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Encyclopedia > Atomic bomb
Download high resolution version (800x1094, 114 KB)Picture taken of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The picture was taken from one of the B-29 Superfortresses used in the attack. Picture taken from http://www.archives.gov/research_room/research_topics/world_war_2_photos/images/ww2_1623.jpg Page: http://www...
Download high resolution version (800x1094, 114 KB)Picture taken of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. The picture was taken from one of the B-29 Superfortresses used in the attack. Picture taken from http://www.archives.gov/research_room/research_topics/world_war_2_photos/images/ww2_1623.jpg Page: http://www... Enlarge
The Categories: Military stubs | Nuclear weapons ... mushroom cloud of the Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A_Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing, on August 6, 2004 During World War II, the cities of Hiroshima and Japan, were destroyed by atomic bombs dropped by the United States military on August 6 and August 9... atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January 1.2 February 1.3 March 1.4 April 1.5 May 1.6 June 1.7 July 1.8 August 1.9 September 1.10 October 1.11 November... 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the The epicenter or epicentre (ancient Greek: επίκεντρον) is the point on the Earths surface that is directly above or below the center of a localized explosive event or point of seismic energy release. The epicenter is directly above the hypocenter... epicenter.

A nuclear weapon is a A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. It may be used to attack and defend, or in some instances just to threaten. The use of weapons has been recorded since the advent of cave painting, and the process... weapon that derives its Energy is a fundamental quantity that every physical system possesses; it allows us to predict how much work the system could be made to do, or how much heat it can exchange. In the past, energy was discussed in terms of easily observable effects it has on the properties of... energy from the In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide, to produce products different to the initial products. In principle a reaction can involve more than two particles colliding, but such an event is exceptionally rare. If the particles collide and separate without... nuclear reactions of In general fission is a splitting or breaking up into parts. In physics, nuclear fission is a process where a large nucleus such as uranium is split into two smaller nuclei. In biology, binary fission refers to the process whereby a prokaryote reproduces by cell division. It is similar to... fission and or Fusion may refer to: the merging of two or more entities into a single one For the combining of two atomic nuclei into a single nucleus (with possible emission of radioactivity), see nuclear fusion cold fusion refers to a once hypothetical but now largely discredited form of nuclear fusion See... fusion. Even the smallest nuclear weapons are more powerful than all but the largest of conventional explosives, while the largest can destroy an entire city. Nuclear weapons have been employed only twice in warfare- first on the morning of August 6, 1945, when the The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... United States dropped a uranium gun-type device entitled Little Boy bomb casing Little Boy was the codename given to the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on Monday, August 6, 1945. Little Boy was dropped from a B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay piloted by Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets, from about 31,000 feet (9450 m... Little Boy on the 日本国 (Nihon/Nippon-koku)  listen? ( Flag of Japan) ( Imperial Seal) Official language Japanese Capital Tokyo Largest City Tokyo Emperor Akihito Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 60th 377,835 km² 0.8% Population  - Total ( 2004)  - Density Ranked 10th 127,333... Japanese city of For the town that was formerly named Hiroshima in Hokkaido, see Kitahiroshima. Main keep of Hiroshima Castle Hiroshima City (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Japan. It is best known throughout the world as the first... Hiroshima, and three days later a plutonium implosion-type device named The nuclear weapon code-named Fat Man was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945. It was the second and, so far, the last known nuclear weapon to be used in assault. A post-war Fat Man model. The 10-foot 8-inch (3.25 metres) long, five-foot... Fat Man on the city of Megane-bashi, the Eyeglasses Bridge Nagasaki (長崎市; -shi) is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture located at the south-western coast of Kyushu, Japan. It was a center of European influence in medieval Japan, and the second city on which an atomic bomb was dropped... Nagasaki during Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II. Testing accounts for the rest of more than two thousand nuclear detonations, chiefly by the following seven nations: The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America¹, the States, or (archaically) Columbia — is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii... the U.S., The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) .( Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик... Soviet Union, The French Republic or France ( French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. France is a democracy organised as a... France, The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts... United Kingdom, The Peoples Republic of China (PRC) comprises most of the cultural, historic, and geographic area known as China. Since its founding in 1949, it has been led by the Communist Party of China (CPC). It is the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.3... China, The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. India has grown significantly, both in population and in strategic importance in the last two decades. The Indian economy is... India and The Islamic Republic of Pakistan (پاکستان in Urdu), or Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia. Pakistan borders India, Iran, Afghanistan, China and the Arabian Sea. With over 150 million inhabitants it is the sixth most populous country in the world. It also... Pakistan.


The declared nuclear powers are, the United States, The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia, the United Kingdom, France, the People's Republic of China, India and Pakistan. In addition, The State of Israel (Hebrew: מדינת ישראל, translit.: Medinat Yisrael; Arabic: دولة اسرائيل, translit.: Daulat Israil) is a country in the Middle East on the eastern edge of the Mediterranean Sea... Israel has both modern aerial delivery systems and an extensive nuclear program, though such has never been publically admitted. (see Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Israel and weapons of mass destruction). North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia... North Korea has stated recently that it has nuclear capabilities; Ukraine (Україна, Ukrayina in Ukrainian; Украина in Russian) is a republic in eastern Europe which borders Russia to the east, Belarus to the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the southwest and... Ukraine may possess an obsolete Soviet nuclear stockpile due to a post- The Cold War ( 1947- 1991) was the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between groups of nations practicing different ideologies and political systems. On one side was the Soviet Union and its allies, often referred to as the Eastern bloc. On the other side were the... Cold War clerical error. Iran ( Persia: ایران) is a Middle Eastern country located in southwestern Asia that until 1935 was referred to in the West as Persia. The name Iran is a modern cognate of Aryan meaning Land of the Aryans. Iran borders Pakistan (909km of border) and Afghanistan (936km... Iran and others may be attempting to develop indigenous nuclear capabilities. See the Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... list of countries with nuclear weapons for more details.


Non-weaponized A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions. Almost all nuclear explosive devices that have been designed and produced, and the two that have actually been used, are nuclear weapons intended for warfare; see that article for more detail. Other non-warfare applications for... nuclear explosives have been proposed for various non-military uses.

Contents

Types of nuclear weapons

Common types

Main article: Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. Fission bombs derive their power from nuclear fission, where heavy nuclei (uranium or plutonium) split into lighter elements when bombarded by neutrons (produce more neutrons which bombard other nuclei, triggering... Nuclear weapon design

Fission bombs

The two basic fission weapon designs.
The two basic fission weapon designs.

Fission bombs derive their power from Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into daughter products, and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation In physics, fission is a nuclear process, meaning it occurs in the nucleus of an... nuclear fission, where heavy nuclei ( protactinium – uranium – neptunium Nd U Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Uranium, U, 92 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7 , f Density, Hardness 19050 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery-white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 238.0289 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 175 (ND) pm Covalent radius ND pm... uranium or neptunium – plutonium – americium Sm Pu        Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7 , f Density, Hardness 19816 kg/m3, no data Appearance silvery white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 244.06 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 175 (no... plutonium) split into lighter elements when bombarded by Neutron Classification Subatomic particle Fermion Hadron Baryon Nucleon Neutron Properties Mass: 940 MeV/c² Electric charge: 0 C Spin: ½ Quark composition: 2 Down, 1 Up In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1.6749 × 10-27 kg... neutrons (producing more neutrons which bombard other The nucleus (atomic nucleus) is the center of an atom. It is composed of one or more protons and one or more neutrons as well, except for the nucleus consisting of a single proton. The number of protons in an atoms nucleus is called the atomic number, and determines... nuclei, triggering a A nuclear chain reaction occurs when on average more than one neutron from a nuclear fission reaction causes another fission reaction. An uncontrolled chain reaction within a sufficiently large amount of fission fuel (critical mass) can lead to an explosive energy release and is the concept behind nuclear weapons. The... nuclear chain reaction). With each of those splits, an amount of energy thousands of times greater than that available from a chemical reaction is released. These are historically called atom bombs or A-bombs, though this name is not precise due to the fact that chemical reactions release energy from atomic bonds too, and fusion is no less atomic than fission. Despite this possible confusion, the term atom bomb has still been generally accepted to refer specifically to nuclear weapons, and most commonly to pure fission devices.


In general, fission bombs are powered by using chemical explosives to compress (implode) a sub- This article is about the public event of bicyclists taking over roadways. For the concept in nuclear physics, critical mass. Cyclists gather at Union Square, New York City on Julys Critical Mass Critical Mass is an event held typically on the last Friday of every month in cities around... critical amount of either Uranium-235 is an isotope of uranium that differs from the elements other common isotope, uranium-238, by its ability to cause a rapidly expanding fission chain reaction. A uranium nucleus that absorbs a neutron splits into two lighter nuclei; this is called nuclear fission. It releases either two... uranium-235 or neptunium – plutonium – americium Sm Pu        Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7 , f Density, Hardness 19816 kg/m3, no data Appearance silvery white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 244.06 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 175 (no... plutonium into a dense, super-critical mass, which is then subjected to a source of neutrons. This begins a controllable nuclear chain reaction, and produces a very large amount of energy. A more crude design for such a weapon is to have two sub-critical amounts of uranium-235 simply shot into each other inside a gun barrel. This approach, used in the weapon dropped on Hiroshima during World War II, is conceptually easier but inefficient and inherently more dangerous to maintain than an implosion weapon.


