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Encyclopedia > Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

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The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy.
The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy.
The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter.
The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter.

The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America under US President Harry S. Truman. On August 6, 1945, the nuclear weapon "Little Boy" was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, followed on August 9, 1945 by the detonation of the "Fat Man" nuclear bomb over Nagasaki. They are the only instances of the use of nuclear weapons in warfare. Image File history File links Description: At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. ... Image File history File links Description: At the time this photo was made, smoke billowed 20,000 feet above Hiroshima while smoke from the burst of the first atomic bomb had spread over 10,000 feet on the target at the base of the rising column. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1246x1468, 760 KB) if you look closely, you can see a japanese person in the bottom right corner TITLE: Mushroom cloud CALL NUMBER: POS 6 - U.S., no. ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), may refer to the site of an earthquake or to that of a nuclear explosion. ... The Japan campaign was a series of battles and engagements in and around the Japanese Home Islands, between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around June, 1944 until September, 1945. ... There were many air raids on Japan by Allied aircraft during World War II. The Home Islands of the Empire of Japan were defended by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service. ... The Volcano and RyÅ«kyÅ« Islands campaign was a series of battles and engagements between Allied forces and Imperial Japanese forces during the Pacific campaign of World War II from around January, 1945 until June, 1945. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ... Battle of Tokyo Bay Conflict World War II Date July 22-July 23, 1945 Place Tokyo Bay Result Decisive American victory {{Campaignbox Pacific Campaign }} The Battle of Tokyo Bay was a World War II anti-shipping raid in Tokyo Harbor on the night of July 22, 1945. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... Kuril Islands Landing Operation (Курильская десантная операция in Russian) was the Soviet military operation aimed at conquering (in Soviet words liberating) the Kuril Islands from the Japanese in 1945. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ... The Pacific Ocean theater was one of four major theaters of the Pacific War, between 1941 and 1945. ... The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in India, Burma, Thailand, Malaya and Singapore. ... The South West Pacific was one of two theatres of World War II in the Pacific region, between 1942 and 1945. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...


The United States Department of Energy estimates that, at Hiroshima, the death toll from the immediate blast was roughly 70,000, with additional deaths occuring in the time soon after the explosion and in the decades that followed.[1][2][3][4] The figures for Nagasaki are slightly less.[5] Other estimates vary widely,[6][7][8] and are as low as 74,000 for Nagasaki.[9] In both cities, the overwhelming majority of the deaths were civilians. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ...


The role of the bombings in Japan's surrender, as well as the effects and justification of them, has been subject to much debate. The Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ...


On August 15, 1945 Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2 which officially ended World War II. Furthermore, the experience of bombing led post-war Japan to adopt Three Non-Nuclear Principles, which forbids Japan from nuclear armament. is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... Representatives of Japan stand aboard the USS Missouri prior to signing of the Instrument of Surrender. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Japans Three Non-Nuclear Principles ) are a parliamentary resolution (never adopted into law) that have guided Japanese nuclear policy since their inception in the late 1960s, and reflect general public sentiment and national policy since the end of World War II. The tenets state that Japan shall neither possess...

Contents

The Manhattan Project

The Manhattan Project, led by General Leslie Groves (left) and the physicist Robert Oppenheimer, developed the first atomic weapons for use in World War II.
The Manhattan Project, led by General Leslie Groves (left) and the physicist Robert Oppenheimer, developed the first atomic weapons for use in World War II.
Main article: Manhattan Project

The United States, with assistance from the United Kingdom and Canada, designed and built the first atomic bombs under what was called the Manhattan Project. The project was initially started at the instigation of European refugee scientists (including Albert Einstein) and American scientists who feared that Nazi Germany would also be conducting a full-scale bomb development program (that program was later discovered to be much smaller and further behind). The project itself eventually employed over 130,000 people at its peak at over thirty institutions spread over the United States, and cost a total of nearly US$2 billion, making it one of the largest and most costly research and development programs of all time. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x689, 283 KB) General Leslie Groves (left), military head of the Manhattan Project, with Prof. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (526x689, 283 KB) General Leslie Groves (left), military head of the Manhattan Project, with Prof. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... J. Robert Oppenheimer[1] (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist, best known for his role as the director of the Manhattan Project, the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear weapons, at the secret Los Alamos laboratory in New Mexico. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


The first nuclear device, called "Gadget," was detonated during the "Trinity" test near Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945. The Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were the second and third to be detonated and as of 2007 the only ones ever detonated in a military action. (See Weapons of Mass Destruction.) The gadget, partially assembled on the shot tower for the Trinity test. ... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ... Alamogordo is a city in Otero County, New Mexico, United States of America. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


During World War II both the Allies and Axis powers had previously pursued policies of strategic bombing and the targeting of civilian infrastructure. In numerous cases these had caused huge numbers of civilian casualties and were (or came to be) controversial. In Germany, the Allied firebombing of Dresden resulted in roughly 30,000 deaths. The March 1945 firebombing of Tokyo killed 72,489 people, according to the Japan War History office.[10] By August, about 60 Japanese cities had been destroyed through a massive aerial campaign, including massive firebombing raids on the cities of Tokyo and Kobe. A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Strategic bombing during World War II was greater in scale than any wartime attack the world had previously witnessed. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... On March 17th, 1945, three hundred and thirty-one American B-29 bombers launched a firebombing attack against the city of Kobe, Japan. ...


Over 3½ years of direct U.S. involvement in World War II, approximately 290,000 Americans had been killed in action and another 110,000 killed as a result of the war,[11] 90,000 of them incurred in the war against Japan.[12] In the months prior to the bombings, the Battle of Okinawa resulted in American casualties of 49,151.[13] The Japanese deathtoll was given as 107,539 counted dead plus an estimated 23,764 in the closed caves or buried by the Japanese. Since the number was far above the estimated Japanese force on the island the army intelligence supposed that about 42,000 were civilians.[14] A commonly provided justification for the bombings is that an invasion of the Japanese mainland was expected to result in casualties many times greater than in Okinawa. Combatants United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand Empire of Japan Commanders Simon B. Buckner†, Joseph W. Stilwell, Ray Spruance Mitsuru Ushijima† Isamu Cho† Strength 548,000 regulars, 1300 ships,  ? aircraft 100,000 regulars and militia,  ? ships,  ? aircraft Casualties 12,513 dead or missing, 38,916 wounded, 33,096... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ...


U.S. President Harry S. Truman was unaware of the Manhattan Project until Franklin Roosevelt's death. Truman asked U.S. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson to head a group of prominent citizens called the Interim Committee, which included three respected scientists and had been set up to advise the President on the military, political, and scientific questions raised by the possible use of the first atomic bomb. On May 31, Stimson put his conclusions to the committee and a four-man Scientific Panel. Stimson supported use of the bomb, stating "Our great task is to bring this war to a prompt and successful conclusion." But Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, one of the Scientific Panel members, stated that a single atomic bomb would probably kill twenty thousand people, and the target should be a military one, not civilian. Another scientist, Dr. Arthur Holly Compton, suggested dropping the bomb on an isolated part of Japan to demonstrate its power while minimizing civilian deaths. But this was soon dismissed, since if Japan was to be notified in advance of an attack, the bomber might be shot down; alternately, the first bomb might fail to detonate.[15] For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Franklin Delano Roosevelt (January 30, 1882–April 12, 1945), often referred to as FDR, was the 32nd (1933–1945) President of the United States. ... Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... J. Robert Oppenheimer, father of the atomic bomb, served as the first director of Los Alamos National Laboratory, beginning in 1943. ... Arthur Holly Compton (September 10, 1892 – March 15, 1962) won the Nobel Prize in Physics (1927) for discovery of the effect named after him. ...


In early July, on the way to Potsdam, Truman re-examined the decision to use the bomb. In the end, Truman made the decision to drop the atomic bombs on Japan. His stated intention in ordering the bombings was to bring about a quick resolution of the war by inflicting destruction, and instilling fear of further destruction, that was sufficient to cause Japan to surrender.


On July 26, Truman and other allied leaders issued The Potsdam Declaration outlining terms of surrender for Japan: is the 207th day of the year (208th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the...

"...The might that now converges on Japan is immeasurably greater than that which, when applied to the resisting Nazis, necessarily laid waste to the lands, the industry and the method of life of the whole German people. The full application of our military power, backed by our resolve, will mean the inevitable and complete destruction of the Japanese armed forces and just as inevitably the utter devastation of the Japanese homeland..."
"...We call upon the government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all Japanese armed forces, and to provide proper and adequate assurances of their good faith in such action. The alternative for Japan is prompt and utter destruction."

The atomic bomb was still a highly guarded secret and was not mentioned in the declaration. On July 28, Japanese papers reported that the declaration had been rejected by the Japanese government. That afternoon, Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki declared at a press conference that the Potsdam Declaration was no more than a rehash (yakinaoshi) of the Cairo Declaration and that the government intended to ignore it (mokusatsu).[16] The statement was taken by both Japanese and foreign papers as a clear rejection of the declaration. Emperor Hirohito, who was waiting for a Soviet reply to noncommittal Japanese peace feelers, made no move to change the government position.[17] On July 31, he made clear to Kido that the Imperial Regalia of Japan had to be defended at all costs.[18] is the 209th day of the year (210th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Admiral Baron Kantaro Suzuki (Japanese: 鈴木 貫太郎 18 January 1868 - 17 April 1948) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April 1945 to 17 August 1945. ... The Cairo Declaration was an statement released at Cairo, Egypt on December 1, 1943 by President Franklin Roosevelt of the United States, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of the United Kingdom, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek of the Republic of China. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Marquis Koichi Kido ) (July 18, 1889 – April 6, 1977), served as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was the closest advisor to Emperor Showa throughout World War II. Kido Kōichi was the grandson of Kido Takayoshi, one of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration. ... A representation of the Imperial Regalia of Japan. ...


Choice of targets

Map showing the locations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan where the two atomic weapons were employed.
Map showing the locations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan where the two atomic weapons were employed.

The Target Committee at Los Alamos on May 10–11, 1945, recommended Kyoto, Hiroshima, Yokohama, and the arsenal at Kokura as possible targets. The committee rejected the use of the weapon against a strictly military objective because of the chance of missing a small target not surrounded by a larger urban area. The psychological effects on Japan were of great importance to the committee members. They also agreed that the initial use of the weapon should be sufficiently spectacular for its importance to be internationally recognized. The committee felt Kyoto, as an intellectual center of Japan, had a population "better able to appreciate the significance of the weapon." Hiroshima was chosen because of its large size, its being "an important army depot" and the potential that the bomb would cause greater destruction because the city was surrounded by hills which would have a "focusing effect".[19] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (837x988, 53 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (837x988, 53 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Kyoto )   is a city in the central part of the island of HonshÅ«, Japan. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the ChÅ«goku region of western HonshÅ«, the largest of Japans islands. ... For a tire company, known by Yokohama Tyre, see Yokohama Rubber Company. ... Kokura (小倉) is an ancient castle town and the center of KitakyÅ«shÅ«, Japan, guarding, via its suburb Moji, the Straits of Shimonoseki between HonshÅ« and KyÅ«shÅ«. Kokura is also the name of the penultimate station on the southbound Sanyo Shinkansen line, which is owned by JR KyÅ«shÅ« and...


Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson struck Kyoto from the list because of its cultural significance, over the objections of General Leslie Groves, head of the Manhattan Project. According to Professor Edwin O. Reischauer, Stimson "had known and admired Kyoto ever since his honeymoon there several decades earlier." On July 25 General Carl Spaatz was ordered to bomb one of the targets: Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, or Nagasaki as soon after August 3 as weather permitted and the remaining cities as additional weapons became available.[20] Henry L. Stimson Henry Lewis Stimson (September 21, 1867 – October 20, 1950) was an American statesman, who served as Secretary of War, Governor-General of the Philippines, and Secretary of State at various times. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... Edwin Oldfather Reischauer (October 15, 1910–September 1, 1990) was Tokyo-born U.S. ambassador to Japan (1961–66) and the co-developer, with George M. McCune, of the McCune-Reischauer romanization of Korean. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... Niigata ) is the capital and the most populous city of Niigata Prefecture, Japan. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Hiroshima

Hiroshima during World War II

At the time of its bombing, Hiroshima was a city of some industrial and military significance. A number of military camps were located nearby, including the headquarters of the Fifth Division and Field Marshal Shunroku Hata's 2nd General Army Headquarters, which commanded the defense of all of southern Japan. Hiroshima was a minor supply and logistics base for the Japanese military. The city was a communications center, a storage point, and an assembly area for troops. It was one of several Japanese cities left deliberately untouched by American bombing, allowing an ideal environment to measure the damage caused by the atomic bomb. Another account stresses that after General Spaatz reported that Hiroshima was the only targeted city without prisoner of war (POW) camps, Washington decided to assign it highest priority. Hata Shuroku (born 1879 - died 1962), was a Japanese General during World War II. He entered the Imperial Japanese Army in 1888. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


The center of the city contained several reinforced concrete buildings and lighter structures. Outside the center, the area was congested by a dense collection of small wooden workshops set among Japanese houses. A few larger industrial plants lay near the outskirts of the city. The houses were of wooden construction with tile roofs, and many of the industrial buildings also were of wood frame construction. The city as a whole was highly susceptible to fire damage.


