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Roman Catholic image of Jesus Christ as the Sacred Heart - no copyright This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links Christian_cross. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed () and, in part, in the Apostles Creed (the holy catholic church, sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). ... Given the overwhelming influence exercised by Christianity, especially in pre-modern Europe, Christian theology permeates much of Western culture and often reflects that culture. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... The Twelve Apostles (, apostolos, Liddell & Scott, Strongs G652, someone sent forth/sent out) were men that according to the Synoptic Gospels and Christian tradition, were chosen from among the disciples (students) of Jesus for a mission. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... The purpose of this chronology is to give a detailed account of Christianity from the beginning of the current era to the present. ...


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Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


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Christianity Portal

The atonement is a doctrine found within both Christianity and Judaism. It describes how sin can be forgiven by God. In Judaism, Atonement is said to be the process of forgiving or pardoning a transgression. This was originally accomplished through rituals performed by a High Priest on the holiest day of the Jewish year: Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). In Christian theology, the atonement refers to the forgiving or pardoning of sin through the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, which made possible a reconciliation between God and creation. Within Christianity there have been numerous theories of atonement put forward, including the ransom theory, the Abelardian theory, and Anselmian satisfaction. Atonement may refer to: Atonement, in Christian theology Atonement (Babylon 5) Atonement (governmental view) Atonement, a novel by Ian McEwan Atonement (film), the Joe Wright directed film adaptation of the above novel. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The term High Priest may refer to particular individuals who hold the office of ruler-priest in local regional or ethnic contexts. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... Crucifixion of St. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Ransom view of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ which originated in the early Church, particularly in the work of Origen. ... The Moral influence view of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and, while originating in the Middle Ages, has been largely taught in liberal Christian circles, most famously by Charles G. Finney, whose Systematic Theology exounded... The satisfaction view of the atonement (also known as the penal or punishment theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed circles. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word atonement gained widespread use in the sixteenth century after William Tyndale recognized that there was no direct translation of the concept into English. In order to explain the doctrine of Christ's sacrifice, which accomplished both the remission of sin and reconciliation of man to God, Tyndale invented a word that would encompass both actions. He wanted to overcome the inherent limitations of the word "reconciliation" while incorporating the aspects of "propitiation" and forgiveness. It is interesting to note that while Tyndale labored to translate the 1526 English Bible, his proposed word comprises two parts, 'at' and 'onement,' which also means reconciliation, but combines it with something more. Although one thinks of the Jewish Fast of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement), the Hebrew word is ‘kaper’ ing ‘a covering’, so one can see that ‘reconciliation’ doesn't precisely contain all the necessary components of the word atonement. Expiation means “to atone for.” Reconciliation comes from Latin roots re, meaning “again”; con, meaning “with”; and ultimately, 'sol', a root meaning “seat”. Reconciliation, therefore, literally means “to sit again with.” While this meaning may appear sufficient, Tyndale thought that if translated as "reconciliation," there would be a pervasive misunderstanding of the word's deeper significance to not just reconcile, but "to cover," so the word was invented. It has been suggested that The Tyndale Society be merged into this article or section. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


The Atonement in Christianity

A number of theories of the atonement have been advanced by Christians to explain how and why the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ redeem. Concerning them, their usefulness, and their role, C. S. Lewis wrote: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ...

We are told that Christ was killed for us, that His death has washed out our sins, and that by dying He disabled death itself. That is the formula. That is Christianity. That is what has to be believed. Any theories we build up as to how Christ's death did all this are, in my view, quite secondary: mere plans or diagrams to be left alone if they do not help us, and, even if they do help us, not to be confused with the thing itself. All the same, some of these theories are worth looking at.[1]

Catholic view

Held by many Christians, this view holds that Jesus willingly sacrificed himself as an act of perfect obedience (the Gospels show him struggling with this in the Garden of Gethsemane), atoning for the disobedience of Adam, and thus cleansing Mankind of the stain of original sin. Jesus's sacrifice was an offering of love that pleased God more than man's sin offended God, so now all who believe in Jesus and keep his commandments may receive salvation in his name, see also Great Commission and Sermon on the Mount. The Garden of Gethsemane. ... Michelangelos The Creation of Adam, a fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, shows God creating Adam, with Eve in His arm. ... Michelangelos painting of the sin of Adam and Eve (the Fall) According to Christian tradition, original sin is the general condition of sinfulness (lack of holiness) into which human beings are born (Psalm 51:5[1]). Original sin is also called hereditary sin, birth sin, or person sin. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ...