One pound of U-235 can release over 37 million million The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. The unit is pronounced to rhyme with tool, and is named in honour of the physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889). 1 joule = 1 N · 1 m = 1 newton · 1 metre... joules of energy. This is 82 terajoules per kilogram (TJ/kg). A typical duration of the chain reaction is 1 μs, so the power is 82 EW/kg (30 μW or 200 An electronvolt (symbol: eV) is the amount of energy gained by a single unbound electron when it falls through an electrostatic potential difference of one volt. This is a very small amount of energy: 1 eV = 1.602 176 53 (14) × 10−19 J. (Source: CODATA 2002 recommended values... MeV/s per atom; related to the duration of one generation of the chain reaction: 3mW/atom, i.e., the power of a chain reaction just at criticality is 3mW in the case of consecutive fissions, one at a time).


Fusion bombs

Fusion bombs are based on In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to shine, and hydrogen bombs to explode. It takes considerable energy to force nuclei to fuse, even those of... nuclear fusion where light nuclei such as hydrogen – helium   H Li       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 1 , s Density, Hardness 0.0899 kg/m3, NA Appearance colorless Atomic properties Atomic weight 1.00794 amu Atomic radius (calc) 25 (53... hydrogen and hydrogen – helium   He Ne       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Helium, He, 2 Atomic weight 4.002602(2) Chemical series Noble gases Group, Period, Block 18 (VIIIA), 1, p Density (0 °C, 1 atm (101.325 kPa)) 0.179 g/L Appearance colorless Thermal... helium combine together into heavier elements and release large amounts of energy. Weapons which have a fusion stage are also referred to as hydrogen bombs or H-bombs because their fusion fuel is often a form of hydrogen, or thermonuclear weapons because fusion reactions require extremely high temperatures for a A Chain reaction is any process which is self catalyzing, meaning that the process creates the conditions for its own continuation. An example is the nuclear fission process that takes place in nuclear reactors and atomic weapons. Chain Reaction is the title of a film starring Keanu Reeves and Morgan... chain reaction to occur. This latter name can be somewhat confusing, as thermonuclear reactions can take place in nuclear weapons which are not considered "true" fusion bombs.


Generally speaking, hydrogen bombs work by having a "primary" device (a fission bomb) detonate and begin the fusion reactions in the "secondary" device (fusion fuel). A virtually limitless number of large "secondaries" can be chained together (each fusion reaction beginning the next) in this fashion, creating weapons with far larger yields than could be achieved with simple fission alone.


Thermonuclear devices can be phenomenally energetic; easily capable of releasing a thousand times the energy of a fission bomb (megaton range). Consequently, the The concept of power occurs in multiple areas. Contents // 1 Physics 2 Social 3 Economics 4 Mathematics 5 Other Physics Power (physics) is the amount of work done per unit of time. Electric power Social Power (sociology) Political power Reserve power Power (international), the ability of national states to influence... power of a fusion bomb can achieve staggering levels, representing the highest power levels achievable by humans. For instance, the Tsar Bomba (Russian: Царь-бомба) was the largest nuclear explosive device in history. It was detonated on October 30, 1961 as a test; this took place at a height of 4000 metres over the Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Range at the Novaya Zemlya Island... Tsar bomba released 50 megatons of energy, almost all produced by its final fusion stage. Since 50 Mt is 2.1x1017 J the power produced during the burn is around 5.3x1024 watts (5.3 yottawatts). This represents a power just greater than one percent of the entire power output of the Sun (3.86x10^26 watts)!


Dirty bombs

Main article: The term dirty bomb is most often used to refer to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. Though an RDD is designed to disperse radioactive material over a large area, the convential explosive would likely have more immediate lethal effect than... Dirty bomb

The term dirty bomb is most often used to refer to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. Though an RDD is designed to disperse radioactive material over a large area, the convential explosive would likely have more immediate lethal effect than... Dirty bomb is now a term for a A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive contamination, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive) which spreads... radiological weapon, a non-nuclear bomb that disperses radioactive material that was packed in with the bomb. When the bomb explodes, the scattering of this radioactive material causes The radiation warning symbol (trifolium). Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment. Many radioactive isotopes are produced artificially, either for their specific properties (such as medical radioisotopes) or as a byproduct (such as fission products). Some radioisotopes exist in nature, including uranium, thorium, and... radioactive contamination, a health hazard similar to that of Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nuclear weapon explodes, although it can also refer... nuclear fallout. One of the most publicly stated fears of Western governments since the The World Trade Center on fire Sep 11, 2001 attacks Timeline Background history Planning Execution September 11, 2001 Rest of September October Aftermath Victims Casualties Missing Persons Survivors Foreign casualties Rescue workers Effects U.S. government response World political effects World economic effects Airport security Closings and cancellations Movies and... September 11, 2001 attacks has been the terrorist detonation of a The term dirty bomb is most often used to refer to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. Though an RDD is designed to disperse radioactive material over a large area, the convential explosive would likely have more immediate lethal effect than... dirty bomb in a populated area. Dirty bombs, similar to other enhanced fallout weapons of more technologically sophisticated design, are Area denial weapons are used to prevent an adversary occupying or traversing an area of land. The most common are land mines of various types. The massive use of defoliants such as Agent Orange can be considered as an interdiction measure because, at their highest concentration use they leave areas... area denial weapons that can potentially render an area unfit for habitation for years or decades after the detonation. In the estimation of most analysts, though, the effect would be primarily psychological, and potentially economic if a costly clean-up effort was called for.


Nomenclature

Nuclear weapons are often described as either Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into daughter products, and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation In physics, fission is a nuclear process, meaning it occurs in the nucleus of an... fission or In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to shine, and hydrogen bombs to explode. It takes considerable energy to force nuclei to fuse, even those of... fusion devices based on the dominant source of the weapon's energy. The distinction between these two types of weapon is blurred by the fact that they are combined in nearly all complex modern weapons: a smaller fission bomb is first used to reach the necessary conditions of high Temperature is the physical property of a system which underlies the common notions of hot and cold; the material with the higher temperature is said to be hotter. Contents // 1 General description 2 Applications 3 Temperature measurement 4 Units of temperature 5 Articles about temperature ranges: 6 Theoretical foundation of... temperature and Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the measure of the force that acts on a unit area. where: p is the pressure F is the force A is the area Often F is taken to be the of the magnitude of the mean vector force normal to the surface of... pressure to allow fusion to occur. On the other hand, a fission device is more efficient when a fusion core first boosts the weapon's energy. Finally, a fusion weapon may include a fission core (in addition to being externally compressed by fission explosion) in order to achieve more complete fusion (see Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. Fission bombs derive their power from nuclear fission, where heavy nuclei (uranium or plutonium) split into lighter elements when bombarded by neutrons (produce more neutrons which bombard other nuclei, triggering... nuclear weapon design for some description of all these variants). Since the distinguishing feature of both fission and fusion weapons is that they release energy from transformations of the atomic nucleus, the most accurate general term for all types of these explosive devices is "nuclear weapon".


Advanced thermonuclear weapons designs

The most powerful modern weapons include a fissionable outer shell of protactinium – uranium – neptunium Nd U Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Uranium, U, 92 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7 , f Density, Hardness 19050 kg/m3, ND Appearance silvery-white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 238.0289 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 175 (ND) pm Covalent radius ND pm... uranium. The intense fast Neutron Classification Subatomic particle Fermion Hadron Baryon Nucleon Neutron Properties Mass: 940 MeV/c² Electric charge: 0 C Spin: ½ Quark composition: 2 Down, 1 Up In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1.6749 × 10-27 kg... neutrons from the In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to shine, and hydrogen bombs to explode. It takes considerable energy to force nuclei to fuse, even those of... fusion stage of the weapon will cause natural (that is unenriched) uranium to Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into daughter products, and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation In physics, fission is a nuclear process, meaning it occurs in the nucleus of an... fission, increasing the yield of the weapon many times.


