their population for war via anti-U.S. propaganda, it appears most Japanese were surprised, apprehensive, and dismayed by the news they were now at war with the U.S., a country many Japanese admired. Nevertheless, the people at home and overseas thereafter generally accepted their government's account of the attack and supported the war effort until their nation's surrender in 1945.[42] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Kazuo Sakamaki (酒巻和男 Sakamaki Kazuo, November 8, 1918 - November 29, 1999) was a Japanese naval officer. ...


Japan's national leadership at the time appeared to have believed war between the U.S. and Japan had long been inevitable. In any case, Japanese-American relationships had already significantly deteriorated since Japan's invasion of China beginning in the early '30s, of which the United States strongly disapproved. In 1942, Saburo Kurusu, former Japanese ambassador to the United States, gave an address in which he talked about the "historical inevitability of the war of Greater East Asia."[43] He said war had been a response to Washington's longstanding aggression toward Japan. For example, provocations against Japan included the San Francisco School incident, (the United States' racist policies on Japanese immigrants), Naval Limitations Treaty, other Unequal treaties, the Nine Power Pact, constant economic pressure against Japan, culminating in the "belligerent" scrap metal and oil embargo in 1941 by the United States and Allied countries to contain and/or reverse the actions of the Empire of Japan especially in IndoChina during her expansion of influence and interests throughout Asia. In light of Japan's dependence on imported oil, the trade embargoes were especially significant. These pressures directly influenced Japan to go into alliance with Germany and Italy through the Tripartite Pact. According to Kurusu, because of these reasons, the Allies had already provoked war with Japan long before the attack at Pearl Harbor, and the United States was already preparing for war with Japan. Kurusu also states the United States was also looking for world domination, beyond just Asia, with "sinister designs" [44]. Some of this view seems to have been shared by Adolf Hitler, when he called it one of the reasons Germany declared war on the United States. He also had mentioned European imperialism toward Japan many years before. Therefore, according to Kurusu, Japan had no choice but to defend herself and so should rapidly continue to militarize, bring Germany and Italy closer as allies and militarily combat the United States, Britain, and the Netherlands. Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... The Gentlemens Agreement of 1907 ) was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan regarding immigration and racial segregation. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... Japanese name Kanji: Kana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Unequal Treaties, is a term used in reference to the type of treaties signed by several East Asian states, including Qing Dynasty China, late Tokugawa Japan, and late Joseon Korea, with Western powers and Imperial Japan, during the nineteenth and early twentieth... The Nine-Power Treaty ) was a treaty affirming the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China as per the Open Door Policy, signed by all of the attendees to the Washington Naval Conference on 6 February 1922. ... Categories: Stub | Waste ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... The Tripartite Pact, also called the Three-Power Pact, Axis Pact, Three-way Pact or Tripartite Treaty was a pact signed in Berlin, Germany on September 27, 1940 by Saburo Kurusu of Imperial Japan, Adolf Hitler of Nazi Germany, and Benito Mussolini of Fascist Italy entering as a military alliance... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Japan's leaders also saw herself as justified in her conduct, believing that they are building the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere. They also explained Japan had done everything possible to alleviate tension between the two nations. The decision to attack, at least for public presentation, was reluctant and forced on Japan. Of the Pearl Harbor attack itself, Kurusu said it came in direct response to a virtual ultimatum from the U.S. government, the Hull note, and so the surprise attack was not treacherous. Since the Japanese-American relationship already had hit its lowest point, there was no alternative; in any case, had an acceptable settlement of differences been reached, the Carrier Striking Task Force could have been called back. Poster of Manchukuo promoting harmony between Japanese, Han Chinese and Manchu. ... The Hull note was the de facto ultimatum delivered to Japan by the United States on November 26th, 1941. ... Ensign of the Imperial Japanese Navy and Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force Kido Butai (機動部隊), also known as the Pearl Harbor task force and the Carrier Striking Task Force, was a major component of the Combined Fleet and thus of the Imperial Japanese Navy (日本海軍, Nihon Kaigun) and was its primary carrier...


Perception of the attack today

Drawing found in the wreckage of one of the Japanese planes. It reads, "Hear! The voice of the moment of death. Wake up, you fools!" and "You damned! Go to the devil!"

