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Encyclopedia > Atropine
Atropine
Systematic (IUPAC) name
(8-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]oct-3-yl) 3-hydroxy-2-phenyl-propanoate
Identifiers
CAS number 51-55-8
ATC code A03BA01 S01FA01
PubChem 174174
DrugBank APRD00807
Chemical data
Formula C17H23NO3 
Mol. mass 289.369
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 25%
Metabolism 50% hydrolysed to tropine and tropic acid
Half life 2 hours
Excretion 50% excreted unchanged in urine
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

C(US) Image File history File links Atropine. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 786 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 687 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A03A Drugs for functional bowel disorders A03AA Synthetic anticholinergics, esters with tertiary amino group A03AA01 Oxyphencyclimine A03AA03 Camylofin A03AA04 Mebeverine A03AA05 Trimebutine A03AA06 Rociverine A03AA07 Dicycloverine A03AA08 Dihexyverine A03AA09 Difemerine A03AA30 Piperidolate A03AB Synthetic anticholinergics, quaternary... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules. ... The DrugBank database available at the University of Alberta is a unique bioinformatics and cheminformatics resource that combines detailed drug (i. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... The molecular mass (abbreviated Mr) of a substance, formerly also called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW, is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of unchanged drug that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Drug metabolism is the metabolism of drugs, their biochemical modification or degradation, usually through specialized enzymatic systems. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a molecule is split into two parts by reacting with a molecule of water, which has the chemical formula H2O. One of the parts gets an OH- from the water molecule and the other part gets an H+ from the water. ... It has been suggested that Effective half-life be merged into this article or section. ... Excretion is the process of eliminating waste products of metabolism and other materials that are of no use. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Legal status

Rx only The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ...

Routes Oral, IV, rectal

Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. It is a secondary metabolite of these plants and serves as a drug with a wide variety of effects. Being potentially deadly, it derives its name from Atropos, one of the three Fates who, according to Greek mythology, chose how a person was to die. In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the giving of liquid substances directly into a vein. ... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... Chemical structure of ephedrine, a phenethylamine alkaloid An alkaloid is, strictly speaking, a naturally occurring amine produced by a plant,[1] but amines produced by animals and fungi are also called alkaloids. ... Binomial name L. Deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), also known as belladonna or dwale, is a well-known perennial herbaceous plant, with leaves and berries that are highly toxic and hallucinogenic. ... Genera Acnistus Atropa (deadly nightshade) Browallia Brugmansia (angels trumpet) Brunfelsia Calibrachoa Capsicum (peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Juanulloa Lycianthes Lycium (boxthorn) Mandragora (mandrake) Nicandra Nicotiana (tobacco) Nierembergia or cupflower Nolana Petunia Physalis (tomatillo) Scopolia Solandra Solanum (tomato, potato, eggplant) Streptosolen Withania... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into natural product. ... Sildenafil citrate, sold under the names Viagra, Revatio and (in the Indian subcontinent) Caverta, is a drug used to treat male erectile dysfunction (impotence) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), developed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer. ... In Greek mythology, Atropos was the third of the Moirae. ... In Greek mythology, the white-robed Moirae or Moerae (Greek Μοίραι – the Apportioners, often called the Fates) were the personifications of destiny (Roman equivalent: Parcae, sparing ones, or Fatae; also equivalent to the Germanic Norns). ...

Contents

Physiological effects and uses

Generally, atropine lowers the "rest and digest" activity of all muscles and glands regulated by the parasympathetic nervous system. This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. (Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter used by the parasympathetic nervous system.) Therefore, it may cause swallowing difficulties and reduced secretions. A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... Human submaxillary gland. ... Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... A competitive antagonist is a receptor antagonist which binds to a receptor but fails to activate it. ... An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ... The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Chemical structure of D-aspartic acid, a common amino acid neurotransmitter. ... Anatomy and Physiology of the A.N.S. In contrast to the voluntary nervous system, the involuntary or autonomic nervous system is responsible for homeostasis, maintaining a relatively constant internal environment by controlling such involuntary functions as digestion, respiration, and metabolism, and by modulating blood pressure. ...