The population of Hiroshima had reached a peak of over 381,000 earlier in the war, but prior to the atomic bombing the population had steadily decreased because of a systematic evacuation ordered by the Japanese government. At the time of the attack the population was approximately 255,000. This figure is based on the registered population used by the Japanese in computing ration quantities, and the estimates of additional workers and troops who were brought into the city may be inaccurate.


The bombing

A postwar "Little Boy" casing mockup.
A postwar "Little Boy" casing mockup.
The "gun" assembly method. When the hollow uranium projectile was driven onto the target spike, a nuclear explosion resulted.
For composition of USAAF mission see 509th Composite Group

Hiroshima was the primary target of the first nuclear bombing mission on August 6, with Kokura and Nagasaki being alternative targets. August 6 was chosen because there had previously been cloud over the target. The B-29 Enola Gay, piloted and commanded by 509th Composite Group commander Colonel Paul Tibbets, was launched from North Field airbase on Tinian in the West Pacific, about six hours flight time from Japan. The Enola Gay (named after Colonel Tibbets' mother) was accompanied by two other B29s, The Great Artiste which carried instrumentation, commanded by Major Charles W. Sweeney, and a then-nameless aircraft later called Necessary Evil (the photography aircraft) commanded by Captain George Marquardt.[21] A mockup of the Little Boy nuclear device, public domain photo from http://www. ... A mockup of the Little Boy nuclear device, public domain photo from http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 730 × 350 pixelsFull resolution (730 × 350 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This drawing is a modification of the one uploaded by FastFission with URL http://commons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 730 × 350 pixelsFull resolution (730 × 350 pixel, file size: 33 KB, MIME type: image/gif) This drawing is a modification of the one uploaded by FastFission with URL http://commons. ... The 509th Composite Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 509th Operations Group, is a current unit of the United States Air Force. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit before the bombing of Hiroshima. ... The 509th Composite Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 509th Operations Group, is a current unit of the United States Air Force. ... Paul Warfield Tibbets, Jr. ... Saipan, Tinian & Aguiguan The atom bomb pit on Tinians North Field, where Little Boy was loaded aboard the Enola Gay Tinian Shinto shrine. ... As the Pacific straddles the ±180° longitude where East becomes West, the Asian side of the ocean (where latitudes are E) is correctly referred to as East Pacific and the opposite side (eastwards) where latitudes are W is the West Pacific. ... The Great Artiste, a U.S. Army Air Forces B-29 bomber, was the regular aircraft of Major Charles Sweeney who piloted Bockscar to drop the Fat Man atomic bomb on Nagasaki on the 9 August 1945. ... Charles W. Sweeney (1919 - 15 July 2004) was the pilot who dropped the A-Bomb on Nagasaki. ... B-29-45-MO 44-86291 Necessary Evil nose art. ...


After leaving Tinian the aircraft made their way separately to Iwo Jima where they rendezvoused at 2440 m (8000 ft) and set course for Japan. The aircraft arrived over the target in clear visibility at 9855 m (32,000 ft). On the journey, Navy Captain William Parsons had armed the bomb, which had been left unarmed to minimize the risks during takeoff. His assistant, 2nd Lt. Morris Jeppson, removed the safety devices 30 minutes before reaching the target area.[21] For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... Captain Parsons in 1945 Rear Admiral William Sterling Deak Parsons (November 26, 1901 - December 5, 1953) was an American military engineer, best known for being the weaponeer on the Enola Gay (at the time, he had the rank of Captain) which dropped the first atomic bomb on the Hiroshima, Japan... Morris Richard Jeppson (Born June 22, 1922 in Carson City Nevada) was a Second Lieutenant in the Army Air Corps during World War II. He served as assistant weaponeer on the Enola Gay, which dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan on August 6, 1945. ...


The release at 08:15 (Hiroshima time) was uneventful, and the gravity bomb known as "Little Boy", a gun-type fission weapon with 60 kg (130 pounds) of uranium-235, took 57 seconds to fall from the aircraft to the predetermined detonation height about 600 meters (2,000 ft) above the city. It created a blast equivalent to about 13 kilotons of TNT (the U-235 weapon was considered very inefficient, with only 1.38% of its material fissioning),[22]The radius of total destruction was about 1.6 km (1 mile), with resulting fires across 11.4 km² (4.4 square miles).[23] Infrastructure damage was estimated at 90 percent of Hiroshima's buildings being either damaged or completely destroyed. A U.S. developed B-61 gravity bomb. ... A post-war Little Boy casing mockup. ... Gun-type fission weapons are fission-based nuclear weapons whose design assembles their fissile material into a supercritical mass by the use of the gun method: shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another. ... Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ...

Hiroshima, in the aftermath of the bombing.
Hiroshima, in the aftermath of the bombing.

About an hour before the bombing, Japanese early warning radar detected the approach of some American aircraft headed for the southern part of Japan. An alert was given and radio broadcasting stopped in many cities, among them Hiroshima. At nearly 08:00, the radar operator in Hiroshima determined that the number of planes coming in was very small—probably not more than three—and the air raid alert was lifted. To conserve fuel and aircraft, the Japanese had decided not to intercept small formations. The normal radio broadcast warning was given to the people that it might be advisable to go to air-raid shelters if B-29s were actually sighted, but no raid was expected beyond some sort of reconnaissance. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ...


As a result of the blast an estimated minimum 90,000 people died within two months.[24] Included in this number were about 2,000 Japanese Americans and another 800-1,000 who lived on as hibakusha, a Japanese term meaning, "explosion-affected people". As US citizens, many were attending school before the war and had been unable to leave Japan.[25] It is likely that hundreds of Allied prisoners of war also died.[26] A victim of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Seizo Yamada's ground level photo taken from approximately 7km NE of Hiroshima
Seizo Yamada's ground level photo taken from approximately 7km NE of Hiroshima

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Japanese realization of the bombing

The energy released by the bomb was powerful enough to burn through clothing. The dark portions of the garments this victim wore at the time of the blast were emblazoned on to the flesh as scars, while skin underneath the lighter parts (which absorb less energy) was not damaged as badly.

The Tokyo control operator of the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation noticed that the Hiroshima station had gone off the air. He tried to re-establish his program by using another telephone line, but it too had failed.[27] About twenty minutes later the Tokyo railroad telegraph center realized that the main line telegraph had stopped working just north of Hiroshima. From some small railway stops within 16 kilometers (10 mi) of the city came unofficial and confused reports of a terrible explosion in Hiroshima. All these reports were transmitted to the headquarters of the Japanese General Staff. Image File history File links This is a victim of an atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links This is a victim of an atomic bomb. ... Tokyo ), the common English name for the Tokyo Metropolis ), is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and, unique among the prefectures, provides certain municipal services characteristic of a city. ... NHK (日本放送協会, Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai), or Japan Broadcasting Corporation, is Japans public broadcaster. ...


Military bases repeatedly tried to call the Army Control Station in Hiroshima. The complete silence from that city puzzled the men at headquarters; they knew that no large enemy raid had occurred and that no sizable store of explosives was in Hiroshima at that time. A young officer of the Japanese General Staff was instructed to fly immediately to Hiroshima, to land, survey the damage, and return to Tokyo with reliable information for the staff. It was generally felt at headquarters that nothing serious had taken place and that it was all a rumor.


The staff officer went to the airport and took off for the southwest. After flying for about three hours, while still nearly 100 miles (160 km) from Hiroshima, he and his pilot saw a great cloud of smoke from the bomb. In the bright afternoon, the remains of Hiroshima were burning. Their plane soon reached the city, around which they circled in disbelief. A great scar on the land still burning and covered by a heavy cloud of smoke was all that was left. They landed south of the city, and the staff officer, after reporting to Tokyo, immediately began to organize relief measures.


Tokyo's first knowledge of what had really caused the disaster came from the White House public announcement in Washington, D.C., sixteen hours after the nuclear attack on Hiroshima.[28] For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


By August 8, 1945, newspapers in the US were reporting that broadcasts from Radio Tokyo had described the destruction observed in Hiroshima. "Practically all living things, human and animal, were literally seared to death," Japanese radio announcers said in a broadcast captured by Allied sources.[29] is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Post-attack casualties

By December of 1945, thousands had died from their injuries and a small number from radiation poisoning, bringing the total killed in Hiroshima in 1945 to perhaps 140,000.[30] In the years between 1950 and 1990, it is statistically estimated that hundreds of deaths are attributable to radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki.[31][32] Radiation poisoning, also called radiation sickness, is a form of damage to organ tissue due to excessive exposure to ionizing radiation. ...


Survival of some structures

Some of the reinforced concrete buildings in Hiroshima were very strongly constructed because of the earthquake danger in Japan, and their framework did not collapse even though they were fairly close to the center of damage in the city. Akiko Takakura was among the closest survivors to the hypocenter of the blast. She had been in the strongly built Bank of Hiroshima only 300m from ground-zero at the time of the attack.[33] Since the bomb detonated in the air, the blast was more downward than sideways, which was largely responsible for the survival of the Prefectural Industrial Promotional Hall, now commonly known as the Genbaku, or A-bomb Dome designed and built by the Czech architect Jan Letzel, which was only 150 meters (490 feet) from ground zero (the hypocenter). The ruin was named Hiroshima Peace Memorial and made a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1996 over the objections of the U.S. and China.[34] An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earths crust that creates seismic waves. ... Jan Letzel (April 9, 1880 – December 26, 1925) was a Czech architect. ... Ground zero is the exact location on the ground where any explosion occurs. ... The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), may refer to the site of an earthquake or to that of a nuclear explosion. ... Citizens of the city pass by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial on their way to a memorial ceremony on August 6, 2004 Hiroshima Peace Memorial, called Gembaku Dome (原爆ドーム), the Atomic Bomb Dome, or the A-Bomb Dome by the Japanese is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Hiroshima, Japan. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...


Events of August 7-9

After the Hiroshima bombing, President Truman announced, "If they do not not accept our terms, they may expect a rain of ruin from the air the likes of which has never been seen on this earth." On August 8, 1945, leaflets were dropped and warnings were given to Japan by Radio Saipan. (The area of Nagasaki did not receive warning leaflets until August 10, though the leaflet campaign covering the whole country was over a month into its operations.)[35][36] is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Japanese government still did not react to the Potsdam Declaration. Emperor Hirohito, the government and the War council were considering four conditions for surrender : the preservation of the kokutai (Imperial institution and national polity), assumption by the Imperial Headquarters of responsibility for disarmament and demobilization, no occupation and delegation to the Japanese government of the punishment of war criminals. The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender (not to be confused with the Potsdam Agreement) was a statement issued on July 26, 1945 by Harry S. Truman, Winston Churchill, and Chiang Kai-Shek which outlined the terms of surrender for Japan as agreed upon at the... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


The Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov informed Tokyo of the Soviet Union's unilateral abrogation of the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact on April 5. At two minutes past midnight on August 9, Tokyo time, Soviet infantry, armor, and air forces launched an invasion of Manchuria. Four hours later, word reached Tokyo that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan. The senior leadership of the Japanese Army began preparations to impose martial law on the nation, with the support of Minister of War Korechika Anami, in order to stop anyone attempting to make peace. For other uses, see Molotov (disambiguation). ... The Soviet-Japanese Neutrality Pact refers to a pact between the Soviet Union and Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the Soviet-Japanese Border War (1939). ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... An Imperial Ordinance issued on December 27, Meiji 28 (1895) Japan Standard Time (日本標準時 or 中央標準時) is the standard timezone in Japan that is 9 hours ahead of UTC; i. ... Combatants Soviet Union Peoples Republic of Mongolia Japan Manchukuo Mengjiang Commanders Aleksandr Vasilevsky Otsuzo Yamada Strength Soviet Union 1,577,225 men, 26,137 artillery, 1,852 sup. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Korechika Anami Korechika Anami (阿南 惟幾 Anami Korechika, February 21st 1887- August 15th 1945) was a Japanese general in World War II. Military Career 2dLt (Infantry),December 1906; was graduated from War College, November 1918; attached to Army General Staff, April 1919; Member, same, December 1919; Major, February 1922; Staff Officer, Sakhalin...