Cobalt bombs

The cobalt bomb uses iron – cobalt – nickel Co Rh       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number cobalt, Co, 27 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9 , 4, d Density, Hardness 8.9 Mg/m3, 5.0 Appearance metallic with grey tinge Atomic properties Atomic weight 58.933200 amu... cobalt in the shell, and the fusion neutrons convert the cobalt into cobalt-60, a powerful long-term (5 years) emitter of This article is about electromagnetic radiation. For the power metal band, see Gamma Ray (band) Gamma rays (often denoted by the Greek letter gamma, γ) are an energetic form of electromagnetic radiation (see Electromagnetic spectrum) produced by radioactivity or other nuclear or subatomic processes such as electron-positron annihilation. Gamma... gamma rays, which produces major The radiation warning symbol (trifolium). Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment. Many radioactive isotopes are produced artificially, either for their specific properties (such as medical radioisotopes) or as a byproduct (such as fission products). Some radioisotopes exist in nature, including uranium, thorium, and... radioactive contamination. In general this type of weapon is a salted bomb and variable fallout effects can be obtained by using different salting isotopes. platinum – gold – mercury Ag Au Rg     Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 (IB), 6, d Density, Hardness 19300 kg/m3, 2.5 Appearance Metallic yellow Atomic properties Atomic weight 196.96655 amu Atomic radius (calc... Gold has been proposed for short-term fallout (days), Hafnium - Tantalum - Tungsten Nb Ta Db       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Tantalum, Ta, 73 Chemical series Transition metals Group, Period, Block 5 (VB), 6 , d Density, Hardness 16650 kg/m3, 6.5 Appearance gray blue Atomic Properties Atomic weight 180.9479 amu Atomic radius (calc... tantalum and copper – zinc – gallium Zn Cd       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 4, d Density, Hardness 7140 kg/m3, 2.5 Appearance blueish pale grey Atomic properties Atomic weight 65.409 amu Atomic radius... zinc for fallout of intermediate duration (months). To be useful for salting, the parent isotopes must be abundant in the natural element, and the neutron-bred radioactive product must be a strong emitter of penetrating gamma rays.


The primary purpose of this weapon is to create extremely radioactive fallout to deny a region to an advancing army, a sort of wind-deployed mine-field. No cobalt or other salted bomb has ever been atmospherically tested, and as far as is publicly known none has ever been built. In light of the ready availability of fission-fusion-fission bombs, it is unlikely any special-purpose fallout contamination weapon will ever be developed. The British did test a bomb that incorporated cobalt as an experimental radiochemical tracer (Antler/Round 1, 14 September 1957). This 1 kt device was exploded at the Tadje site, Maralinga range, Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only one to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/ Oceania. It also includes a number of secondary islands, the largest of which is Tasmania, an Australian State. Australia is... Australia. The experiment was regarded as a failure and not repeated.


The thought of using cobalt, which has the longest half-life of the feasible salting materials, caused Leó Szilárd to refer to the weapon as a potential doomsday device. With a 5yr half-life people would have to remain shielded underground for many years, effectively wiping out humanity. However this would require a massive (unrealistic) amount of such bombs, yet the public heard of it and there were numerous stories involving a single bomb wiping out the planet.


Neutron bombs

Main article: A neutron bomb is a type of nuclear weapon specifically designed to release a relatively large portion of its energy as energetic neutron radiation. Contents // 1 Technical overview 2 Neutron bomb tactics 3 References 4 See also Technical overview Neutron bombs, also called enhanced radiation (ER) weapons, are small nuclear... Neutron bomb

A final variant of the thermonuclear weapons is the enhanced radiation weapon, or Neutron Classification Subatomic particle Fermion Hadron Baryon Nucleon Neutron Properties Mass: 940 MeV/c² Electric charge: 0 C Spin: ½ Quark composition: 2 Down, 1 Up In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1.6749 × 10-27 kg... neutron bomb, which is a small thermonuclear weapon in which the burst of neutrons generated by the fusion reaction is intentionally not absorbed inside the weapon, but allowed to escape. The In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... X-ray mirrors and shell of the weapon are made of vanadium – chromium – manganese Cr Mo       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 6 (VIB), 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 51.9961 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 140 (166) pm Covalent radius 127... chromium or This article is about the element nickel. See also nickel (U.S. coin) and nickel (Canadian coin). cobalt – nickel – copper Ni Pd       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number nickel, Ni, 28 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10 , 4 , d Density, Hardness 8908... nickel so that the neutrons are permitted to escape. This intense burst of high-energy neutrons is a highly destructive mechanism, although the bomb will still produce damaging thermal and shock effects, only with a lower magnitude than a standard thermonuclear weapon. Neutrons are more penetrating than other types of radiation so many shielding materials that work well against This article is about electromagnetic radiation. For the power metal band, see Gamma Ray (band) Gamma rays (often denoted by the Greek letter gamma, γ) are an energetic form of electromagnetic radiation (see Electromagnetic spectrum) produced by radioactivity or other nuclear or subatomic processes such as electron-positron annihilation. Gamma... gamma rays are less effective against neutrons. They are also more biologically harmful than gamma rays, and this knowledge led some to envision a weapon that would do little physical damage while killing all the people in a certain area (a so-called "landlord bomb"). This appears to be somewhat of an exaggeration, as the bomb would still create at least some significant blast and fire damage. The term "enhanced radiation" refers only to the burst of ionizing radiation released at the moment of detonation, not to any enhancement of residual radiation in Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nuclear weapon explodes, although it can also refer... fallout (as in the salted bombs discussed above).


Antimatter bombs

Main article: An antimatter weapon would use antimatter as a power source, a propellant, or an explosive for a weapon. No antimatter weaponry is known to exist outside of fiction. The United States Air Force, however, has been interested in military uses—including destructive applications—of antimatter since the Cold... Antimatter weapon

Though weapons using matter- Antimatter is matter that is composed of the antiparticles of those that constitute normal matter. In 1929- 31, Paul Dirac put forward a theory that for each type of particle, there is an antiparticle for which each additive quantum number has the negative of the value it has for the... antimatter reactions would not technically be nuclear weapons (as they would not be using energy derived from either nuclear fission or fusion), they bear noting due to a potential higher potential energy by weight than conventional or nuclear explosives. As an antimatter annihilation event would produce similar radiological effects as a nuclear weapon, they are often classified together. The annihilation of a single gram of antimatter would release 90TJ (terajoules) of energy, more than a 20KT nuclear device. Fortunately, the extreme difficulty in creating, capturing, and holding antimatter particles dictate that such a quantity would take at least tens of millions of years to capture, even in the unlikely event a containment mechanism was developed. Barring a revolution in physics, this relegates antimatter weapons to the annals of science-fiction.


Effects of a nuclear explosion

Main article: A nuclear explosion (nuclear detonation) has occurred: twice using a nuclear weapon during war (during World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) many times testing a nuclear weapon a series of tests of nuclear explosives for construction purposes; see Operation Plowshare Potential other applications (not yet applied... Nuclear explosion

The energy released from a nuclear weapon comes in four primary categories:

  • Blast—40-60% of total energy
  • Thermal radiation—30-50% of total energy
  • Ionizing radiation—5% of total energy
  • Residual radiation (fallout)—5-10% of total energy

The amount of energy released in each form depends on the design of the weapon, and the environment in which it is detonated. The residual radiation of Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nuclear weapon explodes, although it can also refer... fallout is a delayed release of energy, while the other three forms of energy release are immediate.

Download high resolution version (559x700, 396 KB)14 kiloton atomic explosion, from a 1951 US nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site. (Operation Buster-Jangle, Charlie) Original source: http://www.nv.doe.gov/news&pubs/photos&films/atm.htm This work is in the public domain because it...
Download high resolution version (559x700, 396 KB)14 kiloton atomic explosion, from a 1951 US nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site. (Operation Buster-Jangle, Charlie) Original source: http://www.nv.doe.gov/news&pubs/photos&films/atm.htm This work is in the public domain because it... Enlarge
A radioactive fireball tops the smoke column from a nuclear weapon test.

The dominant effects of a nuclear weapon (the blast and thermal radiation) are the same physical damage mechanisms as conventional This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. There are many other varieties of more exotic explosive material, and theoretical methods of causing explosions such as nuclear explosives and antimatter, and other methods of producing explosions, such as abrupt heating with a high-intensity laser or electric arc. Any explosive... explosives. The primary difference is that nuclear weapons are capable of releasing much larger amounts of energy at once. Most of the damage caused by a nuclear weapon is not directly related to the nuclear process of energy release, but would be present for any explosion of the same magnitude.


The damage done by each of the three initial forms of energy release differs with the size of the weapon. Thermal radiation drops off the slowest with distance, so the larger the weapon the more important this effect becomes. Ionizing radiation is strongly absorbed by air, so it is only dangerous by itself for smaller weapons. Blast damage falls off more quickly than thermal radiation but more slowly than ionizing radiation.