Some Japanese today feel they were compelled to fight because of threats to their national interests and an embargo imposed by the United States, the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The most important embargo was on oil on which its Navy and much of the economy was dependent.[45] For example, the Japan Times, an English-language newspaper owned by one of the major news organizations in Japan (Asahi Shimbun), ran numerous columns in the early 2000s echoing Kurusu's comments in reference to the Pearl Harbor attack.[46] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (740x610, 145 KB) from http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (740x610, 145 KB) from http://www. ... For other uses, see Death (disambiguation). ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... The Japan Times is one of the few independent English newspapers published in Japan: it mainly competes with English editions of the major dailies, such as the Daily Yomiuri and the Mainichi Daily News, as well as the International Herald Tribune. ...


In putting the Pearl Harbor attack into context, Japanese writers repeatedly contrast the thousands of U.S. servicemen killed there with the hundreds of thousands of Japanese civilians killed in U.S. air attacks later in the War,[47] even without mentioning the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by the United States. The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ...


However, in spite of the perceived inevitability of the war by many Japanese, many also believe the Pearl Harbor attack, although a tactical victory, was actually part of a seriously flawed strategy for engaging in war with the U.S. As one columnist eulogizes, "The Pearl Harbor attack was a brilliant tactic, but part of a strategy based on the belief that a spirit as firm as iron and as beautiful as cherry blossoms could overcome the materially wealthy United States. That strategy was flawed, and Japan's total defeat would follow."[48] In 1991, the Japanese Foreign Ministry released a statement saying Japan had intended to make a formal declaration of war to the United States at 1 p.m. Washington time, 25 minutes before the attack at Pearl Harbor was scheduled to begin. This officially acknowledged something that had been publicly known for years. Diplomatic communications had been coordinated well in advance with the attack, but had failed delivery at the intended time. It appears the Japanese government was referring to the "14-part message", which did not actually break off negotiations, let alone declare war, but did officially raise the possibility of a break in relations. However, because of various delays, the Japanese ambassador was unable to make the declaration until well after the attack had begun. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs a declaration of war against the Empire of Japan on December 8, 1941, one day after the attack on Pearl Harbor. ...


Imperial Japanese military leaders appear to have had mixed feelings about the attack. Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto was unhappy about the botched timing of the breaking off of negotiations. He is rumored to have said, "I fear all we have done is awakened a sleeping giant and filled him with terrible resolve". Even though this quote is unsubstantiated, the phrase seems to describe his feelings about the situation. He is on record as having said, in the previous year, that "I can run wild for six months ... after that, I have no expectation of success."[49] A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... ŚŚŚ♥ Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto is portrayed in the 1970 film Tora! Tora! Tora!, as saying after his attack on Pearl Harbor, I fear all we have done is to awaken a sleeping giant and fill him with a terrible resolve. ...


The first Prime Minister of Japan during World War II, Hideki Tojo later wrote, "When reflecting upon it today, that the Pearl Harbor attack should have succeeded in achieving surprise seems a blessing from Heaven." Emblem of the Office of Prime Minister of Japan Kantei, Official residence of PM The Prime Minister of Japan ) is the usual English-language term used for the head of government of Japan, although the literal translation of the Japanese name for the office is Prime Minister of the Cabinet. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ...


Yamamoto had said, regarding the imminent war with the United States, "Should hostilities once break out between Japan and the United States, it is not enough that we take Guam and the Philippines, nor even Hawaii and San Francisco. We would have to march into Washington and sign the treaty in the White House. I wonder if our politicians (who speak so lightly of a Japanese-American war) have confidence as to the outcome and are prepared to make the necessary sacrifices?" [50] Official language(s) English, Hawaiian Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Flag Seal Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location Location of Washington, D.C., with regard to the surrounding states of Maryland and Virginia. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Impact

Posters like Allen Saalberg's iconic work strengthed American resolve against the Axis powers
Posters like Allen Saalberg's iconic work strengthed American resolve against the Axis powers

