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Encyclopedia > Atrophy

Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body. Causes of atrophy include poor nourishment, poor circulation, loss of hormonal support, loss of nerve supply to the target organ, disuse or lack of exercise or disease intrinsic to the tissue itself. Hormonal and nerve inputs that maintain an organ or body part are referred to as trophic. In medical circles, wasting refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to waste away. ... With regard to living things, a body is the integral physical material of an individual, and contrasts with soul, personality and behavior. ... Nutrition is interpreted as the study of the organic process by which an organism assimilates and uses food and liquids for normal functioning, growth and maintenance and to maintain the balance between health and disease. ... Human circulatory system. ... A hormone (from Greek horman - to set in motion) is a chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues that perform a specific function or group of functions. ... (for options, see option exercise) U.S. marine emerges from the water upon completing the swimming portion of the triathlon. ...


Atrophy is a general physiological process of reabsorption and breakdown of tissues, involving apoptosis on a cellular level. It can be part of normal body development and homeostatic processes, or as a result of disease, or loss of trophic support due to other disease is termed pathological atrophy. Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... Biological tissue is any substance made up of cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Homeostasis is the property of an open system, especially living organisms, to regulate its internal environment to maintain a stable, constant condition, by means of multiple dynamic equilibrium adjustments, controlled by interrelated regulation mechanisms. ... A disease is an abnormal condition of the body or mind that causes discomfort, dysfunction, or distress to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ...

Contents


Atrophy examples

In normal development

Examples of atrophy as part of normal development include shrinkage and involution of the thymus in early childhood and the tonsils in adolescence. In human anatomy, the thymus is a ductless gland located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity. ... The Palatine tonsils. ...


Brain Atrophy

The brain decreases in mass during aging. Brain atrophy in pathological states such as Alzheimer's Disease can be severe. The loss of brain mass is caused by a decrease in both white matter and grey matter, indicating that there is increased death of neurons and their supporting cells. It is not clear if brain atrophy can be reversed, but there is recent data that indicates the possibility that new neurons are formed in the adult - indicating the possibility that there are pathways available to forestall or even reverse brain atrophy. Comparative brain sizes In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system. ...


Breast Atrophy

Atrophy of the breasts can occur with prolonged estrogen reduction, as with anorexia nervosa or menopause. Atrophy of the testes occurs with prolonged use of enough exogenous sex steroid (either androgen or estrogen) to reduce gonadotropin secretion. The adrenal glands atrophy during prolonged use of exogenous glucocorticoids like prednisone. Photograph of a pregnant human females breasts. ... Estrogens (also oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds, named for their importance in the oestrus cycle, functioning as the primary female sex hormone. ... For other uses, see Anorexia nervosa (disambiguation). ... Menopause is the physiological cessation of menstrual cycles associated with advancing age in species that experience such cycles. ... A sex steroid is a steroid hormone which interacts with vertebrate androgen or estrogen receptors. ... Androgen is the generic term for any natural or synthetic compound, usually a steroid hormone, that stimulates or controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics in vertebrates by binding to androgen receptors. ... Estrogens (also oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds, named for their importance in the oestrus cycle, functioning as the primary female sex hormone. ... Gonadotropins are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates. ... Grays Fig. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... Prednisone is a synthetic corticosteroid drug which is usually taken orally and can be used for a large number of different conditions. ...


Muscle Atrophy

Disuse atrophy of muscles (muscle atrophy) and bones, with loss of mass and strength, can occur after prolonged immobility, such as extended bedrest, or having a body part in a cast (living in darkness for the eye, bedridden for the legs, etc). This type of atrophy can usually be reversed with exercise unless severe. Astronauts must exercise regularly to minimize atrophy of their limb muscles while they are in microgravity. A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ... // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ... Grays illustration of a human femur, a typically recognized bone. ... Bedrest as a medical treatment refers to staying in bed day and night as a treatment for an illness or medical condition, especially when prescribed or chosen rather than resulting from severe prostration or imminent death. ...


There are many diseases and conditions which cause atrophy of muscle mass. For example diseases such as cancer and AIDS induce a body wasting syndrome called "cachexia", which is notable for the severe muscle atrophy seen. Other syndromes or conditions which can induce skeletal muscle atrophy are congestive heart failure and liver disease. // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ... // Clinical settings of atrophy There are many diseases and conditions which cause a decrease in muscle mass, known as atrophy. ... Congestive heart failure (CHF), also called congestive cardiac failure (CCF) or just heart failure, is a condition that can result from any structural or functional cardiac disorder that impairs the ability of the heart to fill with or pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body. ...


During aging, there is a gradual decrease in the ability to maintain skeletal muscle function and mass. This condition is called "sarcopenia", and may be distinct from atrophy in its pathophysiology. While the exact cause of sarcopenia is unknown, it may be induced by a combination of a gradual failure in the "satellite cells" which help to regenerate skeletal muscle fibers, and a decrease in sensitivity to or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival. Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Satellite cells are found in the mature muscle around the muscle fibres, and differentiate from myoblasts. ...


Dystrophies, Myosities, and Motor Neuron Conditions

Pathologic atrophy of muscles can occur due to diseases of the motor nerves, or due to diseases of the muscle tissue itself. Examples of atrophying nerve diseases include CMT (Charcot Marie Tooth syndrome)poliomyelitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease), and Guillain-Barre syndrome. Examples of atrophying muscle diseases include muscular dystrophy, myotonia congenita, and myotonic dystrophy. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is a viral paralytic disease. ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, sometimes called Lou Gehrigs disease, Maladie de Charcot or motor neurone disease) is a progressive, almost invariably fatal neurological disease. ... suck my mommas cock bitch ... Motor neurone disease (MND) is a term used to cover a number of illnesses of the motor neurone: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progressive muscular atrophy (PMA), progressive bulbar palsy (PBP) and progressive lateral sclerosis (PLS). ... Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), is an acquired immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the peripheral nervous system (i. ... The muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic and hereditary muscle diseases; characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, defects in muscle proteins, and the death of muscle cells and tissue. ... Myotonia congenita is a genetic, neuromuscular disorder characterized by the slow relaxation of the muscles. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


Vaginal Atrophy

In post-menopausal women, the walls of the vagina thin - this process is called atrophy. The mechanism for the age-related condition is not yet clear, though there are theories that the effect is caused by decreases in estrogen levels.


Research

It has been reported that Astemizole might prevent 97% of the muscle wasting that occurs in immobile, bedridden patients.[1] Testing upon mice showed that it blocked the activity of a protein present in the muscle that is involved in muscle atrophy.[2] However the concerns for the drug's longterm effects on the heart preclude its routine use in humans for this indication and further alternative drugs are being sought.[3] Astemizole is a second generation antihistamine that has a long duration of action. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Atrophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (342 words)
Atrophy is the partial or complete wasting away of a part of the body.
Atrophy is a general physiological process of reabsorption and breakdown of tissues, involving apoptosis on a cellular level.
Examples of atrophy as part of normal development include shrinkage and involution of the thymus in early childhood and the tonsils in adolescence.
Dorlands Medical Dictionary (2436 words)
atrophy in which the affected viscus assumes a brownish hue, due to intracellular accumulation of lipofuscin; it is seen chiefly in the heart, liver, and spleen of the elderly.
atrophy of an endocrine organ presumably caused by prolonged overwork of that organ.
atrophy of an organ in the course of infectious disease.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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