When a nuclear weapon explodes, the bomb's material comes to an For the 2002 science fiction movie see Equilibrium (2002 movie) Equilibrium or balance is any of a number of related phenomena in the natural and social sciences. In general, a system is said to be in a state of equilibrium if all influences on the system are cancelled by the... equilibrium temperature in about a A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth (10-6) of a second. It is often used for measuring things like atomic and chemical reactions, which occur in normally imperceptible lengths of time. Its symbol is µs. See also 1 E-6 s for comparisons Categories... microsecond. At this time about 75% of the energy is emitted as primary thermal radiation, mostly soft In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... X-rays. Almost all of the rest of the energy is Kinetic energy (also called vis viva, or living force) is energy possessed by a body by virtue of its motion. The kinetic energy of a body is equal to the amount of work needed to establish its velocity and rotation, starting from rest. Contents // 1 Equations 1.1 Definition 1... kinetic energy in rapidly-moving weapon debris. The interaction of the x-rays and debris with the surroundings determines how much energy is produced as blast and how much as light. In general, the denser the medium around the bomb, the more it will absorb, and the more powerful the For the vector animation platform, see Macromedia Shockwave. In fluid dynamics, a shock wave is a strong pressure wave. See Rankine-Hugoniot equation. In compressible fluids such as air, disturbances such as pressure changes caused by a solid object moving through the medium propagate through the fluid as pressure waves... shockwave will be.


When a nuclear detonation occurs in air near sea-level, most of the soft X-rays in the primary thermal Radiation generally means the transmission of objects or information from a source into a surrounding medium or destination. Within physics, related concepts are: Ionizing radiation is a stream of particles (photons or other particles) with sufficient energy to cause ionization of atoms or molecules. Non-ionizing radiation does not have... radiation are absorbed within a few feet. Some energy is re-radiated in the Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength shorter than that of the visible region, but longer than that of soft X-rays. It can be subdivided into near UV (380–200 nm wavelength... ultraviolet, visible light and Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. The name means below red (from the Latin infra, below), red being the color of visible light of longest... infrared, but most of the energy heats a spherical volume of air. This forms the The term fireball is often used in reference to any large explosion or burst of fire. In a nuclear explosion, the volume of air around the bomb that is heated to incandescence is referred to as a fireball. In astronomy, a fireball is a meteor which is large enough to... fireball.


In a burst at high altitudes, where the air density is low, the soft X-rays travel long distances before they are absorbed. The energy is so diluted that the blast wave may be half as strong or less. The rest of the energy is dissipated as a more powerful thermal pulse.


In 1945 there was some initial speculation among the scientists developing the first nuclear weapons that there might be a possibility of igniting the earth's Atmosphere may refer to: a celestial body atmosphere, e.g.: Earths atmosphere stellar atmospheres a unit of pressure: see atmosphere (unit) a gas mixture or artificial atmosphere ambience or mood the rap group, Atmosphere This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... atmosphere with a large enough nuclear explosion. This was, however, quickly shown to be mathematically unlikely enough to be considered impossible, though the notion has persisted as a rumor for many years.

Source: http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/images/historical/hiroshima.jpg License: All information on this site is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested. - http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/chinfoprivacy.html This image has been released into the...
Source: http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/navpalib/images/historical/hiroshima.jpg License: All information on this site is considered public information and may be distributed or copied. Use of appropriate byline/photo/image credits is requested. - http://www.chinfo.navy.mil/chinfoprivacy.html This image has been released into the... Enlarge
The Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A_Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing, on August 6, 2004 During World War II, the cities of Hiroshima and Japan, were destroyed by atomic bombs dropped by the United States military on August 6 and August 9... bombing of Hiroshima delivered an energy of 12,000 tons of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 °F). Trinitrotoluene is an explosive chemical and a part of many explosive mixtures, such as when mixed with ammonium nitrate to form amatol. It is prepared by the nitration of toluene (C6H5CH3... TNT, leveling buildings and killing over 100,000.

Blast Damage

The high temperatures and pressures cause gas to move outward radially in a thin, dense shell called "the hydrodynamic front." The front acts like a piston that pushes against and compresses the surrounding medium to make a spherically expanding For the vector animation platform, see Macromedia Shockwave. In fluid dynamics, a shock wave is a strong pressure wave. See Rankine-Hugoniot equation. In compressible fluids such as air, disturbances such as pressure changes caused by a solid object moving through the medium propagate through the fluid as pressure waves... shock wave. At first, this shock wave is inside the surface of the developing fireball, which is created in a volume of air by the X-rays. However, within a fraction of a second the dense shock front obscures the fireball, making the characteristic double pulse of light seen from a nuclear detonation.


Much of the destruction caused by a nuclear explosion is due to blast effects. Most buildings, except reinforced or blast-resistant structures, will suffer moderate to severe damage when subjected to overpressures of only 35.5 The pascal (symbol Pa) is the SI unit of pressure. It is equivalent to one newton per square metre. The unit is named after Blaise Pascal, the eminent French mathematician, physicist and philosopher. 1 Pa = 1 N/m² = 1 (kg·m/s²)/m² = 1 kg/m·s² = 0.01 millibar... kilopascals (kPa) (5 lbf/in² or 0.35 atm).


The blast wind may exceed several hundred kilometers per hour. The range for blast effects increases with the explosive yield of the weapon. In a typical air burst, these values of overpressure and wind velocity noted above will prevail at a range of 0.7 km for 1 A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric... kiloton of TNT (kt) yield; 3.2 km for 100 kt; and 15.0 km for 10 A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric... megatons (Mt).


Two distinct, simultaneous phenomena are associated with the blast wave in air:

  • Static overpressure, i.e., the sharp increase in pressure exerted by the shock wave. The overpressure at any given point is directly proportional to the density of the air in the wave.
  • Dynamic pressures, i.e., drag exerted by the blast winds required to form the blast wave. These winds push, tumble and tear objects.
OK, who removed the image description page? - Ta bu shi da yu 05:24, 19 Oct 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded... Positive and negative blast pressures.

Most of the material damage caused by a nuclear air burst is caused by a combination of the high static overpressures and the blast winds. The long compression of the blast wave weakens structures, which are then torn apart by the blast winds. The compression, vacuum and drag phases together may last several seconds or longer, and exert forces many times greater than the strongest hurricane.


Acting on the human body, the shock waves cause pressure waves through the tissues. These waves mostly damage junctions between tissues of different densities ( Annaba (ِArabic عنّابة, formerly B ne) is a city in the north-eastern corner of Algeria near the river Wadi Seybouse and Tunisian border. It is located in the province of Annaba. As of 2004, its population is estimated to be 235,100. Annaba... bone and Structure of a skeletal muscle Muscle is one of the four tissue types. The other three types are: epithelium, connective tissue and nervous tissue. The primary purpose of muscle tissue is to contract. Muscle contraction is used to move parts of the body, as well as to move substances within... muscle) or the interface between tissue and air. The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The lung is an organ belonging to the respiratory system and interfacing to the circulatory system of air-breathing vertebrates. Its function is to exchange oxygen from air with carbon dioxide from blood. The process in which this... Lungs and the gut, which contain air, are particularly injured. The damage causes severe hemorrhaging or air embolisms, either of which can be rapidly fatal. The overpressure estimated to damage lungs is about 68.9 kPa. Some The tympanum or tympanic membrane, colloquially known as eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the outer ear from the middle ear. Its function is to transmit sound from the air to the ossicles inside the middle ear. The malleus bone connects the eardrum to the other ossicles. Sensory system... eardrums would probably rupture around 22 kPa (0.2 atm) and half would rupture between 90 and 130 kPa (0.9 to 1.2 atm).


Blast Winds: The drag energies of the blast winds are proportional to the cubes of their velocities multiplied by the durations. These winds may reach several hundred kilometers per hour.


Thermal radiation

Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of Electromagnetic radiation or EM radiation is a combination (cross product) of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to each other, moving through space as a wave, effectively transporting energy and momentum. EM radiation is quantized as particles called photons. EM radiation with a wavelength between 400nm and 700nm is detected... electromagnetic radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light. The chief hazards are burns and This article refers to the sight organ. See Eye (disambiguation) for other usages. Diagram of a human eye. Note that not all eyes have the same anatomy as a human eye. An eye is an organ that detects light. Different kinds of light-sensitive organ are found in a variety... eye injuries. On clear days, these injuries can occur well beyond blast ranges. The light is so powerful that it can start fires that spread rapidly in the debris left by a blast. The range of thermal effects increases markedly with weapon yield.


There are two types of eye injuries from the thermal radiation of a weapon:


Flash blindness is caused by the initial brilliant flash of light produced by the nuclear detonation. More light energy is received on the retina than can be tolerated, but less than is required for irreversible injury. The retina is particularity susceptible to visible and short wavelength infrared light, since this part of the Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves: EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultrahigh frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High... electromagnetic spectrum is focused by the lens on the retina. The result is bleaching of the visual pigments and temporary Blindness can be defined physiologically as the condition of lacking sight. The definition as it applies to people thus legally classified is, however, more complex. The term blindness also applies to partial visual impairment: In North America and most of Europe, legal blindness is defined as vision of 20/200... blindness for up to 40 minutes.