Ophthalmic use

Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic, to temporarily paralyze the accommodation reflex, and as a mydriatic, to dilate the pupils. Atropine degrades slowly, typically wearing off in 2 to 3 days, so tropicamide and phenylephrine are generally preferred as mydriatics. The effects of atropine can last up to two weeks. In atropine-induced mydriasis, the mechanism of action involves blocking the contraction of the circular pupillary sphincter muscle which is normally stimulated by acetylcholine release, thereby allowing the radial pupillary dilator muscle to contract and dilate the pupil. Atropine is contraindicated in patients predisposed to narrow angle glaucoma. In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. ... Cycloplegia is the paralysis of the ciliary muscle, resulting in a loss of accommodation. ... Human eye The Accommodation Reflex is a reflex action of the eye, in response to focusing on a near object, then looking at distant object (and vice versa). ... Categories: Medicine stubs | Sign (medicine) ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black). ... Tropicamide (troe-PIK-a-mide) is an acetylcholine receptor blocker. ... Phenylephrine or neosynephrine is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist used primarily as a decongestant, as an agent to dilate the pupil and, rarely, to increase blood pressure. ... // Mydriasis is an excessive dilation of the pupil due to disease or drugs. ... The iris sphincter muscle, also known as the sphincter pupillae, pupillary sphincter, or circular muscle of iris, is a muscle in the part of the eye called the iris. ... The iris dilator muscle, also known as the pupil dilator muscle, pupillary dilator, dilator pupillae, or radial muscle of iris, is a muscle of the human body. ...


Atropine can be given to patients who have direct globe trauma.


Resuscitation

Injections of atropine are used in the treatment of bradycardia (an extremely low heart rate), asystole and pulseless electrical activity (PEA) in cardiac arrest. This works because the main action of the vagus nerve of the parasympathetic system on the heart is to slow it down. Atropine blocks that action and therefore may speed up the heart rate. The usual dose of atropine is 0.5 to 1 mg every three to five minutes, up to a maximum dose of 3 mg. Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ... In medicine, asystole is a state of no cardiac electrical activity, hence no contractions of the myocardium and no cardiac output or blood flow. ... Pulseless Electrical Activity is a phenomenon where the heart still conducts the electrical impulses required to stimulate the heart, but the heart muscle does not contract enough to produce an output. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ...


Atropine is also useful in treating first degree heart block, second degree heart block Mobitz Type 1 (Wenckebach block), and also third degree heart block with a high Purkinje or AV-nodal escape rhythm. It is usually not effective in second degree heart block Mobitz type 2, and in third degree heart block with a low Purkinje or ventricular escape rhythm. Atropine is contraindicated in ischemia-induced conduction block, because the drug increases oxygen demand of the AV nodal tissue, thereby aggravating ischemia and the resulting heart block. First degree AV block or PR prolongation is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart in which the PR interval is lengthened. ... Second degree AV block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ... Third degree AV block, also known as complete heart block, is a defect of the electrical system of the heart, in which the impulse generated in the atria (typically the SA node on top of the right atrium) does not propagate to the ventricles. ... Purkinje fibers (or Purkyne tissue) are located in the inner ventricular walls of the heart, just beneath the endocardium. ... The atrioventricular node (abbreviated AV node) is an area of specialized tissue between the atria and the ventricles of the heart, which conducts the normal electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles. ... An escape rhythm is a heart rhythm that is initiated at places other than the sinus node. ... Second degree AV block is a disease of the electrical conduction system of the heart. ...


One of the main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system is to stimulate the M2 muscarinic receptor in the heart, but atropine inhibits this action. Autonomic nervous system innervation, showing the sympathetic and parasympathetic (craniosacral) systems, in red and blue, respectively The parasympathetic nervous system is one of three divisions of the autonomic nervous system. ... Amanita muscaria from which muscarine was isolated Acetylcholine - natural agonist of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ... Amanita muscaria from which muscarine was isolated Acetylcholine - natural agonist of muscarinic and nicotinic receptors. ...