Responsibility for the timing of the second bombing was delegated to Colonel Tibbets as commander of the 509th Composite Group on Tinian. Scheduled for August 11 against Kokura, the raid was moved forward to avoid a five day period of bad weather forecast to begin on August 10.[37] Three bomb pre-assemblies had been transported to Tinian, labeled F-31, F-32, and F-33 on their exteriors. On August 8 a dress rehearsal was conducted off Tinian by Maj. Charles Sweeney using Bockscar as the drop airplane. Assembly F-33 was expended testing the components and F-31 was designated for the mission August 9.[38] The 509th Bomb Wing (509 BW) operates and maintains the United States Air Forces premier weapon system, the B-2 Bomber, and is based at Whiteman Air Force Base, Missouri. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bockscar nose art. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Nagasaki

Nagasaki during World War II

Urakami Tenshudo (Catholic Church in Nagasaki) in January, 1946, destroyed by the atomic bomb, the dome of the church having toppled off.
Urakami Tenshudo (Catholic Church in Nagasaki) in January, 1946, destroyed by the atomic bomb, the dome of the church having toppled off.

The city of Nagasaki had been one of the largest sea ports in southern Japan and was of great wartime importance because of its wide-ranging industrial activity, including the production of ordnance, ships, military equipment, and other war materials. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (840x569, 273 KB) Urakami Tenshudo (Cathoric Church) Jan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (840x569, 273 KB) Urakami Tenshudo (Cathoric Church) Jan. ... The Urakami Cathedral, one of Nagasakis prominent landmarks, stands on a hill amid the rubble of a residential district east of ground zero. ... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ...


In contrast to many modern aspects of Hiroshima, the bulk of the residences were of old-fashioned Japanese construction, consisting of wood or wood-frame buildings, with wood walls (with or without plaster), and tile roofs. Many of the smaller industries and business establishments were also housed in buildings of wood or other materials not designed to withstand explosions. Nagasaki had been permitted to grow for many years without conforming to any definite city zoning plan; residences were erected adjacent to factory buildings and to each other almost as closely as possible throughout the entire industrial valley.


Nagasaki had never been subjected to large-scale bombing prior to the explosion of a nuclear weapon there. On August 1, 1945, however, a number of conventional high-explosive bombs were dropped on the city. A few hit in the shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city, several hit the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works and six bombs landed at the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on buildings there. While the damage from these bombs was relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and many people—principally school children—were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the nuclear attack. is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Mitsubishi Logo The Mitsubishi Group ), Mitsubishi Group of Companies, or Mitsubishi Companies, all refer to a large grouping of independently operated Japanese companies which share the Mitsubishi brand name. ...


To the north of Nagasaki there was a camp holding British Commonwealth prisoners of war, some of whom were working in the coal mines and only found out about the bombing when they came to the surface. At least eight known POWs died from the bombing.[39] The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


The bombing

A post-war "Fat Man" model.
A post-war "Fat Man" model.
For composition of USAAF mission see 509th Composite Group

On the morning of August 9, 1945, the U.S. B-29 Superfortress Bockscar, flown by the crew of 393rd Squadron commander Major Charles W. Sweeney, carried the nuclear bomb code-named "Fat Man", with Kokura as the primary target and Nagasaki the secondary target. The mission plan for the second attack was nearly identical to that of the Hiroshima mission, with two B-29's flying an hour ahead as weather scouts and two additional B-29's in Sweeney's flight for instrumentation and photographic support of the mission. Sweeney took off with his weapon already armed but with the electrical safety plugs still engaged.[40] Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... The 509th Composite Group was an air combat unit of the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War and as the 509th Operations Group, is a current unit of the United States Air Force. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... Bockscar nose art. ... Charles W. Sweeney (1919 - 15 July 2004) was the pilot who dropped the A-Bomb on Nagasaki. ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... Kokura (小倉) is an ancient castle town and the center of KitakyÅ«shÅ«, Japan, guarding, via its suburb Moji, the Straits of Shimonoseki between HonshÅ« and KyÅ«shÅ«. Kokura is also the name of the penultimate station on the southbound Sanyo Shinkansen line, which is owned by JR KyÅ«shÅ« and... Nagasaki ) ( ) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture in Japan. ...

Illustration of the implosion concept employed in "Fat Man".
Illustration of the implosion concept employed in "Fat Man".

Observers aboard the weather planes reported both targets clear. When Sweeney's aircraft arrived at the assembly point for his flight off the coast of Japan, the third plane (flown by the group's Operations Officer, Lt. Col. James I. Hopkins, Jr.) failed to make the rendezvous. Bockscar and the instrumentation plane circled for forty minutes without locating Hopkins. Already thirty minutes behind schedule, Sweeney decided to fly on without Hopkins.[40] Implosion type nuclear weapon (Fat Man) drawn by User:Fastfission in Adobe Illustrator. ... Implosion type nuclear weapon (Fat Man) drawn by User:Fastfission in Adobe Illustrator. ...

Nagasaki before and after bombing.
Nagasaki before and after bombing.

By the time they reached Kokura a half hour later, a 7/10 cloud cover had obscured the city, prohibiting the visual attack required by orders. After three runs over the city, and with fuel running low because a transfer pump on a reserve tank had failed before take-off, they headed for their secondary target, Nagasaki.[40] Fuel consumption calculations made en route indicated that Bockscar had insufficient fuel to reach Iwo Jima and they would be forced to divert to Okinawa. After initially deciding that if Nagasaki were obscured on their arrival they would carry the bomb to Okinawa and dispose of it in the ocean if necessary, the weaponeer Navy Commander Frederick Ashworth decided that a radar approach would be used if the target was obscured.[41] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1095, 869 KB) Adjusted version of Nagasaki_1945_-_Before_and_after. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x1095, 869 KB) Adjusted version of Nagasaki_1945_-_Before_and_after. ... For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... Frederick Ashworth in 2004 Frederick L. Dick Ashworth (1912 in Beverly, Massachusetts – December 3, 2005 in Phoenix, Arizona) was the weaponeer on the B-29 Bockscar that dropped the atomic bomb Fat Man on Nagasaki, Japan. ...


At about 07:50 Japanese time, an air raid alert was sounded in Nagasaki, but the "all clear" signal was given at 08:30. When only two B-29 Superfortresses were sighted at 10:53, the Japanese apparently assumed that the planes were only on reconnaissance and no further alarm was given.


A few minutes later, at 11:00, the support B-29 flown by Captain Frederick C. Bock dropped instruments attached to three parachutes. These instruments also contained an unsigned letter to Professor Ryokichi Sagane, a nuclear physicist at the University of Tokyo who studied with three of the scientists responsible for the atomic bomb at the University of California, Berkeley, urging him to tell the public about the danger involved with these weapons of mass destruction. The messages were found by military authorities but not turned over to Sagane until a month later.[42] In 1949 one of the authors of the letter, Luis Alvarez, met with Sagane and signed the document.[43] French dirigible ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... The place of the establishment of the University of Tokyo The University of Tokyo ), abbreviated as Todai ), is one of the leading research universities in Japan. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Portrait of Luis Alvarez Luis Walter Alvarez (June 13, 1911 – September 1, 1988) of San Francisco, California, USA, was a famed physicist of Spanish descent, who worked at the University of California, Berkeley. ...

A Japanese report on the bombing characterized Nagasaki as "like a graveyard with not a tombstone standing."
A Japanese report on the bombing characterized Nagasaki as "like a graveyard with not a tombstone standing."

At 11:01, a last minute break in the clouds over Nagasaki allowed Bockscar's bombardier, Captain Kermit Beahan, to visually sight the target as ordered. The "Fat Man" weapon, containing a core of ~6.4 kg (14.1 lb) of plutonium-239, was dropped over the city's industrial valley. 43 seconds later it exploded 469 meters (1,540 ft) above the ground exactly halfway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in the south and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works (Torpedo Works) in the north. This was nearly 3 kilometers (2 mi) northwest of the planned hypocenter; the blast was confined to the Urakami Valley and a major portion of the city was protected by the intervening hills.[44] The resulting explosion had a blast yield equivalent to 21 kilotons of TNT. The explosion generated heat estimated at 7000 degrees Fahrenheit and winds that were estimated at 624 mph. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2778x2278, 1075 KB) Battered religious figures stand watch on a hill above a tattered valley. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2778x2278, 1075 KB) Battered religious figures stand watch on a hill above a tattered valley. ... Raymond Kermit K. Beahan was the bombadier on the American B-29 Superfortress Bockscar, and was the one who, on August 9, 1945, visually targeted Nagasaki, Japan, in order to drop an atomic bomb onto it. ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Urakami Tenshudo (Catholic Church in Nagasaki) destroyed by the atomic bomb, the bell of the church having toppled off. ... Unit of energy commonly used to quantify laerge amounts of energy. ...


According to some estimates, about 70,000 of Nagasaki's 240,000 residents were killed instantly,[45] and up to 60,000 were injured. The radius of total destruction was about 1.6 km (1 mile), followed by fires across the northern portion of the city to 3.2 km (2 miles) south of the bomb.[46] The total number of residents killed may have been as many as 80,000, including the few who died from radiation poisoning in the following months.[47]


An unknown number of survivors from the Hiroshima bombing made their way to Nagasaki and were bombed again.[48][49]


Plans for more atomic attacks on Japan

The United States expected to have another atomic bomb ready for use in the third week of August, with three more in September and a further three in October.[50] On August 10, Major General Leslie Groves, military director of the Manhattan Project, sent a memorandum to General of the Army George Marshall, Chief of Staff of the United States Army, in which he wrote that "the next bomb . . should be ready for delivery on the first suitable weather after 17 or 18 August." On the same day, Marshall endorsed the memo with the comment, "It is not to be released over Japan without express authority from the President."[50] There was already discussion in the War Department about conserving the bombs in production until Operation Downfall, the projected invasion of Japan, had begun. "The problem now [13 August] is whether or not, assuming the Japanese do not capitulate, to continue dropping them every time one is made and shipped out there or whether to hold them . . . and then pour them all on in a reasonably short time. Not all in one day, but over a short period. And that also takes into consideration the target that we are after. In other words, should we not concentrate on targets that will be of the greatest assistance to an invasion rather than industry, morale, psychology, and the like? Nearer the tactical use rather than other use."[50] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Leslie Groves Leslie Richard Groves (August 17, 1896 – July 13, 1970) was a United States Army officer who oversaw the construction of the Pentagon and was the primary military leader in charge of the Manhattan Project to develop the atomic bomb during World War II. Descended from French Huguenots who... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries of the world to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nations Army. ... For other persons named George Marshall, see George Marshall (disambiguation). ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the professional head of the United States Army who is responsible for ensuring readiness of the Army. ... Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ...


The surrender of Japan and the U.S. occupation

Up to August 9, the War council was still insisting on its four conditions for surrender. On that day Hirohito ordered Kido to "quickly control the situation" "because Soviet Union has declared war against us". He then held an Imperial conference during which he authorized minister Togo to notify the Allies that Japan would accept their terms on one condition, that the declaration "does not compromise any demand which prejudices the prerogatives of His Majesty as a Sovereign ruler".[51] Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


On August 12, the Emperor informed the imperial family of his decision to surrender. One of his uncles, Prince Asaka, then asked whether the war would be continued if the kokutai could not be preserved. Hirohito simply replied "of course".[52] As the Allied terms seemed to leave intact the principle of the preservation of the Throne, Hirohito recorded on August 14 his capitulation announcement which was broadcast to the Japanese nation the next day despite a short rebellion by fanatic militarists opposed to the surrender. Prince Asaka Yasuhiko, circa 1937 His Imperial Highness Prince Asaka (Yasuhiko) of Japan (jp: 朝香鳩彦 Asaka Yasuhiko, 2 October 1887 - 13 April 1981), Prince Asaka-no-miya (朝香宮) of Japan, was a member of the Japanese imperial family and a career army officer. ... Kokutai (Japanese kanji: 国体, lit. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In his declaration, Hirohito referred to the atomic bombings : Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...

Moreover, the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb, the power of which to do damage is, indeed, incalculable, taking the toll of many innocent lives. Should We continue to fight, not only would it result in an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation, but also it would lead to the total extinction of human civilization.

Such being the case, how are We to save the millions of Our subjects, or to atone Ourselves before the hallowed spirits of Our Imperial Ancestors? This is the reason why We have ordered the acceptance of the provisions of the Joint Declaration of the Powers.

However, in his "Rescript to the soldiers and sailors" delivered on 17 August, he stressed the impact of the Soviet invasion and his decision to surrender, omitting any mention of the bombs.


During the year after the bombing, approximately 40,000 U.S. occupation troops were in Hiroshima. Nagasaki was occupied by 27,000 troops.[53] Upper limit dose estimates[clarify] for those troops range from 0.19–0.3 mSv for Hiroshima and from 0.8–6.3 mSv for Nagasaki, depending on location.[54] The sievert (symbol: Sv) is the SI derived unit of dose equivalent. ...


Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

In the spring of 1948, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) was established in accordance with a presidential directive from Harry S. Truman to the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council to conduct investigations of the late effects of radiation among the survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. One of the early studies conducted by the ABCC was on the outcome of pregnancies occurring in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and in a control city, Kure located 18 miles south from Hiroshima, to discern the conditions and outcomes related to radiation exposure. Some would say ABCC was not in a position to offer medical treatment to the survivors except in a research capacity. One author has claimed that the ABCC refused to provide medical treatment to the survivors for better research results.[55] In 1975, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation was created to assume the responsibilities of ABCC. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... The National Research Council (NRC) of the USA is the working arm of the United States National Academy of Sciences and the United States National Academy of Engineering, carrying out most of the studies done in their names. ... Controlling for a variable means to deliberately vary the experimental conditions in order to take that variable into account in the prediction of the response variable. ... Kure (呉市; -shi) is a city located in Hiroshima, Japan. ...


The Hibakusha

Monument at ground zero in Nagasaki.
Monument at ground zero in Nagasaki.

The survivors of the bombings are called Hibakusha (被爆者?), a Japanese word that literally translates to "explosion-affected people". The suffering of the bombing is the root of Japan's postwar pacifism, and the nation has sought the abolition of nuclear weapons from the world ever since. As of 2005, there are about 266,000 hibakusha still living in Japan.[56] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 908 KB)The monument marking the atomic bomb hypocenter in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 908 KB)The monument marking the atomic bomb hypocenter in Nagasaki, Japan. ... A victim of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. ... A victim of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. ... Pacifism is the opposition to war or violence as a means of settling disputes or gaining advantage. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Korean survivors

During the war Japan brought many Korean conscripts to both Hiroshima and Nagasaki to work as forced labor. According to recent estimates, about 20,000 Koreans were killed in Hiroshima and about 2,000 died in Nagasaki. It is estimated that one in seven of the Hiroshima victims was of Korean ancestry.[57] For many years Koreans had a difficult time fighting for recognition as atomic bomb victims and were denied health benefits.[citation needed] Though such issues have been addressed in recent years, issues regarding recognition lingers.[citation needed]


Debate over bombings

Support

Preferable to invasion

Those who argue in favor of the decision to drop the bombs generally assert that the bombings ended the war months sooner than would otherwise have been the case, thus saving many lives. It is argued that there would have been massive casualties on both sides in the impending Operation Downfall invasion of Japan,[58] and that even if Operation Downfall was postponed, the status quo of conventional bombings and the Japanese occupations in Asia were causing tremendous loss of life. Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ...


The Americans anticipated losing many soldiers in the planned invasion of Japan, although the actual number of expected fatalities and wounded is subject to some debate. It depends on the persistence and reliability of Japanese resistance, and whether the Allies would have invaded only Kyūshū in November 1945 or if a follow up Allied landing near Tokyo, projected for March 1946, would have been needed. Years after the war, Secretary of State James Byrnes claimed that 500,000 American lives would have been lost, however in the summer of 1945,[citation needed] U.S. military planners projected 20,000–110,000 combat deaths from the initial November 1945 invasion, with about three to four times that number wounded.[citation needed] (Total U.S. killed in action on all fronts in World War II in nearly four years of war was 292,000.[11]) Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... Portrait of U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes James Francis Byrnes (May 2, 1879 - April 9, 1972) was a confidante of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and at one point was suggested as his running mate for Vice President. ...


Japan chose not to surrender

A nation historically suspicious of Western imperialism, Japanese military officials were opposed to any negotiations before the use of the atomic bomb and favored a ceasefire over any sort of concession or surrender.[59] The rise of Japanese militarism in the wake of the Great Depression had resulted in countless assassinations of reformers attempting to check military power, such as those of Takahashi Korekiyo, Saitō Makoto, and Inukai Tsuyoshi, creating an environment in which opposition to war was itself a risky endeavor.[60] For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Takahashi Korekiyo Takahashi Korekiyo (高橋是清 Takahashi Korekiyo) (July 27, 1854–February 26, 1936) was a Japanese politician and the 20th Prime Minister of Japan from November 13, 1921 to June 12, 1922. ... Makoto Saito ) (October 27, 1858–February 26, 1936) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy, Governor-General of Korea from 1919 to 1927 and the 30th Prime Minister of Japan from 26 May 1932 to 8 July 1934. ... Inukai Tsuyoshi (犬養 毅, April 20, 1855–May 15, 1932) was a Japanese politician and the 29th Prime Minister of Japan from December 13, 1931 to May 15, 1932. ...


While some members of the civilian leadership did use covert diplomatic channels to attempt peace negotiation, they could not negotiate surrender or even a cease-fire. Japan, as a Constitutional Monarchy, could only legally enter into a peace agreement with the unanimous support of the Japanese cabinet, and in the summer of 1945, the Japanese Supreme War Council, consisting of representatives of the Army, the Navy and the civilian government, could not reach a consensus on how to proceed.[60] This does not cite any references or sources. ...


A political stalemate developed between the military and civilian leaders of Japan, the military increasingly determined to fight despite all costs and odds and the civilian leadership seeking a way to negotiate an end to the war. Further complicating the decision was the fact that no cabinet could exist without the representative of the Imperial Japanese Army. This meant that the Army and the Navy could veto any decision by having its Minister resign, thus making it the most powerful posts on the SWC. In early August of 1945 the cabinet was equally split between those who advocated an end to the war on one condition, the preservation of the Kokutai, and those who insisted on three other conditions : leave disarmament and demobilization to Imperial General Headquarters, no occupation and delegation to Japanese government of the punishment of war criminals[61] The "hawks" consisted of General Korechika Anami, General Yoshijiro Umezu and Admiral Soemu Toyoda and were led by Anami. The "doves" consisted of Prime Minister Kantaro Suzuki, Naval Minister Mitsumasa Yonai and Minister of Foreign Affairs Shigenori Togo and were led by Togo.[60] Under special permission of the emperor, the president of the Privy council, Kiichiro Hiranuma, was also member of the imperial conference. For him, the preservation of the Kokutai implied not only that of the Imperial institution but also the continuation of emperor Showa's reign.[62] The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) (KyÅ«jitai: 大日本帝國陸軍, Shinjitai: , Romaji: Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was the official ground based armed force of Imperial Japan from 1867 to 1945. ... Kokutai (Japanese kanji: 国体, lit. ... The Imperial General Headquarters or Daihonei, as part of the Supreme War Council was the supreme command for Japanese military forces during the World War II era. ... Korechika Anami Korechika Anami (阿南 惟幾 Anami Korechika, February 21st 1887- August 15th 1945) was a Japanese general in World War II. Military Career 2dLt (Infantry),December 1906; was graduated from War College, November 1918; attached to Army General Staff, April 1919; Member, same, December 1919; Major, February 1922; Staff Officer, Sakhalin... Umezu signing the instrument of surrender to the United States General Yoshijiro Umezu ) (January 4, 1882 - January 8, 1949) was the chief commander of the Japanese army in World War II. In the 1920s Umezu was a member of the Tosei-Ha (Control Group) led by General Kazushige Ugaki along... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Admiral Baron Kantaro Suzuki (Japanese: 鈴木 貫太郎 18 January 1868 - 17 April 1948) was an admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy and 42nd Prime Minister of Japan from 7 April 1945 to 17 August 1945. ... Mitsumasa Yonai (米内 光政 Yonai Mitsumasa; March 2, 1880–April 20, 1948) was a Japanese politician and the 37th Prime Minister of Japan from January 16, 1940 to July 22, 1940. ... Shigenori Togo Shigenori Togo (東郷茂徳 Tōgō Shigenori, 10 December 1882 - 23 July 1950) was Minister of Foreign Affairs for Japan at both the start and the end of World War II. He also served as Minister for Colonization in 1941, and assumed the same position, renamed the Minister for Greater... Kiichiro Hiranuma (平沼 騏一郎 Hiranuma Kiichirō, September 28, 1867–August 22, 1952) was a Japanese politician and the 35th Prime Minister of Japan from January 5, 1939 to August 30, 1939. ... Kokutai (Japanese kanji: 国体, lit. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ...


The "one condition" faction, led by Togo, seized on the bombing as decisive justification of surrender. Kōichi Kido, one of Emperor Hirohito's closest advisers, stated: "We of the peace party were assisted by the atomic bomb in our endeavor to end the war." Hisatsune Sakomizu, the chief Cabinet secretary in 1945, called the bombing "a golden opportunity given by heaven for Japan to end the war." Marquis Koichi Kido ) (July 18, 1889 – April 6, 1977), served as Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal from 1940 to 1945, and was the closest advisor to Emperor Showa throughout World War II. Kido Kōichi was the grandson of Kido Takayoshi, one of the leaders of the Meiji Restoration. ... Hisatsune Sakomizu was the chief Cabinet secretary of Japan in 1945. ...


Unable to reach consensus at the meetings of the 9th and 10th, the council appealed to the emperor. Once emperor Showa had chosen the "one condition" side, the cabinet reformulated the acceptance of allies ultimatum "with the understanding that the said declaration does not compromise any demand that prejudices the prerogatives of his Majesty as a sovereign ruler".[63]


In justifying himself in 1946, Hirohito explain he though it was "impossible to continue the war. I had been informed by the chief of staff of the Army that the defenses of Cape Inubo and the Kujukuri coastal plain were still not ready. Also, according to the Army minister, the matériel needed to complete arming the divisions that would fight the final battle in the Kanto region could not be delivered until September...The main motive behind my decision at that time was that if we did not act, the Japanese race would perish...There would be no time to protect the sacred treasures of the imperial family...Under these circumstances, protection of the Kokutai would be difficult."[64] A representation of the Imperial Regalia of Japan. ... Kokutai (Japanese kanji: 国体, lit. ...


Speedy end of war saved lives

Supporters of the bombing also point out that waiting for the Japanese to surrender was not a cost-free option—as a result of the war, noncombatants were dying throughout Asia at a rate of about 200,000 per month.[citation needed] Firebombing had killed well over 100,000 people in Japan since February of 1945, directly and indirectly. That intensive conventional bombing would have continued prior to an invasion. The submarine blockade and the United States Army Air Forces's mining operation, Operation Starvation, had effectively cut off Japan's imports. A complementary operation against Japan's railways was about to begin, isolating the cities of southern Honshū from the food grown elsewhere in the Home Islands. "Immediately after the defeat, some estimated that 10 million people were likely to starve to death," noted historian Daikichi Irokawa. Meanwhile, in addition to the Soviet attacks, fighting continued in The Philippines, New Guinea and Borneo, and offensives were scheduled for September in southern China and Malaya. B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was the aviation component of the United States Army primarily during World War II. The title of Army Air Forces succeeded the prior name of Army Air Corps in June 1941 during preparation for expected combat in what came to be known as... Polish wz. ... Operation Starvation was an American mining operation conducted in World War II by the Army Air Force, in which vital water routes and ports of Japan were mined by air in order to disrupt enemy shipping. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Kalimantan. ... Map of Peninsular Malaysia Peninsular Malaysia (Malay: Semenanjung Malaysia) is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula, and shares a land border with Thailand in the north. ...


The atomic bomb hastened the end of the war, liberating millions in occupied areas, including thousands of interned civilians and prisoners of war from Japanese camps. For example, in the case of the Dutch East Indies, these included about 200,000 Dutch and 400,000 Indonesians romusha (slave laborers). In Java alone, between four and 10 million romusha were forced to work by the Japanese military.[65] About 270,000 Javanese romusha were sent to other Japanese-held areas in South East Asia. Only 52,000 were repatriated to Java, meaning that there was a death rate of 80%. By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Romushas were Indonesian forced laborers during the Japanese occupation in World War II. The word is Japanese and (reportedly) translates to wood log, indicating the disposable nature of the Indonesian labor force. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ...


Moreover, Japanese troops had committed atrocities against millions of civilians, by means including the sanko sakusen ("scorched earth") policies, the infamous Nanking Massacre and the use of chemical and bacteriological weapons, and the early end to the war prevented further bloodshed. Millions of Asian civilians died of famine under Japanese rule: for example, a UN report states that four million people died in the Dutch East Indies as a result of famine and forced labor during the Japanese occupation, including 30,000 European civilian internee deaths.[66] These war crimes were ongoing, and use of the atomic bombs brought them to an abrupt end. Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Sankō sakusen (Japanese: 三光作戦, sankō sakusen; Chinese: 三光政策, Sānguāng Zhèngcè; literally The Three Nothings Strategy/Policy) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II. Although it literally means three nothings, in this case the word nothing means nothing left. Thus, the term is more... For the 2007 documentary film about the Nanking Massacre, see Nanking (film). ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...


Philippine justice Delfin Jaranillla, member of the Tokyo tribunal, wrote in his judgement: Categories: Possible copyright violations ...

"If a means is justified by an end, the use of the atomic bomb was justified for it brought Japan to her knees and ended the horrible war. If the war had gone longer, without the use of the atomic bomb, how many thousands and thousands of helpless men, women and children would have needlessely died and suffer ...?[67]

Supporters also point to an order given by the Japanese War Ministry on August 1, 1944, ordering the disposal and execution of all Allied POWs, numbering over 100,000, if an invasion of the Japanese mainland took place.[68] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


Part of "total war"

Supporters of the bombings have argued that the Japanese government waged total war, ordering many civilians (including women and children) to work in factories and military offices and to fight against any invading force. Father John A. Siemes, professor of modern philosophy at Tokyo's Catholic University, and an eyewitness to the atomic bomb attack on Hiroshima wrote: Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ...