A retinal burn resulting in permanent damage from scarring is also caused by the concentration of direct thermal energy on the retina by the lens. It will occur only when the fireball is actually in the individual's field of vision and would be a relatively uncommon injury. Retinal burns, however, may be sustained at considerable distances from the explosion. The apparent size of the fireball, a function of yield and range will determine the degree and extent of retinal scarring. A scar in the central visual field would be more debilitating. Generally, a limited visual field defect, which will be barely noticeable, is all that is likely to occur.


Since thermal radiation travels in straight lines from the fireball (unless scattered) any opaque object will produce a protective shadow. If fog or haze scatters the light, it will heat things from all directions and shielding will be less effective.


When thermal radiation strikes an object, part will be reflected, part transmitted, and the rest absorbed. The fraction that is absorbed depends on the nature and color of the material. A thin material may transmit a lot. A light colored object may reflect much of the incident radiation and thus escape damage. The absorbed thermal radiation raises the temperature of the surface and results in scorching, charring, and burning of wood, paper, fabrics, etc. If the material is a poor thermal conductor, the heat is confined to the surface of the material.


Actual ignition of materials depends on the how long the thermal pulse lasts and the thickness and moisture content of the target. Near ground zero where the light exceeds 125 The joule (symbol J, also called newton metre, or coulomb volt) is the SI unit of energy and work. The unit is pronounced to rhyme with tool, and is named in honour of the physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-1889). 1 joule = 1 N · 1 m = 1 newton · 1 metre... joules/ cm redirects here, alternate uses: cm (disambiguation) A centimetre (symbol cm; American spelling: centimeter) is an SI unit of length. One centimetre is: one-hundredth of one metre one-tenth of a decimetre ten millimetres. Unicode has symbols for cm (㎝), for square centimetre (㎠) and for cubic centimetre (㎤... cm2, what can burn, will. Farther away, only the most easily ignited materials will flame. Incendiary effects are compounded by secondary fires started by the blast wave effects such as from upset stoves and furnaces.


In For the town that was formerly named Hiroshima in Hokkaido, see Kitahiroshima. Main keep of Hiroshima Castle Hiroshima City (広島市; -shi) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Japan. It is best known throughout the world as the first... Hiroshima, a tremendous For the comic book superhero, see Firestorm (comics). A firestorm is usually a natural phenomenon, created during forest fires. A firestorm is the mass movement of air resulting from fire creating a fire of extreme intensity over a wide area. Some of the largest forest fires like the Great Peshtigo... fire storm developed within 20 minutes after detonation. A fire storm has gale force winds blowing in towards the center of the fire from all points of the compass. It is not, however, a phenomenon peculiar to nuclear explosions, having been observed frequently in large forest fires and following incendiary raids during Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II.


EMP redirects here. The initials EMP also stand for Experience Music Project EMP is also a type of intermodal container used in international freight shipping In telecommunications and warfare, the term electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the following meanings: The electromagnetic radiation from an explosion (especially nuclear explosions) or an intensely... Electromagnetic pulse (EMP)

Gamma rays from a nuclear explosion produce high energy Electron The first few hydrogen atom electron orbitals shown as cross-sections with color-coded probability density Classification Elementary particle Fermion Lepton First Generation Electron Properties Mass: 9.11 × 10−31 kg 1⁄1836 amu Electric Charge: −1.6 × 10−19C Spin... electrons through The Compton effect, observed by Arthur Compton in 1923, is the increase in wavelength which occurs when photons with energies of around 0.5MeV to 3.5MeV interact with electrons in a material. Comptons experiment became the ultimate observation that convinced all physicists that light can behave as a... Compton scattering. These electrons are captured in the earth's magnetic field, at altitudes between twenty and forty kilometers, where they resonate. The oscillating electric current produces a coherent EMP (electromagnetic pulse) which lasts about 1 millisecond. Secondary effects may last for more than a second.


The pulse is powerful enough so that long metal objects (such as cables) act as antennas and generate high In the physical sciences, potential difference is the difference in potential between two points in a conservative vector field. In engineering, it is sometimes described as the across variable, where flux is the through variable. Contents // 1 Production 1.1 Electrical definitions 1.2 Instruments 2 History 3 SI electricity... voltages when the pulse passes. These voltages, and the associated high In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. Conventional current was defined early in the history of electrical science as a flow of positive charge, although we now know that, in the case of metallic conduction, current is... currents, can destroy unshielded electronics and even many wires. There are no known biological effects of EMP. The ionized air also disrupts radio traffic that would normally bounce off the The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation, and too tenuous to be cooled by contact with other air. It forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere and has practical importance because it reflects radio waves to distant places on Earth. Contents // 1 Geophysics... ionosphere.


One can shield electronics by wrapping them completely in En [ [ ciencia ] ] y [ [ ingeniería ] ], los conductores son los materiales de los cuales contenga las cargas movibles [ [ electricidad ] ]. Cuando una diferencia potencial eléctrica se impresiona a través de puntos separados en un conductor, las cargas móviles dentro del conductor se fuerzan para moverse, y una corriente el... conductive mesh, or any other form of The Faraday cage is an electrical apparatus designed to prevent the passage of electromagnetic waves, either containing them in or excluding them from its interior space. It is named for physicist Michael Faraday, who built the first one in 1836. Faraday stated that the charge on a charged conductor resided... Faraday cage. Of course radios cannot operate when shielded, because broadcast radio waves can't reach them.


The largest-yield nuclear devices are designed for this use. An air burst at the right altitude could produce continent-wide effects.


Ionizing radiation is radiation in which an individual particle (for example, a photon, electron, or helium nucleus) carries enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule (that is, to completely remove an electron from its orbit). If the individual particles do not carry this amount of energy, it is essentially... Ionizing radiation

About 5% of the energy released in a nuclear air burst is in the form of neutrons, gamma rays, alpha particles, and electrons moving at incredible speeds. The neutrons result almost exclusively from the fission and fusion reactions, while the initial gamma radiation includes that arising from these reactions as well as that resulting from the decay of short-lived fission products.


The intensity of initial nuclear radiation decreases rapidly with distance from the point of burst because the radiation spreads over a larger area as it travels away from the explosion. It is also reduced by atmospheric absorption and scattering.


The character of the radiation received at a given location also varies with distance from the explosion. Near the point of the explosion, the neutron intensity is greater than the gamma intensity, but with increasing distance the neutron-gamma ratio decreases. Ultimately, the neutron component of initial radiation becomes negligible in comparison with the gamma component. The range for significant levels of initial radiation does not increase markedly with weapon yield and, as a result, the initial radiation becomes less of a hazard with increasing yield. With larger weapons, above 50 kt (200 TJ), blast and thermal effects are so much greater in importance that prompt radiation effects can be ignored.


The neutron radiation serves to transmute the surrounding matter, often rendering it radioactive. When added to the dust of radioactive material released by the bomb itself, a large amount of radioactive material is released into the environment. This form of The radiation warning symbol (trifolium). Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment. Many radioactive isotopes are produced artificially, either for their specific properties (such as medical radioisotopes) or as a byproduct (such as fission products). Some radioisotopes exist in nature, including uranium, thorium, and... radioactive contamination is known as Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nuclear weapon explodes, although it can also refer... nuclear fallout and poses the primary risk of exposure to ionizing radiation for a large nuclear weapon.


Fallout is the residual radiation hazard from a nuclear explosion and is named from the fact that it falls out of the atmosphere in to which it is spread during the explosion. It commonly refers to the radioactive dust created when a nuclear weapon explodes, although it can also refer... Nuclear fallout

The residual The radiation warning symbol (trifolium). Radioactive contamination is the uncontrolled distribution of radioactive material in a given environment. Many radioactive isotopes are produced artificially, either for their specific properties (such as medical radioisotopes) or as a byproduct (such as fission products). Some radioisotopes exist in nature, including uranium, thorium, and... radioactive contamination hazard from a nuclear explosion is in the form of radioactive fallout and neutron-induced activity. Residual ionizing radiation arises from:

  • Fission products. These are intermediate weight isotopes which are formed when a heavy uranium or plutonium nucleus is split in a fission reaction. There are over 300 different fission products that may result from a fission reaction. Many of these are radioactive with widely differing half-lives. Some are very short, i.e., fractions of a second, while a few are long enough that the materials can be a hazard for months or years. Their principal mode of decay is by the emission of beta and gamma radiation. Approximately 60 grams of fission products are formed per kiloton of yield (14 g/TJ). The estimated activity of this quantity of fission products 1 minute after detonation is equal to that of 1.1 × 1021 Bq (30 gigagrams of radium) in equilibrium with its decay products.
  • Unfissioned nuclear material. Nuclear weapons are relatively inefficient in their use of fissionable material, and much of the uranium and plutonium is dispersed by the explosion without undergoing fission. Such unfissioned nuclear material decays slowly by the emission of alpha particles and is of relatively minor importance.
  • Neutron-induced activity. If atomic nuclei capture neutrons when exposed to a flux of neutron radiation, they will, as a rule, become radioactive (neutron-induced activity) and then decay by emission of beta and gamma radiation over an extended period. Neutrons emitted as part of the initial nuclear radiation will cause activation of the weapon residues. In addition, atoms of environmental material, such as soil, air, and water, may be activated, depending on their composition and distance from the burst. For example, a small area around ground zero may become hazardous as a result of exposure of the minerals in the soil to initial neutron radiation. This is due principally to neutron capture by various elements, such as sodium – magnesium Li Na K       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number sodium, Na, 11 Series alkali metal Group, Period, Block 1 (IA), 3 , s Density, Hardness 968 kg/m3, 0.5 Appearance silvery white Atomic properties Atomic weight 22.989770 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 180... sodium, chromium – manganese – iron Mn Tc       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 7 , 4 , d Density, Hardness 7470 kg/m3, 6.0 Appearance silvery metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 54.938049 amu Atomic radius (calc... manganese, magnesium – aluminium – silicon B Al Ga       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number aluminium, Al, 13 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 13 (IIIA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2700 kg/m3, 2.75 Appearance silvery Atomic properties Atomic weight 26.981538 amu Atomic radius... aluminum and aluminium – silicon – phosphorus C Si Ge       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number silicon, Si, 14 Series metalloid Group, Period, Block 14 (IVA), 3, p Density, Hardness 2330 kg/m3, 6.5 Appearance dark grey, bluish tinge Atomic properties Atomic weight 28.0855 amu Atomic... silicon in the soil. This is a negligible hazard because of the limited area involved.

In an explosion near the surface large amounts of earth or water will be vaporized by the heat of the fireball and drawn up into the radioactive cloud. This material will become radioactive when it condenses, mixed with fission products and other radiocontaminants that have become neutron-activated. The larger particles will settle back to the earth's surface near ground zero (depending on wind and weather conditions of course) within 24 hours, while fine particles will rise to the stratosphere and be distributed globally over the course of weeks or months.


Severe local fallout contamination can extend far beyond the blast and thermal effects, particularly in the case of high yield surface detonations. In detonations near a water surface, the particles tend to be lighter and smaller and produce less local fallout but will extend over a greater area. The particles contain mostly sea salts with some water; these can have a cloud seeding effect causing local rainout and areas of high local fallout.


The radiobiological hazard of worldwide fallout is essentially a long-term one due to the potential accumulation of long-lived radioisotopes, such as rubidium –strontium – yttrium Ca Sr Ba       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Strontium, Sr, 38 Series Alkaline earth metal Group, Period, Block 2 (IIA), 5, s Density, Hardness 2630 kg/m3, 1.5 Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic properties Atomic weight 87.62 amu... strontium-90 and Caesium – Barium Rb Cs Fr       Full table General Name, Symbol, Number Caesium, Cs, 55 Series Alkali metals Group, Period, Block 1(IA), 6, s Density, Hardness 1879 kg/m3, 0.2 Appearance silvery gold Atomic properties Atomic weight 132.90545 amu Atomic radius (calc.) 260... caesium-137, in the body as a result of ingestion of foods incorporating these radioactive materials. Chemically, both isotopes are recognized as similar to calcium and deposited in bone structure throughout the body. These highly-radioactive substances then interfere with white blood cell production, which is a prime effect of radiation sickness. The hazard of worldwide fallout is much less serious than the hazards which are associated with local fallout.


Blast and thermal injuries in many cases will far outnumber radiation injuries. However, radiation effects are considerably more complex and varied than are blast or thermal effects and are subject to considerable misunderstanding. A wide range of biological changes may follow the irradiation of animals, ranging from rapid death following high doses of penetrating whole-body radiation to essentially normal lives for a variable period of time until the development of delayed radiation effects, in a portion of the exposed population, following low dose exposures.


For more technical details see: A nuclear explosion (nuclear detonation) has occurred: twice using a nuclear weapon during war (during World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) many times testing a nuclear weapon a series of tests of nuclear explosives for construction purposes; see Operation Plowshare Potential other applications (not yet applied... nuclear explosion.


Yield

The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is expressed in the equivalent mass of Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a pale yellow crystalline aromatic hydrocarbon compound that melts at 354 K (178 °F). Trinitrotoluene is an explosive chemical and a part of many explosive mixtures, such as when mixed with ammonium nitrate to form amatol. It is prepared by the nitration of toluene (C6H5CH3... trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric... kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric... megatons (million of tons of TNT). Examples of nuclear weapon yields:

  • Davy Crockett mounted to a recoilless rifle on a tripod The M-388 Davy Crockett was a tactical nuclear recoilless rifle projectile that was deployed by the United States during the Cold War. Development One of the smallest nuclear weapons ever fielded, the Davy Crockett was developed in the late... Davy Crockett tactical nuclear weapon: variable yield 0.01-1 kt — mass only 23 kg (51 lb), lightest ever deployed by the United States (same warhead as H-912 transport container for Mk-54 SADM The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a United States Navy and Marines project that was demonstrated as feasible in the mid-to-late 1960s, but was never used. The project, which involved a small nuclear weapon, was designed to allow one... Special Atomic Demolition Munition and The Hughes AIM-26 Falcon was a larger, more powerful version of the AIM-4 Falcon air_to_air missile. It is notable for being the only U.S. guided air_to_air weapon with a nuclear warhead. Development Starting in 1956 Hughes Electronics began the development of an enlarged version of the GAR... GAR-11 Nuclear Falcon missile)
  • Hiroshima's " Little Boy bomb casing Little Boy was the codename given to the nuclear weapon dropped on Hiroshima, Japan on Monday, August 6, 1945. Little Boy was dropped from a B-29 Superfortress, the Enola Gay piloted by Lt. Col. Paul Tibbets, from about 31,000 feet (9450 m... Little Boy": 12-15 kt — gun type uranium-235 fission bomb (the first of the only two nuclear weapons that have ever been used in warfare)
  • Nagasaki's " The nuclear weapon code-named Fat Man was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, on August 9, 1945. It was the second and, so far, the last known nuclear weapon to be used in assault. A post-war Fat Man model. The 10-foot 8-inch (3.25 metres) long, five-foot... Fat Man": 20-22 kt — implosion type plutonium-239 fission bomb (the second of the two nuclear weapons used in warfare)
  • W-76 warhead 100 kt (10 of these may be in a Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. Start the Mirv article If you have created this page in the past few minutes and it has not yet appeared, it may not be visible due to a delay in updating the database. Please wait and check again... MIRVed The Trident missile is an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) which is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from submarines (SSBNs), making it an SLBM. There are 14 active US Ohio class submarines and 4 UK Vanguard class submarines equipped with the two variants of Trident: the initial Trident-I... Trident II missile)
  • B-61 Mod 3 B-61 gravity bomb; this nuclear munition has been identified as one that could be modified to hit hardened underground targets. A gravity bomb is an aircraft-delivered bomb that does not contain a guidance system and hence follows a ballistic trajectory. Until the later half of World War II... gravity bomb: 4 yield options (" Dial-a-yield is an option available on most modern nuclear bombs. It allows the pilot to specify the yield (explosive power) of a given bomb, allowing a single design of bomb to be used in many different situations. Adjusting yield can also take place on the ground with the... dial-a-yield"): 0.3 kt, 1.5 kt, 60 kt, and 170 kt
  • W-87 warhead: 300 kt (10 of these are in a Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. Start the Mirv article If you have created this page in the past few minutes and it has not yet appeared, it may not be visible due to a delay in updating the database. Please wait and check again... MIRVed Test launch of Peacekeeper ICBM from Vandenberg AFB, CA (USAF) The LG-118A Peacekeeper is a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. Under the unratified START II treaty, the missile is to be removed from the US nuclear arsenal by 2005, after which the LGM... LG-118A Peacekeeper)
  • W-88 warhead: 475 kt (8 of these may be in a Trident II missile)
  • Castle Bravo was the first test of a Teller_Ulam configuration thermonuclear dry fuel hydrogen bomb, detonated at the Bikini Atoll on February 28, 1954. It was the most powerful nuclear device ever detonated by the United States, and the prototype of the first practically deliverable hydrogen bomb in the US... Castle Bravo device: 15 Mt — largest tested by the US
  • EC17/Mk-17, the EC24/Mk-24, and the B41 (Mk41) (largest nuclear weapons ever built by the United States): 25 Mt — gravity bombs carried by B-36J Peacemaker B-36J Peacemaker Description Role Long-range strategic heavy bomber Crew 15 First Flight 1945 Entered Service 1947 Manufacturer Consolidated Vultee (Convair) Dimensions Length 162 ft 1 in 49.40 m Wingspan 230 ft 0 in 70.10 m Height 46 ft 8 in 14.22 m... B-36 bomber (retired by 1957)
  • Tsar Bomba (Russian: Царь-бомба) was the largest nuclear explosive device in history. It was detonated on October 30, 1961 as a test; this took place at a height of 4000 metres over the Novaya Zemlya Nuclear Range at the Novaya Zemlya Island... Tsar Bomba device: 50 Mt — USSR, largest yield explosive device ever, mass of 27 short tons (24 metric tons), in its "full" form it would have been 100 Mt

As a comparison, the Damage to the Murrah building before cleanup began. The Oklahoma City bombing was an attack against the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, a US government office complex in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA. The bombing killed 168 people and was the largest domestic terrorist attack in the history of the United... Oklahoma City bombing, using a truck-based fertilizer bomb, was a mere 0.002 kt.