Secretions and bronchoconstriction

Atropine's actions on the parasympathetic nervous system inhibits salivary, sweat, and mucus glands. This can be useful in treating Hyperhidrosis and can prevent the death rattle of dying patients. Even though it has not been officially indicated for either of these purposes by the FDA, it has been used by physicians for these purposes.[citation needed] Primary hyperhidrosis is the condition characterized by abnormally increased perspiration, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. ... A death rattle is a gurgling or rattle-like noise produced by the accumulation of excessive respiratory secretions in the throat. ...


Antidote for organophosphate poisoning

By blocking the action of acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors, atropine also serves as an antidote for poisoning by organophosphate insecticides and nerve gases. Troops who are likely to be attacked with chemical weapons often carry autoinjectors with atropine and obidoxime which can be quickly injected into the thigh. It is often used in conjunction with Pralidoxime chloride. The chemical compound acetylcholine, often abbreviated as ACh, was the first neurotransmitter to be identified. ... Muscarinic receptors are those membrane bound acetylcholine receptors that are more sensitive to muscarine than to nicotine. ... An organophosphate (sometimes abbreviated OP) is the general name for esters of phosphoric acid and is one of the organophosphorus compounds. ... An insecticide is a pesticide used against insects in all developmental forms. ... Also known as Nerve agents, it is the term used for a type of chemical warfare substance that interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses. ... Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Obidoxime is a member of oxime family used to treat nerve gas poisoning. ... // Overview Structure of the molecule pralidoxime Pralidoxime belongs to a family of compounds, called oximes that bind to organophosphate inactivated acetylcholinesterase. ...


Atropine is given as an antidote to SLUDGE (Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Diaphoresis, Gastrointestinal motility, Emesis) symptoms caused by organophosphate poisoning. For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Tears trickling down the cheeks Lacrimation is the bodys process of producing tears, which are a liquid to clean and lubricate the eyes. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ... Diaphoresis is excessive sweating commonly associated with shock and other medical emergency conditions. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ...


Some of the nerve gases attack and destroy acetylcholinesterase, so the action of acetylcholine becomes prolonged. Therefore, atropine can be used to reduce the effect of acetylcholine. In biochemistry, cholinesterase is a term which refers to one of the two enzymes (EC 3. ...


Side effects and overdose

Adverse reactions to atropine include ventricular fibrillation, supraventricular or ventricular tachycardia, dizziness, nausea, blurred vision, loss of balance, dilated pupils, photophobia, and possibly, notably in the elderly, extreme confusion, hallucinations, and excitation. These latter effects are due to the fact that atropine is able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Because of the hallucinogenic properties, some have used the drug recreationally, though this is very dangerous and often unpleasant. Fibrillation is the rapid, irregular, and unsynchronized contraction of the muscle fibers of the heart. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Vertigo, a specific type of dizziness, is a major symptom of a balance disorder. ... For the Beck song, see Nausea (song). ... Photophobia (also light sensitivity) or fear of light, is a symptom of excessive sensitivity to light and the aversion to sunlight or well-lit places. ... Look up Confusion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Confusion can have the following meanings: Unclarity or puzzlement, e. ... A hallucination is a sensory perception experienced in the absence of an external stimulus, as distinct from an illusion, which is a misperception of an external stimulus. ... Excitation is the amount of energy (energy in a general sense, not energy as defined in physics) that Curtis has. ... Freeze-fracture morphology of the blood-brain barrier of a rat The blood-brain barrier (abbreviated BBB) is a membranic structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function. ... The general group of pharmacological agents commonly known as hallucinogens can be divided into three broad categories: psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ...


In overdoses, atropine is poisonous. Atropine is sometimes added to other potentially addictive drugs; abuse of those drugs is then prevented by the unpleasant effects of atropine overdose.[citation needed] The skull and crossbones symbol (Jolly Roger) traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ...