A common view is that the Japanese fell victim to victory disease because of the perceived ease of their first victories. It has also been stated by the Japanese military commanders and politicians who visited and lived in the United States, that their leadership (mostly military personnel) took the war with the United States relatively lightly, compared to them. For instance, Yamamoto's quote and Battle of Iwo Jima commander Tadamichi Kuribayashi's opinions expressed the views and concerns about the greater industrial power of the United States in comparison to Japan. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1097 × 1397 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) . . . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain . ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 471 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1097 × 1397 pixel, file size: 238 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) . . . we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain . ... An example of victory disease and its catastrophic results: Napoleons retreat from Moscow, painted by Adolph Northen in the 19th century Victory disease afflicts military commanders and armies who after victories, become weak and susceptible to defeat. ... Combatants  United States  Empire of Japan Commanders Holland Smith Tadamichi Kuribayashi â€  Strength 110,000 21,000 Casualties 8,226 dead 19,189 wounded,[1] 494 missing[1] Total: 27,909 20,703 dead,[1] 216 captured[1] Total: 20,919 The Battle of Iwo Jima was fought between the United... Tadamichi Kuribayashi (Japanese: 栗林忠道 Kuribayashi Tadamichi) (July 7, 1891 in Nagano prefecture, Japan - March 23, 1945 on Iwo Jima, Japan) was a Lieutenant General in the Imperial Japanese Army, best known as overall commander of the Japanese garrison during most of the Battle of Iwo Jima in World War II. Assigned...


Despite the perception of this battle as a devastating blow to America, only three ships were permanently lost to the U.S. Navy. These were the battleships Arizona, Oklahoma, and the old battleship Utah (then used as a target ship); nevertheless, much usable material was salvaged from them, including the two aft main turrets from Arizona. Heavy casualties resulted from Arizona’s magazine exploding and the Oklahoma capsizing. Four ships sunk during the attack were later raised and returned to duty, including the battleships California, West Virginia and Nevada. California and West Virginia had an effective torpedo-defense system which held up remarkably well, despite the weight of fire they had to endure, resulting in most of their crews being saved. Many of the surviving battleships were heavily refitted, including the replacement of their outdated secondary battery of anti-surface 5 inch (127 mm) guns with more useful turreted dual-purpose (antiaircraft and antiship) guns, allowing them to better cope with the new tactical reality.[51] Addition of modern radar to the salavaged vessels would give them a marked qualitative advantage over those of the IJN, and the slow battleships (incapable of operating with carrier task forces, unlike the Iowas) would prove useful delivering pre-invasion bombardment for the island hopping offensive against the Japanese in the pacific. Destroyers Cassin and Downes were total losses as ships, but their machinery was salvaged and fitted into new hulls, retaining their original names, while Shaw was raised and returned to service. For the memorial to USS Arizona (BB-39) in Pearl Harbor, see USS Arizona Memorial. ... USS Oklahoma (BB-37), a Nevada-class battleship was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 46th state. ... USS Utah (BB-31), a Florida-class dreadnought battleship, was the only ship of the United States Navy to be named for the US State of Utah. ... USS California (BB-44), a Tennessee-class battleship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 31st state. ... For other ships of this name, see USS West Virginia. ... The second United States Navy Nevada (BB-36) was a battleship, lead ship of her class of two (Oklahoma (BB-37) being the other). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... USS Iowa (BB-61), the lead ship of her class of battleship, was the fourth ship of the United States Navy, but second to be commissioned, to be named in honor of the 29th state. ... Island hopping refers to crossing an ocean by a series of shorter journeys between islands, as opposed to a single journey directly across the ocean to the destination. ... USS Cassin (DD-372) was launched at the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard simultaneously with a sister ship, the USS Shaw on Navy Day, 1935. ... The second USS Downes (DD-375) was a Mahan-class destroyer in the United States Navy during World War II. She was named for John Downes. ...


Of the 22 Japanese ships that took part in the attack, only one survived the war. As of 2006, the only U.S. ships in Pearl Harbor during the attack still remaining afloat are the Coast Guard Cutter Taney and the yard tug USS Hoga. Both remained active over 50 years after the attack and have been designated museum ships. USCGC Taney (WPG/WHEC-37) is a United States Coast Guard High Endurance Cutter, notable as the last ship floating that fought in the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... The yard tug Hoga, named after the Sioux Indian word for fish, was built by the Consolidated Shipbuilding Corporation at Morris Heights, New York, for the United States Navy. ...


In the long term, the attack on Pearl Harbor was a strategic blunder for Japan. Indeed, Admiral Yamamoto, who conceived it, predicted that even success here could not win a war with the United States, because American productive capacity was too large. One of the main Japanese objectives was to destroy the three American aircraft carriers stationed in the Pacific, but they were not present: Enterprise was returning from Wake, Lexington from Midway, and Saratoga was under refit at Puget Sound Naval Shipyard. Putting most of the U.S. battleships out of commission was regarded—in both navies and by most military observers worldwide—as a tremendous success for Japan. Look up Blunder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault carrier USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and in most cases recover aircraft, acting as a sea... Puget Sound Naval Shipyard (PSNS) is a United States Navy shipyard covering 179 acres (0. ...