The "yield per ton", the amount of weapons yield compared to the mass of the weapon, is for current US weapons 600 kt/t (2.5 TJ/kg) to 2.2 Mt/t (9.2 TJ/kg). By comparison, for the Davy Crockett it was 40 kt/t (0.167 TJ/kg) and for the Tsar Bomba it was 2 Mt/t (8 TJ/kg).


Weapons delivery

The term strategic nuclear weapons is generally used to denote large weapons which would be used to destroy large targets, such as cities. Tactical nuclear weapons are smaller weapons used to destroy specific military, communications, or infrastructure targets. By modern standards, the bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Contents // 1 Events 1.1 January 1.2 February 1.3 March 1.4 April 1.5 May 1.6 June 1.7 July 1.8 August 1.9 September 1.10 October 1.11 November... 1945 may perhaps be considered tactical weapons (with yields between 13 and 22 kilotons (54 to 92 TJ)), although modern tactical weapons are considerably lighter and more compact.


Basic methods of delivery for nuclear weapons are:


B-61 gravity bomb; this nuclear munition has been identified as one that could be modified to hit hardened underground targets. A gravity bomb is an aircraft-delivered bomb that does not contain a guidance system and hence follows a ballistic trajectory. Until the later half of World War II... Gravity bombs

No nuclear weapon qualifies as a "wooden bomb" - US slang for one trouble-free, maintenance-free, and danger-free under all conditions. This method of delivery requires that the weapon be capable of withstanding vibrations and changes in air temperature and pressure during the course of a flight. Early weapons often had a removable core for safety, installed by the air crew during flight. Also, they had to meet safety conditions were they dropped accidentally. They also had to have a fuze for a variety of types for detonation. US nuclear weapons that met these criteria are designated by the letter "B" followed, without a hyphen, by the sequential number of the " Physics package is a euphemism for the portion of a nuclear weapon that includes the actual explosive portion of the weapon: the detonator explosives, the fissile material, and (for fusion weapons) fusion fuel. Many nuclear weapons are built in a modular fashion, with the same physics package being used for... physics package" it contains. The B61, for example, was the main such bomb in the US arsenal for decades.


Various air-dropping techniques exist, including Toss bombing (sometimes known as loft bombing) is a method of bombing where the attacking aircraft pulls upwards and releases its bomb load, giving the bomb additional forward velocity. Although this might seem the direct opposite to dive bombing, where the plane pitches downwards to aim at its target, toss... toss bombing, The Apollo 15 capsule landed safely despite a parachute failure. A parachute is a soft fabric device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag. Parachutes are generally used to slow the descent of a person or object to Earth or another celestial body... parachute-retarded delivery, and Laydown delivery is a mode of deploying a free-fall nuclear weapon in which the bombs fall is slowed by parachute so that it actually lands on the ground before detonating. Laydown delivery requires that the weapons case be reinforced so that it can survive the impact, and... laydown modes, intended to give the dropping aircraft time to escape the ensuing blast.


The first weapons could only be carried by the The Boeing B-29 Superfortress (Boeing Model 341/345) was a four-engine heavy bomber flown by the United States Army Air Force. It was one of the largest aircraft of World War II to see active service. When it entered service, it was one of the most advanced bombers... B-29. Early weapons were so big and heavy that they could only be carried by A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. For other uses of the word bomber see bomber (disambiguation). Strategic bombers are primarily designed for long-range strike missions against strategic targets such as supply bases, bridges, factories, and shipyards. Examples: B-17 Flying... bombers such as the B-52 Stratofortress United States Air Force B-52 Description Role Heavy bomber, missile platform Crew Five (aircraft commander, pilot, radar navigator, navigator and electronic warfare officer) Dimensions Length 159 ft 4 in 48.5 m Wingspan 185 ft 56.4 m Height 40 ft 8 in 12.4 m... B-52 and The term V bomber was used for the Royal Air Force aircraft during the 1950s and 1960s that comprised the UKs strategic nuclear strike force. The bombers were the Valiants (first flew 1951), Victors (first flew 1952) and Vulcans (first flew 1952). The V-Bomber force reached its peak... V bombers, but by the mid- Contents // 1 Events and trends 1.1 Technology 1.2 Science 1.3 War, peace, and politics 1.4 Economics 1.5 Culture, religion 1.6 Others 2 People 2.1 World leaders 2.2 Entertainers 2.3 Sports figures 3 See also 4 External Links Events and trends Technology... 1950s smaller weapons had been developed that could be carried and deployed by A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for attacking other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. Fighters are comparatively small, fast, and highly maneuverable, and have been fitted with increasingly sophisticated tracking and weapons systems to intercept... fighter-bombers.


Polish missile wz. 8/K-14 (Scud-B) A ballistic missile is a missile, usually with no wings or fins, with a prescribed course that cannot be altered after the missile has burned its fuel, whereafter its course is governed by the laws of ballistics. In order to cover large... Ballistic missile warheads

A missile (British English: miss-isle; U.S. English: missl) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. Missiles can range from a rock thrown from a slingshot, through a crossbow or ballista bolt, to a Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) with multiple nuclear... Missiles using a Ballistics (gr. ballein, throw) is the science that deals with the motion, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, gravity bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and hurling projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance. A ballistic body is a body which is... ballistic trajectory usually deliver a A warhead is an explosive device used in military conflicts, used to destroy enemy vehicles or buildings. Typically, a warhead is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo. It consists of the explosive material, and a detonator. The types of warhead are: Explosive: An explosive charge is used to disintegrate... warhead over the horizon. Mobile ballistic missiles may have a range of tens to hundreds of kilometers, while larger A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. An intercontinental ballistic missile, or ICBM, is a long-range ballistic missile using a ballistic trajectory involving a significant ascent and descent, including sub-orbital flight. An ICBM differs little technically from other ballistic missiles such as intermediate-range ballistic missiles... ICBMs or Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. Modern variants usually deliver multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) each of which carries a warhead and allows a single launched missile to strike a handful of targets. The first successful tests of... SLBMs may use suborbital or partial orbital trajectories for intercontinental range. Early ballistic missiles carried a single warhead, often of A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric... megaton-range yield. Since the Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1940s 1950s 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1990s 2000s Years: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Contents // 1 Events and trends 1.1 Technology 1.2 Science 1.3 War, peace and politics... 1970s modern ballistic weapons often use multiple independent reentry vehicles ( Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. Start the Mirv article If you have created this page in the past few minutes and it has not yet appeared, it may not be visible due to a delay in updating the database. Please wait and check again... MIRVs) with up to a dozen A warhead is an explosive device used in military conflicts, used to destroy enemy vehicles or buildings. Typically, a warhead is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo. It consists of the explosive material, and a detonator. The types of warhead are: Explosive: An explosive charge is used to disintegrate... warheads, usually of A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i.e. 109 kg or 1 teragram (Tg). The official SI symbol for the megaton is Mt, but MT is also being used; beware that the latter is also (unofficially) used for the metric... kiloton-range yield. This allows a single launched missile to strike a handful of targets, or inflict maximum damage on a single target by encircling the target with warheads.


Missile warheads in the American arsenal are indicated by the letter "W"; e.g., W61 would have the same Physics package is a euphemism for the portion of a nuclear weapon that includes the actual explosive portion of the weapon: the detonator explosives, the fissile material, and (for fusion weapons) fusion fuel. Many nuclear weapons are built in a modular fashion, with the same physics package being used for... physics package as the B61 above, but it would have different environmental requirements, and, as it would not be crew-tended after launch but remain atop a missile for a great length of time, different safety requirements.