Although atropine treats bradycardia (slow heart rate) in emergency settings, it can cause heart rate slowing when given at very low doses, presumably as a result of a weak partial agonist effect at the cardiac muscarinic receptors.[citation needed] Bradycardia, as applied in adult medicine, is defined as a heart rate of under 60 beats per minute, though it is seldom symptomatic until the rate drops below 50 beat/min [1]. It is also less commonly known as brachycardia. ... Agonists An agonist is a substance that binds to a receptor and triggers a response by the cell. ...


The antidote to atropine is physostigmine or pilocarpine. Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ... Pilocarpine is a muscarinic alkaloid obtained from the leaves of tropical American shrubs from the genus Pilocarpus. ...


A commonly used mnemonic used to described the physiologic manifestions of atropine overdose is: "hot as a hare, blind as a bat, dry as a bone, red as a beet, and mad as a wet hen".[1] This set of symptoms is known as anticholinergic toxidrome, and may also be caused by other drugs with anticholinergic effects, such as diphenhydramine, phenothiazine antipsychotics and benztropine.[2] Not to be confused with pneumonic. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Stub ... Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (trade name Benadryl, as produced by J&J, or Dimedrol outside the U.S.) is an over-the-counter (OTC) antihistamine and sedative. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ... The term antipsychotic is applied to a group of drugs used to treat psychosis. ... Benztropine (Cogentin®) is an anticholinergic drug principally used for the treatment of: Drug-induced parkinsonism, akathisia and acute dystonia; Parkinson disease; and Idiopathic or secondary dystonia. ...


Chemistry and pharmacology

Atropine is a racemic mixture of D-hyoscyamine and L-hyoscyamine, with most of its physiological effects due to L-hyoscyamine. Its pharmacological effects are due to binding to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. It is an antimuscarinic agent. In chemistry, a racemate is a mixture of equal amounts of left- and right-handed stereoisomers of a chiral molecule. ... Hyoscyamine is a chemical compound, a tropane alkaloid it is the levo-isomer to atropine. ... An acetylcholine receptor (abbreviated AChR) is an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. ...


The most common atropine compound used in medicine is atropine sulfate (C17H23NO3)2·H2SO4·H2O, the full chemical name is 1α H, 5α H-Tropan-3-α ol (±)-tropate(ester), sulfate monohydrate. In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


History

Mandragora (mandrake) was described by Theophrastus in the fourth century B.C. for treatment of wounds, gout, and sleeplessness, and as a love potion. By the first century A.D. Dioscorides recognized wine of mandrake as an anaesthetic for treatment of pain or sleeplessness, to be given prior to surgery or cautery.[1] The use of Solanaceae containing tropane alkaloids for anaesthesia, often in combination with opium, persisted throughout the Roman and Islamic Empires and continued in Europe until superseded by the use of ether, chloroform, and other modern anaesthetics. Species Mandragora autumnalis Mandragora officinarum Mandragora turcomanica Mandragora caulescens Mandrake is the common name for members of the plant genus Mandragora belonging to the nightshades family (Solanaceae). ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... Love potion can refer to many things: A potion that is said to have the power to cause its imbiber to fall in love with the person who gave it to them. ... Pedanius Dioscorides (ca. ... Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Genera Acnistus Atropa (deadly nightshade) Browallia Brugmansia (angels trumpet) Brunfelsia Calibrachoa Capsicum (peppers) Cestrum Chamaesaracha Combera Crenidium Cuatresia Cyphanthera Cyphomandra Datura (jimsonweed) Hyoscyamus (henbane) Iochroma Juanulloa Lycianthes Lycium (boxthorn) Mandragora (mandrake) Nicandra Nicotiana (tobacco) Nierembergia or cupflower Nolana Petunia Physalis (tomatillo) Scopolia Solandra Solanum (tomato, potato, eggplant) Streptosolen Withania... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ... An alkaloid is a nitrogenous organic molecule that has a pharmacological effect on humans and other animals. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ... Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ...