Though the attack was notable for its large-scale destruction, the attack was not significant in terms of American fuel storage, maintenance and intelligence capabilities. Had Japan destroyed the American carriers, the U.S. would have sustained significant damage to the Pacific Fleet's ability to conduct offensive operations for a year or so (given no further diversions from the Atlantic Fleet). As it was, the elimination of the battleships left the U.S. Navy with no choice but to place its faith in aircraft carriers and submarines—the very weapons with which the U.S. Navy halted and eventually reversed the Japanese advance. A major flaw of Japanese strategic thinking was a belief the ultimate Pacific battle would be between battleships of both sides, in keeping with the doctrine of Captain Alfred Mahan. As a result, Yamamoto (and his successors) hoarded his battleships for a "decisive battle" that never happened. Rear Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan (27 September 1840 - 1 December 1914) was a United States Navy officer, naval strategist, and educator, widely considered the foremost theorist of sea power. ...


Ultimately, targets not on Genda's list, such as the Submarine Base and the old Headquarters Building, were more important than any battleship. It was submarines that immobilized IJN's heavy ships and brought Japan's economy to a standstill by crippling transportation of oil and raw materials. And in the basement of the old Administration Building was the cryptanalytic unit, HYPO, which contributed significantly to the Midway ambush and the Submarine Force's success.


Rise of anti-Japanese sentiment

Main article: Anti-Japanese sentiment
WWII propaganda posters using racial stereotypes were common. Shown here Adolf Hitler and Hideki Tojo of the Axis alliance.
WWII propaganda posters using racial stereotypes were common. Shown here Adolf Hitler and Hideki Tojo of the Axis alliance.

The attack on Pearl Harbor coupled with Japanese alliance with the Nazis and the ensuing war in the Pacific fueled anti-Japanese sentiment, racism, and xenophobia. Japanese, Japanese-Americans and Asians having a similar physical appearance were regarded with deep seated suspicion, distrust and hostility. The attack was viewed as having been conducted in an extremely underhanded way and also as a very "treacherous" or "sneaky attack." Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ... Image File history File links PropagandaHitlerTojo. ... Image File history File links PropagandaHitlerTojo. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... For the term used in computing, see stereotype (UML). ... Hitler redirects here. ... Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ... This box:      Racism has many definitions, the most common and widely accepted is that members of one race are intrinsically superior or inferior to members of other races. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Serving from 1999 to 2003, Army General Eric Shinseki of Hawaii became the first Asian American military chief of staff. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ...


Media

Roosevelt Pearl Harbor. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ... Roosevelt Infamy. ... A kilobyte (derived from the SI prefix kilo-, meaning 1,000) is a unit of information or computer storage equal to either 1,000 bytes or 1,024 bytes (210), depending on context. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Vorbis is an open source, lossy audio codec project headed by the Xiph. ...

Historical significance

Arizona barbette, 2005.

The attack had history-altering consequences. Prime Minister Winston Churchill, on hearing of the attack, wrote, "Being saturated and satiated with emotion and sensation, I went to bed and slept the sleep of the saved and thankful."[52] By opening the Pacific War, which ended in the unconditional surrender of Japan, it broke the power of an Asian check on Soviet expansion. The Allied victory in this war and subsequent U.S. emergence as a dominant world power, eclipsing Britain, have shaped international politics ever since. Image File history File links Pearl_az. ... Image File history File links Pearl_az. ... A barbette is the fixed area underneath a rotating gun turret on a warship. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ...


Moreover, Japan had complained since the Versailles Treaty of being treated as "second class" due to race. After WW2, and the example of the Holocaust, racism was far less acceptable; Japan in defeat had achieved what she could not in victory. Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ...

Damage to the headquarters building at Hickam, still visible.
Damage to the headquarters building at Hickam, still visible.

Pearl Harbor is generally regarded as an extraordinary event in American history, remembered as the first time since the War of 1812 America was attacked on its home soil by another country. While this assertion is technically erroneous, as Hawaii was not a state at the time, it was widely regarded as "home soil". It has become synonymous with "surprise attack" ever since in the U.S. Unfortunately, the mistakes of intelligence collection, sharing, and analysis leading to the Japanese success at Pearl Harbor did not, in the end, lead to lessons.[53] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2343x1576, 502 KB) Description HICKAM AIR FORCE BASE, Hawaii (AFPN) -- Bullet and shrapnel holes still scar the outside of the Pacific Air Forces headquarters building here. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2343x1576, 502 KB) Description HICKAM AIR FORCE BASE, Hawaii (AFPN) -- Bullet and shrapnel holes still scar the outside of the Pacific Air Forces headquarters building here. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... A homeland is the concept of the territory to which one belongs; usually, the country in which a particular nationality was born. ...