Judicial (Protestant) view

By contrast, the Catholic view off-shoot titled the judicial view was held by Martin Luther, and a major cause of the Reformation. It is held by the majority of Protestants. Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


This view emphasizes God as Judge. Humanity had sinned and God was therefore required, in His justice, to punish humankind. However, God sent His Son, who was sinless, to take the sin of the world on his shoulders, so that anyone who accepted the gift of Jesus's act could be freed from the consequences of his sin, without violating God's judgement.


The result is that through Christ's death, the Old Covenant passed away and all things became new in a New Covenant. The veil separating man and God was torn, and the people were free to work out their own salvation through the only true Mediator, Jesus Christ, rather than seeking salvation through rituals, rules, or an exclusive priesthood. People who hold this view generally believe that only acceptance of Christ's sacrifice is necessary for salvation, not a ritual or a sacrament. See also Antinomianism. This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Antinomianism (from the Greek αντι, against + νομος, law), or lawlessness (in the Greek Bible: ανομια), in theology, is the idea that members of a particular religious group are under no obligation to obey the laws of ethics or morality as presented by religious authorities. ...


This view of the theological significance of Jesus's resurrection is analogous to the Jewish Day of Atonement, by which the sins of the Israelites were put onto a flawless scapegoat, who was then released into the wilderness, taking the sins of the people with him. Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Christus Victor

The Christus Victor view, which is more common among Lutherans (see, e.g. G. Aulen's book Christus Victor), and Eastern Orthodox Christians, holds that Jesus was sent by God to defeat death and Satan. Because of his perfection, voluntary death, and Resurrection, Jesus defeated Satan and death, and arose victorious. Therefore humanity was no longer bound in sin, but was free to rejoin God through faith in Jesus. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... For other uses, see Satan (disambiguation). ...


In contrast to the Judicial view, the Christus Victor model emphasizes a spiritual battle between good and evil. This battle is on a cosmic scale. The Judicial view would require Christians to believe that God voluntarily punished Jesus for their sins, whereas the Christus Victor view sees humanity as formerly in the power of Satan, who was defeated by Jesus; and God, through Jesus, broke us out of Satan's power.


The Christus Victor sometimes has also been used to argue that Jesus defeated sin and death for everyone, whether or not they hear of Jesus, granting non-Christians the chance of eternal life (or a guarantee thereof, depending on the particular theology in question).


First Man view

The First Man view, held by a small minority of Christians, especially Pelagians and Semi-Pelagians, states that Jesus was a person just like the rest of humanity, but due to his remarkable faith, purity, sinlessness, and perfection, he earned eternal life, and was resurrected because Death could not hold him. They also believe that by following his teachings and example others may also ultimately earn eternal life. Pelagianism is the belief that original sin did not taint human nature (which, being created from God, was divine), and that mortal will is still capable of choosing good or evil without Divine aid. ... Semi-Pelagianism is a softer form of Pelagianism, which taught that humanity has the capacity to seek God in and of itself apart from any movement of God’s Word or the Holy Spirit. ...


The First Man view can be compared with the Old-Testament stories of Enoch and Elijah, who walked with God to such a degree of faithfulness that they were not required to die. Enoch 'was no more,' and Elijah was carried in a whirlwind. In the same way, Jesus was faithful to such a degree, that even though he was killed, his Faith earned him Eternal Life. And in the same way, if we are faithful to the same degree, we can also be free from death. // For the original Hebrew name, see Hanoch. ... Elijah (אֱלִיָּהוּ Whose/my God is the Lord, Standard Hebrew Eliyyáhu, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĔliyyāhû), also Elias (NT Greek Ἠλίας), is a prophet of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament. ...