Atropine extracts from the Egyptian henbane were used by Cleopatra in the last century B.C. to dilate her pupils, in the hope that she would appear more alluring. In the Renaissance, women used the juice of the berries of Atropa belladonna to enlarge the pupils of their eyes, for cosmetic reasons; "bella donna" is Italian for "beautiful lady". Binomial name Hyoscyamus niger L. Henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) is a plant of the family Solanaceae that originated in Eurasia. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... For information on the erotic actress Belladonna see: Belladonna. ...


The mydriatic effects of atropine were studied among others by the German chemist Friedrich Ferdinand Runge (17951867). In 1831 the pharmacist Mein succeeded the pure crystalline isolation of atropine. The substance was first synthesized by German chemist Richard Willstätter in 1901. Chemistry - the study of atoms, made of nuclei (conglomeration of center particles) and electrons (outer particles), and the structures they form. ... Friedrich (or Friedlieb/Friedlob) Ferdinand Runge (born near Hamburg on 8 February 1795, died in Oranienburg on 25 March 1867) was an analytical chemist. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Cunt BAg Twat Fuk suck my penis ring 0778851865!!!!!!Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Richard Willstätter Richard Martin Willstätter (August 13, 1872 – August 3, 1942) was a German chemist whose study of the structure of chlorophyll and other plant pigments won him the 1915 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. ...


Natural sources

Atropine is found in many members of the Solanaceae family. The most commonly found sources are Atropa belladonna, Datura inoxia, D. metel, and D. stramonium. Other sources include members of the Brugmansia and Hyoscyamus genera. The Nicotiana genus (including the tobacco plant, N. tabacum) is also found in the Solanaceae family, but these plants do not contain atropine or other tropane alkaloids. For information on the erotic actress Belladonna see: Belladonna. ... Binomial name Datura inoxia Mill. ... Species Metel Category: ... Binomial name Datura stramonium L. Datura stramonium, also called Jimson Weed, Gypsum Weed, Loco Weed, Jamestown Weed, Thorn Apple, Angels Trumpet, Devils Trumpet, Mad Hatter, Crazy Tea, and Zombies Cucumber is a common poisonous weed in the Nightshade Family. ... Species See text Brugmansia is a genus of six species of flowering plants in the family Solanaceae, native to subtropical regions of South America, along the Andes from Colombia to northern Chile, and also in southeastern Brazil. ... Species 11, see text Hyoscyamus is a small genus of plants containing eleven species known generally as the henbanes. ... Species See text Nicotiana refers to a genus of short-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of August 26, 2005 Tobacco (, L.) refers to a genus of broad-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America, or to the dried and cured leaves of such plants. ... Chemical structure of tropane Tropane (C8H15N, 8-methyl-8-aza-bicyclo[3. ...


See also

The Mark I NAAK, or MARK I Kit, is United States military nomenclature for the Nerve Agent Antidote Kit. It is a dual-chamber auto-injector: Two anti-nerve agent drugs -- atropine sulfate and pralidoxime chloride -- each in injectible form, constitute the kit. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Robert S. Holzman, MD (1998-07). The Legacy of Atropos 241-249. Retrieved on 2007-05-21. citing J. Arena, Poisoning: Toxicology-Symptoms-Treatments, 3rd edition. Springfield, Charles C. Thomas, 1974, p 345
  2. ^ Szajewski J (1995). Acute anticholinergic syndrome. IPCS Intox Databank. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... May 21 is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Atropine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (824 words)
This occurs because atropine is a competitive antagonist of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
Topical atropine is used as a cycloplegic, to temporarily paralyze accommodation, and as a mydriatic, to dilate the pupils.
Atropine extracts from the Egyptian henbane were used by Cleopatra in the last century B.C. to dilate her pupils, in the hope that she would appear more alluring.
Atropine (406 words)
Atropine is an antagonist of the M-choline receptors.
Atropine dilates the pupil and paralyses the accommodation.
Atropine is a caunter-poison in intoxication with all agents, acting by M-choline receptor influence, as it penetrates in CNS and eliminates central effects of toxins.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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