"We have discussed among ourselves the ethics of the use of the bomb. Some consider it in the same category as poison gas and were against its use on a civil population. Others were of the view that in total war, as carried on in Japan, there was no difference between civilians and soldiers, and that the bomb itself was an effective force tending to end the bloodshed, warning Japan to surrender and thus to avoid total destruction. It seems logical to me that he who supports total war in principle cannot complain of war against civilians."[69]

On June 30, 2007, Japan's first defense minister Fumio Kyuma said the dropping of atomic bombs on Japan by the United States during World War II was an inevitable way to end the war. Kyuma said "I now have come to accept in my mind that in order to end the war, it could not be helped that an atomic bomb was dropped on Nagasaki and that countless numbers of people suffered great tragedy." Mr.Fumio Kyuma, who is from Nagasaki, said the bombing caused great suffering in the city, but he does not resent the U.S. because it prevented the Soviet Union from entering the war with Japan.[70] Nagasaki mayor Tomihisa Taue protested against Kyuma. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fumio Kyumi (born December 4, 1940-) is a Japanese politician who has served in the Diet of Japan since 1980. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Fumio Kyumi (born December 4, 1940-) is a Japanese politician who has served in the Diet of Japan since 1980. ... Tomihisa Taue , born December 10, 1956), is the mayor of the Japanese city of Nagasaki; he first took office in 2007. ...


In the wake of the outrage provoked by his statements, Kyuma had to resign on July 3.[71] However, the comments of Kyuma were almost similar to those made by emperor Showa when, in his first ever press conference given in Tokyo in 1975, he was asked what he thought of the bombing of Hiroshima. Hirohito then answered : "It's very regrettable that nuclear bombs were dropped and I feel sorry for the citizens of Hiroshima but it couldn't be helped because that happened in wartime."[72] is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


Some supporters of the bombings have emphasized the strategic significance of Hiroshima, as the Japanese 2nd army's headquarters, and of Nagasaki, as a major munitions manufacturing center.


In his speech to the Japanese people presenting his reasons for surrender, Emperor Hirohito referred specifically to the atomic bombs, stating that if they continued to fight it would result in "...an ultimate collapse and obliteration of the Japanese nation..."[73] Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ...


Opposition

The cenotaph at the Hiroshima Peace Park is inscribed with an ambiguous sentence: "Rest in peace, for this mistake will not be repeated." This construction, natural in the Japanese language, was intended to memorialize the victims of Hiroshima without politicizing the issue.
The cenotaph at the Hiroshima Peace Park is inscribed with an ambiguous sentence: "Rest in peace, for this mistake will not be repeated." This construction, natural in the Japanese language, was intended to memorialize the victims of Hiroshima without politicizing the issue.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 968 KB) Summary Author: Michael Oswald Time: April 5, 2006 Camera: Canon Powershot G3 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hiroshima Cenotaph Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1704x2272, 968 KB) Summary Author: Michael Oswald Time: April 5, 2006 Camera: Canon Powershot G3 Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Hiroshima Cenotaph Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates... The Cenotaph, London A ceremony at the Cenotaph, London, on Sunday 12th June 2005, remembering Irish war dead Memorial Cenotaph, Hiroshima, Japan A cenotaph is a tomb or a monument erected in honor of a person or group of persons whose remains are elsewhere. ... Japanese  ) is a language spoken by over 130 million people, in Japan and Japanese emigrant communities around the world. ...

Inherently immoral

A number of notable individuals and organizations have criticized the bombings, many of them characterizing them as war crimes or crime against humanity. Two early critics of the bombings were Albert Einstein and Leo Szilard, who had together spurred the first bomb research in 1939 with a jointly written letter to President Roosevelt. Szilard, who had gone on to play a major role in the Manhattan Project, argued: In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... “Einstein” redirects here. ... Leó Szilárd (right) working with Albert Einstein. ... Many years later, Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd re-enact the signing of the Einstein-Szilárd letter to Roosevelt. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ...

"Let me say only this much to the moral issue involved: Suppose Germany had developed two bombs before we had any bombs. And suppose Germany had dropped one bomb, say, on Rochester and the other on Buffalo, and then having run out of bombs she would have lost the war. Can anyone doubt that we would then have defined the dropping of atomic bombs on cities as a war crime, and that we would have sentenced the Germans who were guilty of this crime to death at Nuremberg and hanged them?"[74]

A number of scientists who worked on the bomb were against its use. Led by Dr. James Franck, seven scientists submitted a report to the Interim Committee (which advised the President) in May 1945, saying: Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country State County Monroe Government [1]  - Mayor Robert Duffy (D) Area  - City  37. ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State County Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... James Franck (August 26, 1882 - May 21, 1964) was a German-born physicist and Nobel laureate. ...

"If the United States were to be the first to release this new means of indiscriminate destruction upon mankind, she would sacrifice public support throughout the world, precipitate the race for armaments, and prejudice the possibility of reaching an international agreement on the future control of such weapons."[75]

On August 8, 1945, Albert Camus addressed the bombing of Hiroshima in an editorial in the French newspaper Combat: is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Albert Camus (IPA: ) (November 7, 1913 – January 4, 1960) was a French author and philosopher. ... Combat (French for fight) was a French newspaper created during the Second World War. ...

"Mechanized civilization has just reached the ultimate stage of barbarism. In a near future, we will have to choose between mass suicide and intelligent use of scientific conquests[...] This can no longer be simply a prayer; it must become an order which goes upward from the peoples to the governments, an order to make a definitive choice between hell and reason."[76]

In 1946, a report by the Federal Council of Churches entitled Atomic Warfare and the Christian Faith, includes the following passage: The National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA (usually identified as National Council of Churches, or NCC) is an association of 35 Christian faith groups in the United States with 100,000 local congregations and more than 45,000,000 adherents. ...

"As American Christians, we are deeply penitent for the irresponsible use already made of the atomic bomb. We are agreed that, whatever be one's judgment of the war in principle, the surprise bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki are morally indefensible."

In 1963 the bombings were the subject of a judicial review in Ryuichi Shimoda et al. v. The State.[77] On the 22nd anniversary of the attack on Pearl Harbor, the District Court of Tokyo declined to rule on the legality of nuclear weapons in general, but found that "the attacks upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused such severe and indiscriminate suffering that they did violate the most basic legal principles governing the conduct of war."[78] It has been suggested that Judicial Review in English Law be merged into this article or section. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Ryuichi Shimoda et al. ...

New York City: An anti-nuclear weapon display in Tompkins Square Park on August 4, 2006
New York City: An anti-nuclear weapon display in Tompkins Square Park on August 4, 2006

In the opinion of the court, the act of dropping an atomic bomb on cities was at the time governed by international law found in the Hague Regulations on Land Warfare of 1907 and the Hague Draft Rules of Air Warfare of 1922–1923[79] and was therefore illegal.[80] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (820x615, 132 KB) Summary The author of this photo is me, David Shankbone. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (820x615, 132 KB) Summary The author of this photo is me, David Shankbone. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


As the first military use of nuclear weapons, the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki represent to some the crossing of a crucial barrier. Peter Kuznick, director of the Nuclear Studies Institute at American University in Washington DC wrote of President Truman:

”He knew he was beginning the process of annihilation of the species. It was not just a war crime; it was a crime against humanity."[81]

Kurznick is one of several observers who believe that the U.S. was largely motivated in carrying out the bombings by a desire to demonstrate the power of its new weapon to the Soviet Union. Historian Mark Selden of Cornell University has stated "Impressing Russia was more important than ending the war in Japan."[81] Cornell University is a university located in Ithaca, New York, USA. Its two medical campuses are in New York City and Education City, Qatar. ...


Takashi Hiraoka, mayor of Hiroshima, upholding nuclear disarmament, said in a hearing to The Hague International Court of Justice (ICJ): U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006 Nuclear disarmament is the proposed dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those of the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province South Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 98. ... The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ...

"It is clear that the use of nuclear weapons, which cause indiscriminate mass murder that leaves [effects on] survivors for decades, is a violation of international law".[82][83]

Iccho Itoh, the mayor of Nagasaki, declared in the same hearing: This is a Japanese name; the family name is Itoh Iccho Itoh , August 23, 1945 – April 18, 2007) was the mayor of the Japanese city of Nagasaki; he first took office in 1995. ...

"It is said that the descendants of the atomic bomb survivors will have to be monitored for several generations to clarify the genetic impact, which means that the descendants will live in anxiety for [decades] to come. [...] with their colossal power and capacity for slaughter and destruction, nuclear weapons make no distinction between combatants and non-combatants or between military installations and civilian communities [...] The use of nuclear weapons [...] therefore is a manifest infraction of international law."[82]

John Bolton, former US ambassador to the United Nations, used Hiroshima and Nagasaki as examples why the US should not adhere to the International Criminal Court (ICC): John Robert Bolton (born November 20, 1948), is an jewish American diplomat in several Republican administrations, who served as the Permanent US Representative to the UN from August 2005 until December 2006, on a recess appointment. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Official logo of the ICC. The International Criminal Court (ICC) was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, crime of aggression, and war crimes, as defined by several international agreements, most prominently the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. ...

"A fair reading of the treaty [the Rome Statute concerning the ICC], for example, leaves the objective observer unable to answer with confidence whether the United States was guilty of war crimes for its aerial bombing campaigns over Germany and Japan in World War II. Indeed, if anything, a straightforward reading of the language probably indicates that the court would find the United States guilty. A fortiori, these provisions seem to imply that the United States would have been guilty of a war crime for dropping atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This is intolerable and unacceptable."[84]

Although bombings do not meet the definition of genocide, some consider that this definition is too strict, and that these bombings do represent a genocide.[85][86] For example, University of Chicago historian Bruce Cumings states there is a consensus among historians to Martin Sherwin's statement, that "the Nagasaki bomb was gratuitous at best and genocidal at worst."[87] Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court Opened for signature June 17, 1998[1] at Rome Entered into force July 1, 2002 Conditions for entry into force 60 ratifications Parties 99[2] The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (or Rome Statute) is the treaty which established the International... Genocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of an ethnic or national group. ... The University of Chicago is a private university located principally in the Hyde Park neighborhood of Chicago. ... Bruce Cumings is an historian, and professor at the University of Chicago, specializing in modern Korean history and contemporary international relations in East Asia. ... Martin J. Sherwin is a Pulitzer Prize-winning American historian. ...


Historical accounts indicate that the decision to use the atomic bombs was made in order to provoke an early surrender of Japan by use of an awe-inspiring power. These observations have caused some commentators to state that the incident was an act of "war terrorism". Michael Walzer wrote, "... And, finally, there is war terrorism: the effort to kill civilians in such large numbers that their government is forced to surrender. Hiroshima seems to me the classic case."[88] This type of claim eventually prompted historian Robert Newman, a supporter of the bombings, to argue that the practice of terrorism is justified in some cases.[89] Image:Mwalzer large. ... Rob Newman Robert (sometimes Rob) Newman (born July 7, 1964) is a half Greek-Cypriot British stand-up comedian, author and political activist. ...


Militarily unnecessary

Those who argue that the bombings were unnecessary on military grounds hold that Japan was already essentially defeated and ready to surrender.


One of the most notable individuals with this opinion was then-General Dwight D. Eisenhower. He wrote in his memoir The White House Years: Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ...

"In 1945 Secretary of War Stimson, visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an act. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives."[90][91]

Other U.S. military officers who disagreed with the necessity of the bombings include General Douglas MacArthur (the highest-ranking officer in the Pacific Theater), Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy (the Chief of Staff to the President), General Carl Spaatz (commander of the U.S. Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific), Brigadier General Carter Clarke (the military intelligence officer who prepared intercepted Japanese cables for U.S. officials),[91] Admiral Ernest King, U.S. Chief of Naval Operations, Undersecretary of the Navy Ralph A. Bard,[92] and Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet.[93] This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... A Fleet Admiral or a Admiral Of The Fleet, as it was first coined, is a military officer of very high rank and is a generic term for a senior admiral in command of a large group of ships, comprising a fleet or, in some cases, a group of fleets. ... Fleet Admiral William Daniel Leahy (May 6, 1875 – July 20, 1959) was an American naval officer and the first U.S. military officer ever to hold the five-star rank in the U.S. armed forces. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... Fleet Admiral Ernest Joseph King (November 23, 1878 – June 25, 1956) was Commander in Chief, United States Fleet and Chief of Naval Operations (COMINCH-CNO) during World War II. As COMINCH, he directed the United States Navys operations, planning, and administration and was a member of the Joint Chiefs... The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... External link Memorandum on the use of the S-1 bomb Categories: People stubs | 1884 births | 1975 deaths ... Fleet Admiral Chester William Nimitz (February 24, 1885 – February 20, 1966) was the Commander in Chief of Pacific Forces for the United States and Allied forces during World War II. He was the United States leading authority on submarines, as well as Chief of the Navys Bureau of Navigation...