Need for a Redeemer

Many Christians believe the atonement was necessary to compensate and reverse the fall of Adam as noted in 1 Corinthians:

For Adam was formed first, then Eve. It was not Adam who was deceived; it was the woman, who, yielding to deception, fell into sin... As in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.[2]

In this view Jesus is believed to have submitted voluntarily as the liaison for both humanity and God to answer the ends of the law previously transgressed by Adam. However, Stephen L Harris, among others, views this attribution as slightly simplistic, and a conflict with the history of Ancient Israel (or the Old Testament). Harris argues that the promises given to Abraham were fulfilled when God promised David a royal kingship forever and the temple on Mount Zion was established: Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... The angel prevents the sacrifice of Isaac (Rembrandt, 1634) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... David and Goliath by Caravaggio, c. ... Mount Zion (Hebrew: ‎ transliteration: Har Tziyyon - Height) is the ancient name of a mountain in jerusalem southe of the old city. ...

David is told he will rule over Israel 'forever' (2 Sam 7:8-17; 23:5 Ps. 89:19-37). When Davidic kings are crowned, Yahweh adopts them as 'sons,' echoing Yahweh's paternal relationship to Canaanite rulers (Ps 2;110). Because of the close bond between Yahweh and the Davidic dynasty, the authors of Chronicles can refer to the Davidic throne as God's "kingdom" (1 Chron. 17:14; 28:5; 29:11).[3]

Professor Hiroshi Obayashi, Former Chair and Professor of the Department of Religious Studies Rutgers, agrees with Harris and believed this created a dilemma within God's kingdom when the Israelites were involved in the diaspora, or the great scattering due to Assyrian and Babylonian occupation. The diaspora was seen as a "rejection of the entire past" by the Prophets Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, Jeremiah and Deutero Isaiah, thus God completely rejected the history of Ancient Israel along with the creation stories of Adam and Eve.[4] The prophets redefined the "covenantal religion into one of faith, justice, and love" and ushered in a new view of the afterlife after the Maccabean revolt. "This time it was not the shared suffering of all of the Jews (much like the stories in Joshua), but only those who remained loyal to the Torah who suffered and died. Thus the ancient belief of Sheol, the underworld, which summarized the common fate of all the Jews proved no longer satisfactory."[4] Sheol, or a state of nothingness, was replaced by the idea of resurrection, "the most individualistic of all religious conceptions...Resurrection and apocalypticism were the answer to changing times."[4] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Tetragrammaton. ... The term: diaspora (in Greek, διασπορά – a scattering or sowing of seeds) is used (without capitalization) to refer to any people or ethnic population forced or induced to leave their traditional ethnic homelands; being dispersed throughout other parts of the world, and the ensuing developments in their dispersal and culture. ... Amos was a Biblical prophet (see Amos (prophet)) and putative author of the Book of Amos. ... See also Hoshea, who has the same name in Biblical Hebrew. ... Isaiah the Prophet in Hebrew Scriptures was depicted on the Sistine Chapel ceiling by Michelangelo. ... Jeremiah Lamenting the Destruction of Jerusalem by Rembrandt van Rijn. ... The Kingdom of Israel (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yisraʾel, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yiśrāʾēl) according to the Bible, was the nation... The Maccabees were a Jewish family who fought against the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes of the Hellenistic Seleucid dynasty, who was succeeded by his infant son Antiochus V Eupator. ... In Hebrew, Sheol (שאול) is the abode of the dead, the underworld, the common grave of mankind or pit.[1] In the Hebrew Bible, it is a comfortless place beneath the earth, beyond gates, where both the bad and the good, slave and king, pious and wicked must go after death...


This new theme of resurrection is seen in the early Christian tradition. Many Christians came to understand the atonement as the theology of Jesus dying on the cross for the sins of humanity. Seen in this way, they regarded the atonement as the crowning achievement of the Christian faith. It answered the theological question of why God or the Son descended on earth as a human man, born to the virgin Mary as the human baby Jesus, and the need for an intercession for the human family and paralleling the Greek myth of Dionysus. The physical and spiritual mechanics of how the atonement was accomplished is thought to be outside the realm of human rationality, thus it requires faith to be believed. As a preamble to the Atonement, Christ taught love, faith, hope, kindness, forbearance, to bear one another's burdens, repentance, forgiveness, baptism, and endeavored to overcome the sins of the world through the Atonement by fulfilling the ends of the laws of heaven, which Christ is said to have established with direction from the Father. This was accomplished through his preeminent example of perfection, overcoming temptation, descending below all things (including the Crucifixion), and overcoming the world by making all things new physically (resurrection) and spiritually (salvation). Many Christian denominations believe the Atonement was finished with the suffering and execution of Christ on the cross, and still others believe it was finished with the resurrection. Nevertheless, Christians largely believe the Atonement is considered to be accomplished, subsequently unlocking the gates of heaven forever to the human family. This 11th-century portrait is one of many images of Jesus in which a halo with a cross is used. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Dionysus with a leopard, satyr and grapes on a vine, in the Palazzo Altemps (Rome, Italy) This article is about the ancient deity. ... Love is any of a number of emotions and experiences related to a sense of strong affection or profound oneness. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hope is an emotional belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances within ones personal life. ... Look up kindness in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Rembrandt - The Return of the Prodigal Son Forgiveness is the mental, emotional and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[]. Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person... Baptism in early Christian art. ... A temptation is an act that looks appealing to an individual. ... Crucifixion of St. ... The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ...