See also

Attacks on North America during World War II by the Axis Powers were rare, mainly due to the continents geographical separation from the central theaters of conflict in Europe and Asia. ... Day Of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor is a book written by Robert Stinnett. ... List of United States Navy and Coast Guard ships lost during World War II, from 7 December 1941 to 1 October 1945, sorted by type and name. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... The USS Arizona burning after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. ... The Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, founded in 1958 and recognized by the United States Congress in 1985[1], is an organization whose members were at or in the vicinity of Pearl Harbor, Hawaii during the Japanese attack of December 7, 1941. ... The Arizona is both a tomb and a memorial. ... For the Melvinss album, see Tora Tora Tora (album) Tora! Tora! Tora! is a 1970 American-Japanese film that dramatizes the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor and the series of American blunders that unintentionally improved its effectiveness. ...

References

Military of the United States Portal
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  1. ^ Testimony of Joseph Lockard, Signal Corps, United States Army
  2. ^ CinCP report of damage to ships in Pearl Harbor from www.ibiblio.org/hyperwar. Unless otherwsie stated, all vessels listed are salvageable.
  3. ^ a b Stetson Conn et al, (2000), Guarding the United States and Its Outposts; Chapter 7 - The Attack on Pearl Harbor, Washington D.C.: Center of Military History United States Army, pp. 193,194 and Note 62, <http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/Guard-US/ch7.htm> (Navy and Marines: 2,117 killed in action or died of wounds, 779 wounded; Army 215 killed in action or died of wounds, 360 wounded)
  4. ^ a b CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES (1946), INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK REPORT OF THE JOINT COMMITTEE ON THE INVESTIGATION OF THE PEARL HARBOR ATTACK, Washington D.C.: United States Government Printing Office, pp. 64-65, <http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/pha/congress/part_2.html#64>
  5. ^ Peace and War United States Foreign Policy 1931-1941 United States Government Printing Office 1983 Page 96:The "moral embargoes" of 1938 and 1939, referred to previously, brought about the cessation of the export to Japan of airplanes, aeronautic equipment, and certain other materials. As the rearmament program in the United States gained momentum and required more and more available strategic materials, this Government gradually adopted measures, legislative and administrative, which resulted in a steady decline of export to Japan of such materials. The Export Control Act of July 2, 1940 authorized the President, in the interest of national defense, to prohibit or curtail the export of basic war materials. Under that act, licenses were refused for the export to Japan of aviation gasoline and most types of machine tools, beginning in August 1940. After it was announced in September that the export of iron and steel scrap would be prohibited, Japanese Ambassador Horinouchi protested to Secretary Hull on October 8, 1940 that this might be considered an "unfriendly act".
  6. ^ Peace and War United States Foreign Policy 1931-1941 United States Government Printing Office 1983 Page 94: Referring to the question of "sanctions", the Ambassador warned that the probability must be contemplated that drastic embargoes on such important products as oil would be interpreted in Japan as sanctions, and that some form of retaliation might and probably would follow.
  7. ^ Peace and War United States Foreign Policy 1931-1941 United States Government Printing Office 1983 Page 125 In the course of this conversation the President reminded the Japanese Ambassador that the United States had been permitting oil to be exported from the United States to Japan; that this had been done because we realized that if these oil supplies had been shut off or restricted the Japanese Government and people would have used this as an incentive or pretext for moving down upon the Netherlands Indies in order to assure themselves of a greater oil supply; that the United States had been pursuing this policy primarily for the purpose of doing its utmost to preserve peace in the Pacific region; that our citizens were unable to understand why, at a time when they were asked to curtail their use of gasoline, the United States should be permitting oil supplies to go to Japan when Japan had given every indication of pursuing a policy of force and conquest in conjunction with the policy of world conquest and domination being carried on by Hitler.
  8. ^ Peattie & Evans, Kaigun
  9. ^ Prange et al., December 7th 1941.
  10. ^ ibid., p.72.
  11. ^ Sakamaki's unexpected survival was despised by many Japanese, who referred to his dead companions as "The Nine Young Gods."
  12. ^ John Rodgaard et al., "Pearl Harbor—Attack from Below," Naval History, December 1999 (accessed June 10, 2005).