"The Japanese had, in fact, already sued for peace. The atomic bomb played no decisive part, from a purely military point of view, in the defeat of Japan." Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the U.S. Pacific Fleet.[94]
"The use of [the atomic bombs] at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender." Admiral William D. Leahy, Chief of Staff to President Truman.[94]

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey, after interviewing hundreds of Japanese civilian and military leaders after Japan surrendered, reported:

"Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts, and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated."[95][94]
What was originally the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall has now been turned into the Hiroshima Peace Memorial. The atomic bomb exploded almost directly overhead.

The survey assumed that conventional bombing attacks on Japan would greatly increase as the bombing capabilities of July 1945 were ...a fraction of its planned proportion...[96] due to a steadily high production rate of new B-29s and the reallocation of European airpower to the Pacific. When hostilities ended, the USAAF had approximately 3700 B-29s of which only about 1000 were deployed.[97] is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hiroshima Prefectural Promotion Hall (the A-Bomb dome), the closest building to have withstood the atom bomb blast in Hiroshima. ... Hiroshima Prefectural Promotion Hall (the A-Bomb dome), the closest building to have withstood the atom bomb blast in Hiroshima. ... Citizens of the city pass by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial on their way to a memorial ceremony on August 6, 2004 Hiroshima Peace Memorial, called Gembaku Dome (原爆ドーム), the Atomic Bomb Dome, or the A-Bomb Dome by the Japanese is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Hiroshima, Japan. ...


Had the war gone on these and still more aircraft would have brought devastation far worse than either bomb to many more cities. The results of conventional strategic bombing at the cease-fire were summed up thusly:

"...On the basis of photo coverage, intelligence estimated that 175 square miles of urban area in 66 cities were wiped out. Total civilian casualties stemming directly from the urban attacks were estimated at 330,000 killed, 476,000 injured, and 9,200,000 rendered homeless." General Haywood S. Hansell[97]

General MacArthur has also contended that Japan would have surrendered before the bombings if the U.S. had notified Japan that it would accept a surrender that allowed Emperor Hirohito to keep his position as titular leader of Japan, a condition the U.S. did in fact allow after Japan surrendered. U.S. leadership knew this, through intercepts of encoded Japanese messages, but refused to clarify Washington's willingness to accept this condition. Before the bombings, the position of the Japanese leadership with regards to surrender was divided. Several diplomats favored surrender, while the leaders of the Japanese military voiced a commitment to fighting a "decisive battle" on Kyūshū, hoping that they could negotiate better terms for an armistice afterward. The Japanese government did not decide what terms, beyond preservation of an imperial system, they would have accepted to end the war; as late as August 9, the Supreme War Council was still split, with the hard-liners insisting Japan should demobilize its own forces, no war crimes trials would be conducted, and no occupation of Japan would be allowed. Only the direct intervention of the emperor ended the dispute, and even then a military coup was attempted to prevent the surrender. Operation Downfall was the overall Allied plan for the invasion of Japan at the end of World War II. The operation was cancelled when Japan surrendered following the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the Soviet Unions declaration of war against Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Supreme War Council was de-facto inner cabinet of Japan prior and during World War II. Among memberes were Prime Minister, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Minister of War, the Minister of the Navy, the chiefs of the General Staffs of both the Army and the Navy. ...


Historian Tsuyoshi Hasegawa's research has led him to conclude that the atomic bombings themselves were not even the principal reason for capitulation. Instead, he contends, it was the swift and devastating Soviet victories in Manchuria that forced the Japanese surrender on August 15, 1945.[98]
is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Cultural references

Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, the closest building to have survived the city's atomic bombing.
Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial, the closest building to have survived the city's atomic bombing.
  • The book Hiroshima Mon Amour, by Marguerite Duras, and the related film, were partly inspired by the bombing. The film version, directed by Alain Resnais, has some documentary footage of the afteraffects, burn victims, devastation.
  • The above book served as as inspiration for the like-titled 1977 song by the British New Wave band Ultravox.
  • The Japanese manga "Hadashi no Gen" ("Barefoot Gen") is a manga which deals with the bombing in Hiroshima.
  • The musical piece "Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima" by Krzysztof Penderecki (sometimes also called Threnody to the Victims of Hiroshima for 52 Strings, and originally 8'37" as a nod to John Cage) was written in 1960 as a reaction to what the composer believed to be a senseless act. On the 12th of October, 1964, Penderecki wrote: "Let the Threnody express my firm belief that the sacrifice of Hiroshima will never be forgotten and lost."
  • Composer Robert Steadman has written a musical work for voice and chamber ensemble entitled Hibakusha Songs. Commissioned by the Imperial War Museum North, Manchester, it was premiered in 2005.
  • Artists Stephen Moore and Ann Rosenthal examine 60 years of living in the shadow of the bomb in their decade-long art project "Infinity City." Their web site http://infcty.net documents their travels to historical sites on three continents and explores their art installations and web works reflecting on America's nuclear legacy.
  • The Canadian progressive rock band Rush performed a song called "The Manhattan Project" depicting the events of and leading up to the bombing of Hiroshima.
  • The story of Sadako Sasaki, a young Hiroshima survivor diagnosed with leukemia, has been recounted in a number of books and films. Two of the best known of these works are Karl Bruckner's Sadako will leben (1961), translated into 22 languages and Eleanor Coerr's Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes (Putnam, 1977). Sasaki, confined to a hospital because of her leukemia, created 644 origami cranes, in reference to a Japanese legend which granted one wish to whoever could fold 1,000 cranes.
  • Native American novelist Gerald Vizenor`s "kabuki novel", Hiroshima Bugi (2003), compares the aftermath of the Hiroshima bombing to the aftermath of the conquest of the Americas.
  • The Japanese author Fumiyo Kouno wrote her graphic novel about a story of a family after the atomic bomb, Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms (2004), and translated into some languages.
  • The rock band Wishful Thinking had a hit in 1971 with "Hiroshima", a song about the bombing.
  • The Japanese rock band L'Arc~en~Ciel recorded the song "Hoshizora" ("Starlit Sky") on the 2005 "Awake" album using Hiroshima as a metaphor of the devastation of war. The song was also dedicated to the victims of war in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Download high resolution version (1007x698, 525 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1007x698, 525 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... The Japanese city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshū, the largest of Japans islands. ... Citizens of the city pass by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial on their way to a memorial ceremony on August 6, 2004 Hiroshima Peace Memorial, called Gembaku Dome (原爆ドーム), the Atomic Bomb Dome, or the A-Bomb Dome by the Japanese is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Hiroshima Mon Amour, Alain Resnais acclaimed film, was released in the USA in 1960, and was called The Birth of a Nation of the French New Wave (nouvelle vague) by critic Leonard Maltin, because of its importance to the innovations of the movement. ... Marguerite Donnadieu, better known as Marguerite Duras, (April 4, 1914 – March 3, 1996) was a French writer and film director. ... Alain Resnais (born June 3, 1922 ) is a French film director whose early works are often grouped within the New Wave or Nouvelle Vague film movement. ... The term New Wave has been used to describe several movements in art. ... Ultravox (formerly Ultravox!) was one of the primary exponents of the British electronic pop music movement of the early 1980s. ... maNga is a popular Turkish nu metal/rapcore band. ... Barefoot Gen ) is a manga novel written and illustrated by Keiji Nakazawa. ... The musical composition Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima (Tren ofiarom Hiroszimy in Polish), for 52 string instruments, was composed in 1959 by Krzysztof Penderecki (b. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ... For the Mortal Kombat character, see Johnny Cage. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... Robert Steadman (born April 1, 1965) is a British composer of classical music who mostly works in a post-minimalist style but also writes lighter music, including musicals, and compositions for educational purposes. ... A singer is a musician who uses their voice to produce music. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... The main entrance of the Imperial War Museum North, with the air shard tower. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Rush is a Canadian rock band comprising bassist, keyboardist, and lead vocalist Geddy Lee, guitarist Alex Lifeson, and drummer and lyricist Neil Peart. ... Error creating thumbnail: convert: unable to open image `/mnt/upload3/wikipedia/en/f/f7/Sadako_Sasaki_Portrait_Age_12. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Karl Bruckner, (January 9, 1906 – October 25, 1986) was a Austrian childrens writer. ... Sadako Will Leben (translation: Sadako Wants To Live) is a non-fiction book written by Austrian author Karl Bruckner in 1961. ... Eleanor Coerr was born in Kamsack, Saskatchewan, Canada, and she grew up in Saskatoon. ... Sadako and the Thousand Paper Cranes is a non-fiction book written by American author Eleanor Coerr in 1977. ... Gerald Vizenor (born 1934) is a Native American (Chippewa) writer. ... The oldest Kabuki theatre in Japan: the Minamiza in Kyoto The Kabukiza in Ginza is one of Tokyos leading kabuki theaters. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Town of Evening Calm, Country of Cherry Blossoms ) is a manga, written and drawn by Japanese mangaka Fumiyo Kōno published in Japan in 2004. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Films about the events

  • Fat Man and Little Boy
  • Imamura, Shohei (Director). (1989) Kuroi ame (Black Rain) [Feature-length drama]. Japan: Toei Co. Ltd.. - The story of the aftermath of the Hiroshima bombing, based on Masuji Ibuse's novel.
  • Kurihara, Koreyoshi and Roger Spottiswoode (Director). (1995) Hiroshima [Feature-length docudrama]. Canada/Japan: Hallmark Home Entertainment. - A detailed, semi-documentary dramatisation of the political decisions involved with the atomic bombings.
  • Kurosawa, Akira (Director). (1991) Hachi-gatsu no kyôshikyoku (Rhapsody in August) [Feature-length drama]. Japan: MGM Home Entertainment. - Fictional drama that takes place in Nagasaki at the time of the bombing.
  • Sato, Junya (Director). (2005) Hadashi no Gen (Barefoot Gen) [Feature-length, animated movie]. Japan: Tara Releasing. - Animated dramatization of the bombing of Hiroshima based on the writer's own experiences and the documented experiences of other surivors.
  • Okazaki, Steven (Director). (2007) White Light/Black Rain: The Destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki [Documentary]. Japan: Home Box Office (HBO), Siglo Ltd., Zazie Films Inc.. - Factual accounts of the events from Japanese surivors and American military.

Fat Man and Little Boy (aka Shadow Makers in the UK) is a 1989 film that reenacts the Manhattan Project, the secret Allied endeavor to develop the first nuclear weapons during World War II. It is named after the nuclear weapons known as Fat Man and Little Boy, and also... Shohei Imamura (今村 昌平 Imamura Shōhei) (born 15 September 1926 in Tokyo, Japan) is a Japanese film director. ... Kuroi Ame (黒い雨; Black Rain in English) is a 1989 Japanese film by director Imamura Shohei based on the novel of the same name by Ibuse Masuji. ... Masuji Ibuse (1898 - 1993) was a Japanese author. ... Akira Kurosawa , 23 March 1910—6 September 1998) was a prominent Japanese film director, film producer, and screenwriter. ... Rhapsody in August (八月の狂詩曲 Hachigatsu no kyôshikyoku) is a 1991 film by Akira Kurosawa. ... Steven Okazaki (born 1952 in Venice, California) is an American filmmaker. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Citizens of the city pass by the Hiroshima Peace Memorial on their way to a memorial ceremony on August 6, 2004 Hiroshima Peace Memorial, called Gembaku Dome (原爆ドーム), the Atomic Bomb Dome, or the A-Bomb Dome by the Japanese is a UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum is located in Hiroshima Peace Memorial Park, in central Hiroshima. ... Hiroshima Peace Memorial Ceremony is the ceremony for the world peace. ... National Peace Memorial Hall National Peace Memorial Hall Hiroshima National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims is one of the National Memorial Halls in Hiroshima, Japan. ... The Hiroshima City Ebayama Museum of Meteorology (広島市江波山気象館 Hiroshima-shi Ebayama Kishokan) is the first Museum of Meteorology in Japan, located in Ebayama Park, in Hiroshima, Japan. ... Hiroshima Witness, also released as Voice of Hibakusha, is a documentary film featuring 100 interviews of people who survived the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, also known as hibakusha. ... Childrens Peace Monument Childrens Peace Monument (Japanese: 原爆の子の像) is the monument for peace to to console Sadako Sasaki and the thousand of child victims of the atomic bomb. ... A picture of the Nagasaki Peace Park showing the famous Peace Statue. ... The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum is in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. ... The Urakami Cathedral, one of Nagasakis prominent landmarks, stands on a hill amid the rubble of a residential district east of ground zero. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Terror bombing. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... The United States of America was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... The Federal Government of the United States is known to possess three types of weapons of mass destruction: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons and biological weapons. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... During the 1930s, the scientific community in the world started to understand the power of nuclear energy, and the Empire of Japan, like many other governments, was made aware of the possibility of developing a weapon which utilized nuclear fission as the source of its energy. ... The label victors justice (in German, Siegerjustiz) is applied by advocates to a situation in which they believe that a victorious nation is applying different rules to judge what is right or wrong for their own forces and for those of the (former) enemy. ... Japanese war crimes occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism. ... Piechart showing percentage of military and civilian deaths by alliance during World War II. World War II was the single deadliest conflict the world has ever seen, causing many tens of millions of deaths. ... A nuclear-free zone is an area where nuclear weapons and/or nuclear power are banned. ...