Main theories in detail

Image File history File links Wiki_letter_w. ...

Christus Victor

Main article: Christus Victor

Ransom: Origen, Gregory of Nyssa To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ransom view of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ which originated in the early Church, particularly in the work of Origen. ... Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... Gregory of Nyssa ( 335 – after 394) was a Christian bishop and saint. ...


Scapegoating: William Tyndale (who invented the word from Hebrew and Greek manuscripts), René Girard, James Alison, Gerhard Förde see 'In Christianity' in Scapegoat It has been suggested that The Tyndale Society be merged into this article or section. ... René Girard is a French philosopher, historian and philologist. ... James Alison is a Catholic theologian, priest, and author. ... The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ...


Physical Theory

Recapitulation: Irenaeus, Athanasius, Cappadocian Fathers, Eastern Orthodox Church It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Irenaeus#Irenaeus. ... An engraving of Irenaeus ( 130–202), bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul (now Lyon, France). ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ... The Cappadocian Fathers are the 4th century church fathers Basil the Great, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basils brother Gregory of Nyssa, who made major contributions to the definition of the Trinity finalized at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Nicene Creed. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself: as the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus and the Twelve Apostles. ...


Edward Irving, T. F. Torrance Edward Irving (August 4, 1792 - December 7, 1834), Scottish church divine, generally (but wrongly) regarded as the founder of the Catholic Apostolic Church, was born at Annan, Dumfriesshire. ... Thomas Forsyth Torrance (1913- ) is a 20th century Christian theologian born to Scottish missionary parents in Chengtu, Szechuan, China. ...


Moral Influence

  • Pierre Abélard (It is questionable whether Abélard himself taught this model of Atonement)

Hastings Rashdall The Moral influence view of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and, while originating in the Middle Ages, has been largely taught in liberal Christian circles, most famously by Charles G. Finney, whose Systematic Theology exounded... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Hastings Rashdall (1858–1924) was an English philosopher who expounded a theory known as ideal utilitarianism. ...


Satisfaction

Divine satisfaction: Anselm of Canterbury & Salvation in Catholicism The satisfaction view of the atonement (also known as the penal or punishment theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed circles. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... According to Catholic teaching, Salvation (Greek soteria; Hebrew yeshuah), has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security (I Kings, chapter 11 , verse 13; 14, 45; II Kings, 23, 10; IV...


Penalty or Punishment satisfaction: John Calvin, Calvinism, & Imputed righteousness John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought within the Protestant tradition articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin, his interpretation of Scripture, and perspective on Christian life and... Imputed righteousness is a concept in Christian theology directly related to the Protestant doctrine of justification. ...


Vicarious Repentance, John Mcleod Campbell, R. C. Moberly


Governmental

The Governmental view of the atonement (also known as the moral government theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Arminian circles. ... Hugo Grotius Hugo Grotius (Huig de Groot, or Hugo de Groot; Delft, 10th April 1583 - Rostock, 28th August 1645) worked as a jurist in the United Provinces (now the Netherlands) and laid the foundations for international law, based on natural law. ... Jacobus Arminius (also spelt Jacob Arminius, James Arminius, Jacob Harmenszoon, Jakob Hermann) (1560-1609) was a Dutch Reformed theologian and (until 1603) professor in theology at de University of Leiden. ... John Miley ( 1813- 1895) was an American Christian theologian in the Methodist tradition who was one of the major Methodist theological voices of the 19th century. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ... The Governmental view of the atonement (also known as the moral government theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Arminian circles. ... Jonathan Edwards (October 5, 1703 – March 22, 1758) was a colonial American Congregational preacher, theologian, and missionary to Native Americans. ... See also: Charles G. Finney, 20th Century American author Charles Grandison Finney (August 29, 1792 – August 16, 1875), often called Americas foremost revivalist, was a major leader of the Second Great Awakening in America, which had a great impact on the social history of the United States. ...