  13. ^ Prange et al., op.cit., p.98.
  14. ^ ibid., p.97.
  15. ^ ibid., p.174.
  16. ^ USAF Historical Study No.85 credits 6 pilots with 10 planes destroyed: 1st Lt Lewis M. Sanders (P-36) and 2nd Lts Philip M Rasmussen (P-36), Gordon H. Sterling Jr. (P-36, killed in action), Harry W. Brown (P-36), Kenneth M. Taylor (P-40, 2), and George S. Welch (P-40, 4). Three of the P-36 kills were not verified by the Japanese and may have been shot down by naval anti-aircraft fire.
  17. ^ Odd though it may sound, "not" is correct, in keeping with standard telegraphic practice. This was confirmed by Beloite and Beloite after years of research and debate.
  18. ^ Probably the most famous single defender is Doris "Dorie" Miller, an African-American cook aboard West Virginia, who went beyond his duty assignment when he took over an unattended anti-aircraft gun, on which he had no training, while bombs were hitting his ship. He earned a Navy Cross, first African-American sailor so decorated.
  19. ^ The wreck of Arizona has become a memorial to those lost that day, most of whom remain within the ship. She continues to leak small amounts of fuel oil, 65 years after the attack.
  20. ^ USS Shaw
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ USAAF pilots of the 46th and 47th Pursuit Squadrons, 15th Pursuit Group, claim to have destroyed 10.
  23. ^ Harry A. Gailey, The War in the Pacific: From Pearl Harbor to Tokyo Bay, Presidio Press: 1995. p.68
  24. ^ Gailey, op. cit., pp.97-98
  25. ^ Edwin P. Hoyt, Pearl Harbor, G.K. Hall & Co., 1991, p.190
  26. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., p.190
  27. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., p.190
  28. ^ Hoyt, op. cit., p.191
  29. ^ Prange et al., Pearl Harbor Papers.
  30. ^ Gailey, op. cit., p.97.
  31. ^ ibid.
  32. ^ Gailey, op. cit., p.98.
  33. ^ Testimony of John L. DeWitt, 13 April 1943, House Naval Affairs Subcommittee to Investigate Congested Areas, Part 3, pp. 739-40 (78th Cong ., 1st Sess.), cited in Korematsu v. United States, footnote 2, reproduced at findlaw.com, accessed 13 Apr. 2007
  34. ^ Trial transcripts at Nuremberg 11 December 1945. More details of the exchanges at the meeting are available online at nizkor.org
  35. ^ Japanese Monograph Number 97 Pearl Harbor operation Prepared by Military History Section Headquarters, Army Forces Far East from ibiblio.org/pha.
  36. ^ War warning, dated 27 November 1941 The number and equipment of Japanese troops and the organization of naval task forces indicates an amphibious expedition against either the Philippines Thai or Kra Peninsula or possibly Borneo.
  37. ^ Richard Holmes, The World Atlas of Warfare: Military Innovations that Changed the Course of History (Viking, 1988), p.211.
  38. ^ Willmott, op. cit.; Blair, op. cit.; Beach, Submarine!; Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets and Undersea Victory.
  39. ^ Caidin, op. cit. and Fork-Tailed Devil (Ballantine, 1968).
  40. ^ Willmott, op. cit.; Peattie and Evans, op. cit..
  41. ^ Pearl Harbor Attack Hearings, Pt. 15, p. 1901-06 from http://www.ibiblio.org
  42. ^ Robert Guillain, I saw Tokyo burning: An eyewitness narrative from Pearl Harbor to Hiroshima (J. Murray, 1981). ISBN 0-7195-3862-9
  43. ^ Saburo Kurusu, http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1942/421126a.html Historical inevitability of the war of Greater East Asia], Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service, Tokyo, November 26, 1942 (accessed June 10, 2005).
  44. ^ Saburo Kurusu, http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1942/421126a.html Historical inevitability of the war of Greater East Asia], Foreign Broadcast Intelligence Service, Tokyo, November 26, 1942 (accessed June 10, 2005).
  45. ^ Haruko Taya & Theodore F. Cook, Japan at War: An Oral History (New Press; Reprint edition, 1993). ISBN 1-56584-039-9
  46. ^ Charles Burress, "Biased history helps feed U.S. fascination with Pearl Harbor," Japan Times, July 19, 2001 (accessed June 10, 2005);
  47. ^ Hiroaki Sato, "The View From New York: Debunking America's 'Good War' myth," Japan Times, June 25, 2001 (accessed June 10, 2005);
  48. ^ Burritt Sabin, "The War's Leagacy [sic: Dawn of a tragic era]," Japan Times, February 8, 2004 (accessed June 10, 2005).
  49. ^ Isoroku Yamamoto to Shigeharu Matsumoto (Japanese cabinet minister) and Fumimaro Kondoye (Japanese prime minister), quoted in Ronald Spector, Eagle Against the Sun: The American War With Japan (Vintage, 1985).
  50. ^ National Geographic mini-biography of Isoroku Yamamoto
  51. ^ In fact, their rate of fire was too low to deal with aircraft, as experience with kamikaze would demonstrate. Not until the introduction of a fully automatic 3 inch {76 mm} postwar was a suitable solution found.
  52. ^ Churchill, Winston. The Second World War, Vol. 3, 539. 
  53. ^ Hughes-Wilson Military Intelligence Blunders & Cover-Ups (Harper Collins, 2001). Clausen suggests creation of CIA solved the problem; the September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center demonstrate this is far from certain.