References

  • Sadao Asada (1997). "The Mushroom Cloud and National Psyches: Japanese and American Perceptions of the Atomic-Bomb Decision, 1945-1995", in Laura Hein and Mark Selden, eds.: Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age. East Gate Book, 186. ISBN 1-56324-967-7. 
  • Herbert Bix (1996). "Japan's Delayed Surrender: A Reinterpretation", in Michael J. Hogan, ed.: Hiroshima in History and Memory. Cambridge University Press, 290. ISBN 0-521-56682-7. 
  • Richard H. Campbell (2005). "Chapter 2: Development and Production", The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29s Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs. McFarland & Company, Inc., p.114. ISBN 0-7864-2139-8. 
  • Dower, John (1995). "The Bombed: Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese Memory". Diplomatic History Vol. 19 (no. 2). 
  • Jack Edwards Banzi you Bastards, Souviner Press, (paperback 1994), ISBN 0-285-63027-X, Page 260
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D (1963). The White House Years; Mandate For Change: 1953-1956. Doubleday & Company, pp. 312-313. 
  • Falk, Richard A.. "The Claimants of Hiroshima", The Nation, 1965-02-15.  reprinted in (1966) "The Shimoda Case: Challenge and Response", in Richard A. Falk, Saul H. Mendlovitz eds.: The Strategy of World Order. Volume: 1. New York: World Law Fund, pp. 307-13. 
  • Richard B. Frank (2001). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin Publishing. ISBN 0-679-41424-X. 
  • Freeman, Robert (August 6 2006). "Was the Atomic Bombing of Japan Necessary?". CommonDreams.org. 
  • Frey, Robert S. (2004). The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda and Beyond. University Press of America. ISBN 0761827439.  Reviewed at: Rice, Sarah (2005). "The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda and Beyond (Review)". Harvard Human Rights Journal Vol. 18. 
  • Mikiso Hane (2001). Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3756-9. 
  • Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (2005). Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Belknap Press, pages 129,298–299. ISBN 0-674-01693-9. 
  • Lillian Hoddeson, et al, Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, 1943-1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), on 295.
  • (1999) The Spirit of Hiroshima: An Introduction to the Atomic Bomb Tragedy. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. 
  • The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II, A Collection of Primary Sources, National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162.
  • Martin J. Sherwin (2003). A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies, 2nd edition, Stanford University Press, 233-234. 
  • Kido Koichi nikki, Tokyo, Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966, p.1223, p.1120-1121
  • Rinjiro Sodei. Were We the Enemy?: American Survivors of Hiroshima. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998
  • John A. Siemes. The Avalon Project : The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 25 - Eyewitness Account. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  • United States Strategic Bombing Survey; Summary Report pg. 26. United States Government Printing Office (1946). Retrieved on July 28, 2006.
  • Dennis D. Wainstock (1996). The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb. Praeger, 92. ISBN 0-275-95475-7. 

Herbert P. Bix is the author of Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, an acclaimed account of the Japanese Emperor and the events which shaped modern Japanese imperialism. ... Jack Edwards, (Chinese: 艾華士) MBE, OBE (24 May 1918 - 13 August 2006), was a former British WWII army sergeant and a POW survivor, most well known for his dedicated efforts of tracking down Japanese war criminals and the relentless determination displayed in defending the rights of Hong Kong war veterans. ... Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

There is an extensive body of literature concerning the bombings, the decision to use the bombs, and the surrender of Japan. The following sources provide a sampling of prominent works on this subject matter. Because the debate over justification for the bombings is particularly intense, some of the literature may contain claims that are disputed.

  • Hein, Laura and Selden, Mark (Editors) (1997). Living with the Bomb: American and Japanese Cultural Conflicts in the Nuclear Age. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 1-56324-967-9. 
  • Sherwin, Martin J. (2003). A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0-8047-3957-9. 
  • Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). The White House Years; Mandate For Change: 1953-1956. Doubleday & Company. 
  • Craven, Wesley Frank; James Lea Cate (1946). United States Strategic Bombing Survey; Summary Report (Pacific War). The Army Air Forces in World War II. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Histories and descriptions

The black marker indicates "ground zero" of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion.
The black marker indicates "ground zero" of the Nagasaki atomic bomb explosion.
  • Hoddeson, Lillian, et al (1993). Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-44132-3. 
  • Sodei, Rinjiro (1998). Were We the Enemy? American Survivors of Hiroshima. Westview Press. ISBN 081333750X. 
  • Hachiya, Michihiko (1955). Hiroshima Diary. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-4547-7. 
A daily diary covering the months after the bombing, written by a doctor who was in the city when the bomb was dropped.
  • Hersey, John (1946, 1985). Hiroshima. Vintage Press. ISBN 0-679-72103-7. 
An account of the bombing by an American journalist who visited the city shortly after the Occupation began, and interviewed survivors.
  • Ogura, Toyofumi (1948). Letters from the End of the World: A Firsthand Account of the Bombing of Hiroshima. Kodansha International Ltd.. ISBN 4-7700-2776-1. 
  • Sekimori, Gaynor (1986). Hibakusha: Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Kosei Publishing Company. ISBN 4-333-01204-X. 
  • Selden, Kyoko, et al (1986). The Atomic Bomb: Voices from Hiroshima and Nagasaki (Japan in the Modern World). M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 087332773X. 
  • Takashi, Nagai (1949). The Bells of Nagasaki. Kodansha International Ltd.. ISBN 4-7700-1845-2. 
  • Weller, George and Weller, Anthony (2006). First Into Nagasaki: The Censored Eyewitness Dispatches on Post-Atomic Japan and Its Prisoners of War. Vintage Press. ISBN 0-307-34201-8. 
  • Lifton, Robert and Mitchell, Greg (1995). Hiroshima in America: A Half Century of Denial. Quill Publishing. ISBN 0-380-72764-1. 
  • The Committee for the Compilation of Materials on Damage Caused by the Atomic Bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1981). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings. Basic Books. ISBN 046502985X. 
Detailed accounts of the immediate and subsequent casualties over three decades.
  • Craig, William (1967). The Fall of Japan. Galahad Books. ISBN 0883659859. 
A history of the governmental decision making on both sides, the bombings, and the opening of the Occupation.
  • Frank, Richard B. (2001). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-100146-1. 
A history of the final months of the war, with emphasis on the preparations and prospects for the invasion of Japan. The author contends that the Japanese military leaders were preparing to continue the fight, and that they hoped that a bloody defense of their main islands would lead to something less than unconditional surrender and a continuation of their existing government.
  • Hogan, Michael J. (1996). Hiroshima in History and Memory. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521562066. 
  • Knebel, Fletcher and Bailey, Charles W. (1960). No High Ground. Harper and Row. ISBN 0313242216.  A history of the bombings, and the decision-making to use them.
  • Robert Jungk, Brighter Than a Thousand Suns: A Personal History of the Atomic Scientists (New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1956, 1958)
  • The Pacific War Research Society (2006). Japan's Longest Day. Oxford University Press. ISBN 4770028873. 
An account of the Japanese surrender and how it was almost thwarted by soldiers who attempted a coup against the Emperor.
  • Rhodes, Richard (1986). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671441337. 
  • Sweeney, Charles, et al (1999). War's End: An Eyewitness Account of America's Last Atomic Mission. Quill Publishing. ISBN 0380788748. 
  • Rhodes, Richard (1977). Enola Gay: The Bombing of Hiroshima. Konecky & Konecky. ISBN 1568525974. 
A history of the preparations to drop the bombs, and of the missions.
  • Walker, J. Samuel (1997). Prompt and Utter Destruction: President Truman and the Use of Atomic Bombs Against Japan. University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0807823619. 
  • Walker, Stephen (2005). Shockwave: Countdown to Hiroshima. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060742852. 
Narrative events in the lives of those involved in or touched by the bombings.
  • Weintraub, Stanley (1995). The Last, Great Victory: The End of World War II. Truman Talley Books. ISBN 0525936874. 
Recounts the events day by day.

Online

Debates over the bombings

  • Wainstock, Dennis D. (1996). The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 0-275-95475-7. 
  • Grayling, A. C. (2006). Among the Dead Cities. Walker Publishing Company Inc.. ISBN 0-8027-1471-4. 
Philosophical/moral discussion concerning the Allied strategy of area bombing in WWII, including the use of atomic weapons on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  • Allen, Thomas B. and Polmar, Norman (1995). Code-Name Downfall: The Secret Plan to Invade Japan And Why Truman Dropped the Bomb. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0684804069. 
Concludes the bombings were justified.
  • Alperovitz, Gar (1995). The Decision To Use The Atomic Bomb And The Architecture Of An American Myth. Knopf. ISBN 0679443312. 
Weighs whether the bombings were justified or necessary, concludes they were not.
  • Bernstein, Barton J. (Editor) (1976). The Atomic Bomb: The Critical Issues. Little, Brown. ISBN 0316091928. 
Weighs whether the bombings were justified or necessary.
  • Bird, Kai and Sherwin, Martin J. (2005). American Prometheus : The Triumph And Tragedy Of J. Robert Oppenheimer. Knopf. ISBN 0375412026. 
"The thing had to be done," but "Circumstances are heavy with misgiving."
  • Feis, Herbert (1961). Japan Subdued: The Atomic Bomb and the End of the War in the Pacific. Princeton University Press. 
  • Fussell, Paul (1988). Thank God For The Atom Bomb, And Other Essays. Summit Books. ISBN 0-345-36135-0. 
  • Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (2005). Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Belknap Press. ISBN 0674016939. 
Argues the bombs were not the deciding factor in ending the war. The Russian entrance into the Pacific war was the primary cause for Japan's surrender.
  • Maddox, Robert James (1995). Weapons for Victory: The Hiroshima Decision. University of Missouri Press. ISBN 0826215629. 
Author is diplomatic historian who favors Truman's decision to drop the atomic bombs.
  • Newman, Robert P. (1995). Truman and the Hiroshima Cult. Michigan State University Press. ISBN 0870134035. 
An analysis critical of postwar opposition to the atom bombings.
  • Nobile, Philip (Editor) (1995). Judgement at the Smithsonian. Marlowe and Company. ISBN 1569248419. 
Covers the controversy over the content of the 1995 Smithsonian Institution exhibition associated with the display of the Enola Gay; includes complete text of the planned (and canceled) exhibition.
  • Takaki, Ronald (1995). Hiroshima: Why America Dropped the Atomic Bomb. Little, Brown. ISBN -316-83124-7. 

Online

Focuses on the evidence of recently released Japanese messages that the U.S. decrypted during the war.
  • Edwards, Rob (2005). Hiroshima bomb may have carried hidden agenda. New Scientist.
Opinion article on findings suggesting Japan was already looking for peace, that it surrendered due to the Soviet invasion, and that Truman's true aim was to demonstrate US power to the Soviets.