Ransom

The Ransom view of the atonement is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ which originated in the early Church, particularly in the work of Origen. ...

Denominational Perspectives

Roman Catholic

The Roman Catholic Church does not limit itself to a single theory but several, including, but not limited to, the Ransom, Penal Substitution, Moral Influence theories and the primacy of the Incarnation. Rather, these multiple perspectives are needed to express the fullness of the Atonement. The doctrine of the Incarnation of Christ is central to the traditional Christian faith as held by the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and most Protestants (some Protestant denominations do not hold the doctrine of the Trinity). ...

On looking back at the various theories noticed so far, it will be seen that they are not, for the most part, mutually exclusive, but may be combined and harmonized. It may be said, indeed, that they all help to bring out different aspects of that great doctrine which cannot find adequate expression in any human theory.[5]

Rather than considering these different views as theories, it is better to consider them as expressions or representations. While theologians may at times emphasize one idea, this does not imply that the others are any less true or valuable. To consistently emphasize only one aspect of the Atonement is dangerous.


Eastern Orthodox

Eastern Orthodoxy has a substantively different soteriology; this is sometimes cited as the core difference between Eastern and Western Christianity. The Orthodox view is closely related to the Incarnation and is thus closest to the Physical redemption theory. ... In Christianity, salvation is arguably the most important spiritual concept, second only to the divinity of Jesus. ...


Protestant

The almost unanimous, contemporary Protestant view is that of penal substitution. The view is so widely believed that few Protestants are aware of alternative understandings of the Atonement. In the rare instances when they encounter other Christians who profess non-substitution views, Protestants usually consider these views heretical. The satisfaction view of the atonement (also known as the penal or punishment theory) is a doctrine in Christian theology related to the meaning and effect of the death of Jesus Christ and has been traditionally taught in Catholic, Lutheran, and Reformed circles. ...


However, Protestants still use the language of alternative understandings prolifically especially where they are used in the Bible. Usually this is done because, while they consider the penal substitution theory as the literal understanding, they still feel free to use other differing ideas as figurative language about the Atonement. This is true, for example, of the Christus Victor view. There are instances when Protestants confuse other views as the satisfaction view, Matthew 20.28, for example. Jesus said of himself, "The Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life a ransom for many."


Of course, there are always exceptions. More liberal Protestants, particularly scholars, are more likely to relate with the Moral Influence view.


The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormon) expands the doctrine of the atonement complementary to the substitutionary atonement concept, including the following: The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the most-recognized architectural symbol of Mormonism For other uses, see Mormon (disambiguation). ...

  • Suffering in Gethsemane. The Atonement began in Gethsemane and ended on the cross (Luke 22:44; Doctrine and Covenants 19:16–19; Book of Mormon|Mosiah 3:7; Alma 7:11–13). Christ described this agony in the Doctrine and Covenants as follows: "...how sore you know not, how exquisite you know not, yea, how hard to bear you know not. ...Which suffering caused myself, even God, the greatest of all, to tremble because of pain, and to bleed at every pore, and to suffer both body and spirit..."(D&C 19:15, 18)
  • The relationship of justice, mercy, agency, and God's unconditional love. Christ's infinite atonement was required to satisfy the demands of justice based on eternal law, rendering Him our Mediator, Redeemer, and Advocate with the Father. Thus, He proffers divine mercy to the truly penitent who voluntarily come unto Him, offering them the gift of His grace to "lift them up" and "be perfected in Him" through His merits. (Book of Mormon | 2 Nephi 2; 2 Nephi 9; Alma 12; Alma 34; Alma 42; Moroni 9:25 & 10:33) (See also Isaiah 55:1-9)
  • No need for infant baptism. Christ's atonement completely resolved the consequence from the fall of Adam of spiritual death for infants, young children and those of innocent mental capacity who die before an age of self-accountability, hence all these are resurrected to eternal life in the resurrection. However, baptism is required of those who are deemed by God to be accountable for their actions.
  • Empathetic purpose. Christ suffered pain and agony not only for the sins of all men, but also to experience their physical pains, illnesses, anguish from addictions, emotional turmoil and depression, "that his bowels may be filled with mercy, according to the flesh, that he may know according to the flesh how to succor his people according to their infirmities." (Book of Mormon | Alma 7:12) (see also Isaiah 53:4)