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... George Welch with his XP-86 Sabre George Schwartz Welch (May 18, 1918 – October 12, 1954) was a World War II flying ace, a Medal of Honor nominee, and an experimental aircraft pilot after the war. ... “Flak” redirects here. ... Doris Dorie Miller (October 12, 1919 – November 24, 1943) was an African American cook in the United States Navy and a hero during the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... The Navy Cross is the second highest medal that can be awarded by the Department of the Navy and the second highest award given for valor. ... The Arizona is both a tomb and a memorial. ... USAAF recruitment poster. ... December 11 is the 345th day of the year (346th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... Saburo Kurusu, (1886-1954), Japanese career diplomat. ... Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919–1921). ... USS Bunker Hill was hit by Ogawa (see picture left) and another kamikaze near Kyūshū on May 11, 1945. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ...

Further reading

  • McCollum memo A 1940 memo from a Naval headquarters staff officer to his superiors outlining possible provocations to Japan, which might lead to war (declassified in 1994).
  • Gordon W. Prange, At Dawn We Slept (McGraw-Hill, 1981), Pearl Harbor: The Verdict of History (McGraw-Hill, 1986), and December 7, 1941: The Day the Japanese Attacked Pearl Harbor (McGraw-Hill, 1988). This monumental trilogy, written with collaborators Donald M. Goldstein and Katherine V. Dillon, is considered the authoritative work on the subject.
  • Larry Kimmett and Margaret Regis, The Attack on Pearl Harbor: An Illustrated History (NavPublishing, 2004). Using maps, photos, unique illustrations, and an animated CD, this book provides a detailed overview of the surprise attack that brought the United States into World War II.
  • Walter Lord, Day of Infamy (Henry Holt, 1957) is a very readable, and entirely anecdotal, re-telling of the day's events.
  • W. J. Holmes, Double-Edged Secrets: U.S. Naval Intelligence Operations in the Pacific During World War II (Naval Institute, 1979) contains some important material, such as Holmes' argument that, had the U.S. Navy been warned of the attack and put to sea, it would have likely resulted in an even greater disaster.
  • Michael V. Gannon, Pearl Harbor Betrayed (Henry Holt, 2001) is a recent examination of the issues surrounding the surprise of the attack.
  • Frederick D. Parker, Pearl Harbor Revisited: United States Navy Communications Intelligence 1924–1941 (Center for Cryptologic History, 1994) contains a detailed description of what the Navy knew from intercepted and decrypted Japan's communications prior to Pearl.
  • Henry C. Clausen and Bruce Lee, Pearl Harbor: Final Judgment, (HarperCollins, 2001), an account of the secret "Clausen Inquiry" undertaken late in the war by order of Congress to Secretary of War Stimson.
  • Robert A. Theobald, Final Secret of Pearl Harbor (Devin-Adair Pub, 1954) ISBN 0-8159-5503-0 ISBN 0-317-65928-6 Foreword by Fleet Admiral William F. Halsey, Jr.
  • Albert C. Wedemeyer, Wedemeyer Reports! (Henry Holt Co, 1958) ISBN 0-89275-011-1 ISBN 0-8159-7216-4
  • Hamilton Fish, Tragic Deception: FDR and America's Involvement in World War II (Devin-Adair Pub, 1983) ISBN 0-8159-6917-1
  • John Toland, Infamy: Pearl Harbor and Its Aftermath (Berkley Reissue edition, 1986 ISBN 0-425-09040-X) is an excellent account by a Pulitzer Prize winning author, though thought by some not to back up his claims as thoroughly as expected by academic conventions.
  • Robert Stinnett, Day of Deceit: The Truth About FDR and Pearl Harbor (Free Press, 1999) A study of the Freedom of Information Act documents that led Congress to direct clearance of Kimmel and Short. ISBN 0-7432-0129-9
  • Edward L. Beach, Scapegoats: A Defense of Kimmel and Short at Pearl HarborISBN 1-55750-059-2
  • Andrew Krepinevich, [2]PDF (186 KiB) (Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments) contains a passage regarding the Yarnell attack, as well as reference citations.
  • Roberta Wohlstetter, Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision, (Stanford University Press: 1962). Regarded by many as the most important work in the attempt to understand the intelligence failure at Pearl Harbor. Her introduction and analysis of the concept of "noise" persists in understanding intelligence failures.
  • John Hughes-Wilson, Military Intelligence Blunders and Cover-Ups. Robinson, 1999 (revised 2004). Contains a brief but insightful chapter on the particular intelligence failures, and broader overview of what causes them.
  • Horn, Steve (2005). The Second Attack on Pearl Harbor: Operation K And Other Japanese Attempts to Bomb America in World War II. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-388-8. 
  • Seki, Eiji (2007). Sinking of the SS Automedon And the Role of the Japanese Navy: A New Interpretation. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 1905246285. 
  • Daniel Madsen, Resurrection-Salvaging the Battle Fleet at Pearl Harbor. U.S. Naval Institute Press. 2003. Highly readable and thoroughly researched account of the aftermath of the attack and the salvage efforts from December 8, 1941 through early 1944.