Dwight David Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American General and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 543 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 543 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Michihiko Hachiya (1903-1980) was a Japanese medical practitioner who survived the Hiroshima bombing in 1945 and kept a diary of his experience. ... John Hersey, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1958 John Richard Hersey (June 17, 1914 – March 24, 1993) was an American writer and journalist. ... Dr. Nagai Takashi (1908-1951) was a Japanese medical doctor whose efforts towards peace earned him the affectionate title Saint of Urakami. After treating hundreds and thousands of wounded victims of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Dr. Nagai collapsed as a result of leukemia, from which he had been suffering... Richard B. Frank (born 1947 in Kansas) is an American lawyer and military historian. ... Robert Jungk (1913-1994) was an Austrian writer and journalist who wrote mostly on issues relating to nuclear weapons. ... Richard Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American author of fiction and verity, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb in 1986, and most recently, John James Audubon: the Making of an American in 2004. ... Brigadier General Charles W. Sweeney (1919 - July 15, 2004) was an officer in the U.S. Army Air Forces during World War II and the pilot who flew the Fat Man atomic bomb to Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. ... Stanley Weintraub (born 1929) is an American academic and author of histories and biographies. ... Anthony Clifford Grayling MA, DPhil (Oxon) FRSA (born 3 April 1949) is a British philosopher and author. ... -1... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Colonel Paul Tibbets waving from Enola Gays cockpit before the bombing of Hiroshima. ... Richard B. Frank (born 1947 in Kansas) is an American lawyer and military historian. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... The Seattle Times is the leading daily newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... The Seattle Times is the leading daily newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://books.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11340&page=141
  2. ^ http://www.rerf.or.jp/general/qa_e/
  3. ^ Radiobiology for the radiologist. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 6th edition. Chapter 10, Sections 3,4,5.
  4. ^ http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/hiroshima.htm
  5. ^ http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/nagasaki.htm
  6. ^ Japan's Asahi Shimbun estimates are 237,000 for Hiroshima, and 135,000 for Nagasaki including diseases from the aftereffects based on hospital data. (1999) The Spirit of Hiroshima: An Introduction to the Atomic Bomb Tragedy. Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. 
  7. ^ Mikiso Hane (2001). Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-3756-9. 
  8. ^ Another review and analysis of the various death toll estimates is in: Richard B. Frank (2001). Downfall: The End of the Imperial Japanese Empire. Penguin Publishing. ISBN 0-679-41424-X. 
  9. ^ Nagasaki's Mayor Slams U.S. for Nuke Arsenal (August 09, 2005). Retrieved on 2006-06-17.
  10. ^ John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, Random House, 1970, p. 676.
  11. ^ a b Mathew White National Death Tolls for the Second World War: USA DoD: 291,557 KIA + 113,842 other = 405,399. White includes in addition there were about 9,300 Merchant Marine deaths. With the exception of Charles Messenger, The Chronological Atlas of World War Two that list an undifferentiated total of 300,000, all other sources in White's list are close to the DoD numbers.
  12. ^ Mathew White Campaigns: Pacific
  13. ^ [1] OKINAWA: THE LAST BATTLE, Roy E. Appleman, James M. Burns, Russell A. Gugeler, and John Stevens Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 49-45742 page 473: Total American battle casualties were 49,151
  14. ^ Benis M. Frank "Okinava slutsteg mot segern" next to last page, Swedish translation of "Okinava: touchstone to victory"
  15. ^ Toland, ibid, p. 762.
  16. ^ Frank, Richard B.. Downfall, 233–234.  The meaning of the word mokusatsu can fall anywhere in the range of "ignore" to "treat with contempt".
  17. ^ Bix, Herbert (1996). "Japan's Delayed Surrender: A Reinterpretation", in Michael J. Hogan, ed.: Hiroshima in History and Memory. Cambridge University Press, 290. ISBN 0-521-56682-7. 
  18. ^ Kido Koichi nikki, Tokyo, Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966, p.1120-1121
  19. ^ Atomic Bomb: Decision — Target Committee, May 10–11, 1945. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  20. ^ Thomas Handy: Memorandum, July 25, 1945. Retrieved on April 6, 2006.
  21. ^ a b Timeline #2- the 509th; The Hiroshima Mission. Children of the Manhattan Project. Retrieved on 26 July, 2006.
  22. ^ The Bomb-"Little Boy". The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 5 May, 2007.
  23. ^ RADIATION DOSE RECONSTRUCTION U.S. OCCUPATION FORCES IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI, JAPAN, 1945-1946 (DNA 5512F). Retrieved on June 9, 2006.
  24. ^ RERF Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved on May 13, 2007.
  25. ^ Rinjiro Sodei. Were We the Enemy?: American Survivors of Hiroshima. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998
  26. ^ David Rubin, 2005, "Remembering Normand Brissette" (Downloaded 28/10/06)
  27. ^ No High Ground by Knebel et al p175 to p201. Retrieved on April 30, 2007.
  28. ^ White House Press Release on Hiroshima. Retrieved on June 5, 2006. The press release, it should be noted, was written not by Truman but primarily by William L. Laurence, a New York Times reporter allowed access to the Manhattan Project.
  29. ^ Fulton Sun Retrospective. Retrieved on July 8, 2007.
  30. ^ Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. The Spirit of Hiroshima: An Introduction to the Atomic Bomb Tragedy. Hiroshima: Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum, 1999.
  31. ^ RERF Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved on June 12, 2006.
  32. ^ RERF Life Span Study Report 13. Retrieved on June 12, 2006.
  33. ^ Testimony of Akiko Takakura. Retrieved on April 30, 2007.
  34. ^ unesco.org. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  35. ^ Studies in Intelligence. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  36. ^ American Experience. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  37. ^ Martin J. Sherwin (2003). A World Destroyed: Hiroshima and its Legacies, 2nd edition, Stanford University Press, 233-234. 
  38. ^ Richard H. Campbell (2005). "Chapter 2: Development and Production", The Silverplate Bombers: A History and Registry of the Enola Gay and Other B-29s Configured to Carry Atomic Bombs. McFarland & Company, Inc., p.114. ISBN 0-7864-2139-8. 
  39. ^ As many as 13 POWs may have died in the Nagasaki bombing:
    • 1 British Commonwealth ([2] [3]{Note last link reference use only.} (This last reference also lists at least three other POWS who died on 9-8-1945 [4][5][6]but does not tell if these were Nagasaki casualties)
    • 7 Dutch {2 names known}[7] died in the bombing.
    • At least 2 POWs reportedly died postwar from cancer thought to have been caused by Atomic bomb [8][9](note-last link United States Merchant Marine.org website).
  40. ^ a b c Timeline #3- the 509th; The Nagasaki Mission. The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 5 May, 2007.
  41. ^ Spitzer Personal Diary Page 25 (CGP-ASPI-025). The Atomic Heritage Foundation. Retrieved on 5 May, 2007.
  42. ^ Lillian Hoddeson, et al, Critical Assembly: A Technical History of Los Alamos During the Oppenheimer Years, 1943-1945 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993), on 295.
  43. ^ Stories from Riken.
  44. ^ Dennis D. Wainstock (1996). The Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb. Praeger, 92. 
  45. ^ Rinjiro Sodei. Were We the Enemy?: American Survivors of Hiroshima. Boulder: Westview Press, 1998, ix.
  46. ^ Radiation Dose Reconstruction; U.S. Occupation Forces in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1945-1946 (DNA 5512F). Retrieved on June 9, 2006.
  47. ^ Nagasaki marks tragic anniversary. People's Daily (2005-08-10). Retrieved on April 14, 2007.
  48. ^ 'I saw both of the bombs and lived'. The Observer (reported in The Guardian) (2005-07-24). Retrieved on April 14, 2007.
  49. ^ Trumbull, Robert (1957). Nine Who Survived Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Tokyo, Japan: Tuttle Publishing. 
  50. ^ a b c The Atomic Bomb and the End of World War II, A Collection of Primary Sources, (pdf). National Security Archive Electronic Briefing Book No. 162. The George Washington University (1945-08-13).
  51. ^ Kido Koichi nikki,Tokyo, Daigaku Shuppankai, 1966, p.1223
  52. ^ Terasaki Hidenari, Shôwa tennô dokuhakuroku, 1991, p.129
  53. ^ DTRA Fact Sheets: Hiroshima and Nagasaki Occupation Forces. Retrieved on June 9, 2006.
  54. ^ RADIATION DOSE RECONSTRUCTION U.S. OCCUPATION FORCES IN HIROSHIMA AND NAGASAKI, JAPAN, 1945-1946 (DNA 5512F)
  55. ^ M. Susan Lindee (1994). Suffering Made Real: American Science and the Survivors at Hiroshima. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226482375. 
  56. ^ Asahi Shimbun, quoted by San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on March 9, 2006.
  57. ^ Mikiso Hane. Modern Japan: A Historical Survey. Boulder: Westview Press, 1992.
  58. ^ Tsuyoshi Hasegawa (2005). Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 298–299. 
  59. ^ http://www.cfo.doe.gov/me70/manhattan/surrender.htm
  60. ^ a b c The Pacific War Research Society (2005). Japan's Longest Day. Oxford University Press, 352. 
  61. ^ H. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001, p.512.
  62. ^ Bix, ibid, p.513
  63. ^ Bix, ibid. p.517
  64. ^ Bix, ibid., p.515
  65. ^ Library of Congress, 1992, "Indonesia: World War II and the Struggle For Independence, 1942-50; The Japanese Occupation, 1942-45" Access date: February 9, 2007.
  66. ^ John W. Dower, 1986, War Without Mercy.
  67. ^ John Dower, Embracing Defeat, p.473
  68. ^ The only existing original copy of general order was found by Jack Edwards after the war in the ruins of the Kinkaseki prisoner of war camp. (Edwards References Page 260)
  69. ^ The Avalon Project : The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  70. ^ "Japanese Defense Chief: Atomic Bombing 'Couldn't Be Helped'", Fox News, June 30, 2007. 
  71. ^ Japan News Review "Kyuma steps down over A-bomb gaffe" 3 July 2007
  72. ^ H. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of modern Japan, p. 676, J. Dower, Embracing defeat, p.606
  73. ^ Emperor Hirohito, Accepting the Potsdam Declaration, Radio Broadcast. (14 August 1945). Retrieved on July 09, 2007.
  74. ^ "Leo Szilard, Interview: President Truman Did Not Understand.", U.S. News and World Report: 68-71, 15 August 1960 (republished at [10], reached through Leo Szilard page at [11])
  75. ^ John Toland, ibid, p. 762
  76. ^ Albert Camus in Combat newspaper, August 8, 1945, available in French here
  77. ^ Shimoda et al. v. The State, Tokyo District Court, 7 December 1963
  78. ^ Falk, Richard A.. "The Claimants of Hiroshima", The Nation, 1965-02-15.  reprinted in (1966) "The Shimoda Case: Challenge and Response", in Richard A. Falk, Saul H. Mendlovitz eds.: The Strategy of World Order. Volume: 1. New York: World Law Fund, pp. 307-13. 
  79. ^ Boyle, Francis A. (2002). The Criminality of Nuclear Deterrence. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 58. 
  80. ^ Falk, op. cit., p. 308.
  81. ^ a b Hiroshima bomb may have carried hidden agenda. NewScientist.com (21). Retrieved on July 28, 2006.
  82. ^ a b November 1995 Public Sitting, in the Case of Legality of the Use by a State of Nuclear Weapons in Armed Conflicts at La Hague International Court of Justice
  83. ^ See also 1995 Peace Conference, by Takashi Hiraoka, Mayor of Hiroshima
  84. ^ "The Risks and Weaknesses of the International Criminal Court from America's Perspective", by John Bolton, current US ambassador to the United Nations, Winter 2001.
  85. ^ Frey, Robert S. (2004). The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda and Beyond. University Press of America. ISBN 0761827439.  Reviewed at: Rice, Sarah (2005). "The Genocidal Temptation: Auschwitz, Hiroshima, Rwanda and Beyond (Review)". Harvard Human Rights Journal Vol. 18. 
  86. ^ Dower, John (1995). "The Bombed: Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese Memory". Diplomatic History Vol. 19 (no. 2). 
  87. ^ Cumings, Bruce (1999). Parallax Visions. University Press of Duke, 54.  Sherwin, Martin (1974). A World Destroyed: The Atomic Bomb and the Grand Alliance. 
  88. ^ Walzer, Michael (2002). "Five Questions About Terrorism" 49 (1). Retrieved on 2007-07-11. 
  89. ^ Newman, Robert (2004). Enola Gay and the Court of History (Frontiers in Political Communication). Peter Lang Publishing. ISBN 0-8204-7457-6. 
  90. ^ Eisenhower, Dwight D. (1963). The White House Years; Mandate For Change: 1953-1956. Doubleday & Company, pp. 312-313. 
  91. ^ a b Hiroshima: Quotes. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  92. ^ Bard Memorandum. Retrieved on May 8, 2006.
  93. ^ Decision: Part I. Retrieved on August 6, 2005.
  94. ^ a b c Freeman, Robert (August 6 2006). "Was the Atomic Bombing of Japan Necessary?". CommonDreams.org. 
  95. ^ United States Strategic Bombing Survey; Summary Report pg. 26. United States Government Printing Office (1946). Retrieved on July 28, 2006.
  96. ^ United States Strategic Bombing Survey; Summary Report (Transcription of original work). Report pg. 29. United States Government Printing Office (1946). Retrieved on July 28, 2006.
  97. ^ a b Hansell, Haywood S., The Strategic Air War Against Germany and Japan, ISBN 0-912799-39-0 Chapter 6, page 256: The total inventory of B-29s on hand in the Army Air Forces was about 3,700. ...On the basis of photo coverage, intelligence estimated that 175 square miles of urban area in 66 cities were wiped out. Total civilian casualties stemming directly from the urban attacks were estimated at 330,000 killed, 476,000 injured, and 9,200,000 rendered homeless.
  98. ^ Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi (2005). Racing the Enemy: Stalin, Truman, and the Surrender of Japan. Belknap Press, pg. 298. ISBN 0-674-01693-9. 

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Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8841 words)
Hiroshima was the primary target (the secondary was Kokura and a third "tertiary" target was Nagasaki) of the first U.S. nuclear attack mission, on August 6, 1945.
Nagasaki during World War II Urakami Tenshudo (Catholic Church in Nagasaki) in January, 1946, destroyed by the atomic bomb, the dome of the church having toppled off.
It is estimated that one in seven of the Hiroshima victims was of Korean ancestry.
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