The Garden of Gethsemane. ... Doctrine and Covenants The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes referred to as the D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of Mormonism. ... In Christian theology, Spiritual Death, sometimes also referred to as the Second Death, is defined as a spiritual separation from God, usually brought on by sin. ...

See also

In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favor of God for humankind, as manifest in the blessings bestowed upon all —irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... The Divine Mercy is a Christian devotion focused on the mercy of God and its power, particularly as a form of thanksgiving and entrusting of oneself to Gods mercy. ... Rembrandt - The Return of the Prodigal Son Forgiveness is the mental, emotional and/or spiritual process of ceasing to feel resentment or anger against another person for a perceived offence, difference or mistake, or ceasing to demand punishment or restitution[]. Forgiveness may be considered simply in terms of the person... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... The mercy seat (Hebrew kapporeth or Greek hilasterion) was the lid that covered the Ark of the Covenant, the central piece of furniture in the Tabernacle and the Jewish Temple. ... A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... In Christianity, Propitiation is a theological term denoting that by which God is rendered propitious, i. ... The Scapegoat by William Holman Hunt, 1854. ... Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral rule or the state of having committed such a violation. ... Substitutionary atonement is the act of restoring balances by substitution. ...

References

  1. ^ C. S. Lewis. Mere Christianity, Chapter 4
  2. ^ See Corinthians 11:2-10 and 15:22
  3. ^ Stephen L. Harris, Understanding the Bible. (McGraw Hill, 2002) p 88
  4. ^ a b c Hiroshi Obayashi, Death and the Afterlife: Perspectives of World Religions. (Praeger Publishers, 1992.) See Introduction
  5. ^ Doctrine of the Atonement Catholic Encyclopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/02055a.htm

Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an Irish author and scholar. ...

External links

  • Biblical Atonement: The Governmental View (Arminian/Wesleyan)
  • The Christian Doctrine of the Atonement (Arminian/Wesleyan)
  • Historical Opinions as to the Nature of Christ's Atoning Death (Arminian/Wesleyan)
  • The Biblical Doctrine of the Atonement (Calvinist/Reformed)
  • The Atonement of Christ (Latter-day Saint)
  • Definite Atonement, Limited Atonement, Particular Redemption (Calvinist/Reformed)
  • Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Doctrine of Atonement" Ransom, and Anselm's Satisfaction model (Roman Catholic)
  • Atonement Theories in Current Philosophical Theology from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  • Incarnational and Participatory Models of Atonement
  • "Alma and Anselm: Satisfaction Theory in the Book of Mormon" A detailed overview of Anselm's Satisfaction theory of Atonement with a comparison to Book of Mormon theology.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ian McEwan Website: Atonement (1490 words)
'Atonement by Ian McEwan', Salon.com, 21 March 2002.
Atonement di Ian McEwan', Università di Cagliari, 2001-2002 (relatore Prof.ssa Irene Meloni).
"Confession and Atonement in Contemporary Fiction: J. Coetzee, John Banville, and Ian McEwan." Critique: Studies in Contemporary Fiction, 48:1, Fall 2006: 31-43.
Atonement (5592 words)
The word atonement, constructed from at and one, means "to set at one" or "to reconcile." In Christian Theology, atonement denotes the doctrine of the reconciliation of God and man accomplished by the Crucifixion and death of Jesus Christ.
Atonement, in Christian theology, is the expiation of sin and the propitiation of God by the incarnation, life, sufferings, and death of Jesus Christ; the obedience and death of Christ on behalf of sinners as the ground of redemption; in the narrow sense, the sacrificial work of Christ for sinners.
Theories of the atonement are legion as men in different countries and in different ages have tried to bring together the varied strands of scriptural teaching and to work them into a theory that will help others to understand how God has worked to bring us salvation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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