More than a year before the Pearl Harbor attack, Lieutenant Commander Arthur McCollum of the Office of Naval Intelligence submitted a memo to Navy Captains Walter Anderson and Dudley Knox. ... Gordon William Prange was the author of several World War II-based manuscripts, published after his death in 1980. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Walter Lord (October 8, 1917 – May 19, 2002) was an American author, best known for his documentary-style non-fiction account A Night to Remember, about the sinking of the RMS Titanic. ... Henry C. Clausen (born 1905) was the author of the Clausen Report, an 800-page report on the Army Board’s Pearl Harbor Investigation. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 &#8211; October 20, 1950) was an American statesman. ... Robert Alfred Fuzzy Theobald (1884-1957) was a United States rear admiral and, most notably the author of the 1947 book The Final Secret of Pearl Harbor: The Washington Background of the Pearl Harbor Attack. ... William Bull Halsey William Frederick Bull Halsey, Jr. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Hamilton Fish Hamilton Fish, (3 August 1808–7 September 1893), born in New York City, was an American statesman who served as Governor of New York, United States Senator and United States Secretary of State. ... Robert B. Stinnett. ... Edward Latimer Beach, Jr. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

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Accounts

  • Guarding The United States And Its Outposts Official U.S. Army history of Pearl Harbor
  • War comes to Hawaii Honolulu Star-Bulletin, Monday, Sept. 13, 1999

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Attack on Pearl Harbor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (7796 words)
The perception of the treacherous nature of the attack on Pearl Harbor also sparked fears of sabotage or espionage by Japanese Americans and was a factor in the subsequent Japanese internment in the western United States, and Roosevelt signed United States Executive Order 9066 requiring all Japanese Americans to show up for arrest and internment.
Of Pearl Harbor itself, he said that it came in direct response to a virtual ultimatum, the Hull note, from the U.S. government, and that the surprise attack was not treacherous because it should have been expected.
In terms of military history, the attack on Pearl Harbor marked the emergence of the aircraft carrier as the center of naval power, replacing the battleship as the keystone of the fleet.
Pearl Harbor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1170 words)
Pearl Harbor is a simple embayment on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu.
It was the attack on Pearl Harbor by Japan on December 7, 1941 that brought the United States into World War II.
In 1917, Ford Island in the middle of Pearl Harbor was purchased for joint Army and Navy use in the development of military aviation in the Pacific.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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