A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. Cruise missiles are, in essence, unmanned aircraft. They are generally designed to carry a large conventional or nuclear warhead many hundreds of miles... Cruise missile warheads

A A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. The mesh cover at the front of the engine (left of photo) prevents debris - or people - from being... jet engine or A Redstone rocket, part of the Mercury program A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust gas from within a rocket engine. Often the term rocket is also used to mean a rocket engine. In military terminology... rocket-propelled A missile (British English: miss-isle; U.S. English: missl) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. Missiles can range from a rock thrown from a slingshot, through a crossbow or ballista bolt, to a Minuteman III intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) with multiple nuclear... missile that flies at low altitude using an automated guidance system (usually An inertial navigation system measures the position and altitude of a vehicle by measuring the accelerations and rotations applied to the systems inertial frame. It is widely used because it refers to no real-world item beyond itself. It is therefore immune to jamming and deception. (See relativity and... inertial navigation, sometimes supplemented by either Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. For other uses of the acronym GPS, see GPS (disambiguation). The Global Positioning System, usually called GPS (the US military refers to it as NAVSTAR GPS), is a satellite navigation system used for determining one... GPS or mid-course updates from friendly forces) to make them harder to detect or intercept could carry a nuclear warhead. Cruise missiles have shorter range and smaller payloads than ballistic missiles, so their warheads are smaller and less powerful. Rather than multiple warheads, which would have to be dropped separately as though the cruise missile were itself a bomber, each cruise missile carries its own warhead, although the B-1 Lancer The B-1 Lancer Description Role Heavy bomber Crew Four (aircraft commander, copilot, offensive systems officer and defensive systems officer) Dimensions Length 147 ft 44.81 m Wingspan 136 ft 8.5 in extended forward 78 ft 2.5 in swept aft 41.67 m 23.84... B-1 Lancer bomber was designed to carry in its bomb-bay a rotating fixture for cruise missiles which resembles a set of MIRV warheads. Conventional cruise missiles sometimes use Cluster bomb exploding A cluster bomb is an air-dropped bomb that ejects multiple small submunitions (bomblets). Their primary purpose is to kill enemy soldiers, although specialized weapons designed for anti-runway, anti-armor and mine_scattering purposes have also been developed. Contents // 1 Development 2 Types of Cluster Bombs 3... cluster munition payloads, though. Cruise missiles may be launched from mobile launchers on the ground, from naval ships, or from aircraft.


There is no letter change in the US arsenal to distinguish the warheads of cruise missiles from those for ballistic missiles.


Other delivery systems

Other potential delivery methods include A nuclear artillery shell is a limited yield nuclear weapon fired from artillery. Shortly after the development of the first atomic bombs the USA and the USSR began investigations into devices with limited yield that could be used in sub-strategic situations, even tactically. This developed into a number of... artillery shells, mines such as Blue Peacock was the codename of a British project in the 1950s with the goal to place a number of 10 kiloton nuclear mines in the Rhine area in Germany. The mines would have been detonated by wire or an eight_day timer. If they were disturbed they were set to... Blue Peacock, and nuclear Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. A concept of a dropping mine was first discussed in 1911, and the idea was developed into practicality when the Royal Navys Commander in Chief, Sir George Callaghan... depth charges and torpedoes for Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. This involves the use of submarines, aircraft, and surface ships (commonly destroyers), to locate, track, and then either damage or destroy submarines, port facilities, production facilities, and supply routes. Anti-submarine warfare also involves communication interception, decryption, and... anti-submarine warfare. An atomic mortar was also tested. In the Contents // 1 Events and trends 1.1 Technology 1.2 Science 1.3 War, peace, and politics 1.4 Economics 1.5 Culture, religion 1.6 Others 2 People 2.1 World leaders 2.2 Entertainers 2.3 Sports figures 3 See also 4 External Links Events and trends Technology... 1950s the U.S. developed small nuclear warheads for air defense use, such as the Launch of a Nike Zeus missile Project Nike was a US Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Labs, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. The project delivered the worlds first operational anti-aircraft missile system in 1953, the Nike Ajax. A huge number... Nike Hercules. Further developments of this concept, some with much larger warheads, showed promise as An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter intercontinental ballistic missiles: the strategic ballistic missiles used to deliver nuclear weapons or their elements in flight trajectory. ABMs may also be used against chemical or biological payloads. For current US developments, see Missile Defense Agency. For defense against... anti-ballistic missiles. Most of the United States' nuclear air-defense weapons were out of service by the end of the Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s - 1960s - 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s Years: 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 Contents // 1 Events and trends 1.1 Technology 1.2 Science 1.3 War, peace and politics 1.4... 1960s, and nuclear depth bombs were taken out of service by 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. Years: 1987 1988 1989 - 1990 - 1991 1992 1993 Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s 2020s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1990 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology Aviation - Rail... 1990. However, the USSR (and later Russia) continues to maintain anti-ballistic missiles with nuclear warheads. Small, two-man portable tactical weapons ("erroneously referred to as Suitcase with hypothetical nuclear weapon mock-up inside A suitcase bomb is a bomb which uses a suitcase as its delivery method. While conventional bombs can be hidden in any type of container, suitcase bombs have been threats primarily in two different contexts: conventional bombs in suitcases on airplanes (where... suitcase bombs"), such as the H-912 transport container for Mk-54 SADM The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a United States Navy and Marines project that was demonstrated as feasible in the mid-to-late 1960s, but was never used. The project, which involved a small nuclear weapon, was designed to allow one... Special Atomic Demolition Munition, have been developed, although the difficulty of balancing yield and portability limits their military utility.


See This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. The states are ordered by the timing of their gaining of nuclear weapons, certainly in the case of the declared nuclear powers and somewhat speculatively in the case of the non-declared powers. Contents... list of nuclear weapons for a list of the designs of nuclear weapons fielded by the various nuclear powers.


Related topics

Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United... Weapons of
Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United... mass destruction
By Type
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Biological weapons
Dressing the wounded during a gas attack by Austin O. Spare, 1918. Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate the enemy. Chemical warfare is different from the use of conventional weapons or nuclear weapons because the destructive... Chemical weapons
Nuclear weapons
A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive contamination, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive) which spreads... Radiological weapons
By Country
This article does not adequately cite its sources and may contain unverified information or Brazils history, it is believed that the country does not possess significant weapons of mass destruction. In early 2004, there was an international initiative to enlarge the inspection of installations where enrichment of uranium-238... Brazil
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare Nuclear weapon history Nuclear weapon design Nuclear explosion Nuclear testing See... Canada
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare Nuclear weapon history Nuclear weapon design Nuclear explosion Nuclear testing See... China (PRC)
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Poland Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weaponry Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... France
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... India
Iran
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Iraq
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Israel
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... North Korea
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Pakistan
Poland
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Russia
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... South Africa
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Taiwan (ROC)
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... United Kingdom
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... United States
Nuclear weaponry
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Nuclear countries
Nuclear proliferation is the spread from nation to nation of nuclear technology, including nuclear power plants but especially nuclear weapons. The primary focus of anti-proliferation efforts is to maintain control over the specialized materials necessary to build such devices because, this is the most difficult and expensive part of... Nuclear proliferation
Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons. Nuclear strategy attempts to allow the political leadership of a nation to answer the question, should we develop nuclear weapons, what types of nuclear weapons should we develop, and when should we use... Nuclear strategy
Terrorism General Definition Conventions Counterterrorism Criticisms Lists Groups Incidents Types Nationalist Religious Left-wing Right-wing State Islamist Ethnic Narcoterrorism Domestic Anarchist Political Eco-terrorism Christian Tactics Hijacking Assassination Car bombing Suicide bombing Kidnapping Bioterrorism Nuclear terrorism Cyber-terrorism Internet Configurations Fronts Independent actors Nuclear terrorism can be used to... Nuclear terrorism
History of warfare Eras Prehistoric warfare Ancient warfare Medieval warfare Early modern warfare Modern warfare Types Naval warfare Siege warfare Trench warfare Guerrilla warfare Aerial warfare Nuclear warfare Lists List of wars List of battles List of sieges Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are... Nuclear warfare
The history of nuclear weapons chronicles the development of nuclear weapons—devices of enormous destructive potential which derive their energy from nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reactions—starting with the scientific breakthroughs of the 1930s which made their development possible, continuing through through the nuclear arms race and... Nuclear weapon history
Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. Fission bombs derive their power from nuclear fission, where heavy nuclei (uranium or plutonium) split into lighter elements when bombarded by neutrons (produce more neutrons which bombard other nuclei, triggering... Nuclear weapon design
A nuclear explosion (nuclear detonation) has occurred: twice using a nuclear weapon during war (during World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) many times testing a nuclear weapon a series of tests of nuclear explosives for construction purposes; see Operation Plowshare Potential other applications (not yet applied... Nuclear explosion
Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Nuclear testing
See also
The term dirty bomb is most often used to refer to a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD), a radiological weapon which combines radioactive material with conventional explosives. Though an RDD is designed to disperse radioactive material over a large area, the convential explosive would likely have more immediate lethal effect than... Dirty bomb
Radiological warfare is any form of warfare involving deliberate radiation poisoning, without relying on nuclear fission or nuclear fusion. Radiological weapons are normally considered weapons of mass destruction, and are very commonly equated with a radiological bomb often mis-called a dirty bomb (which refers to a nuclear weapon with... Radiological warfare
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  • More Technical Details
    • Nuclear weapon designs are often divided into two classes, based on the dominant source of the nuclear weapons energy. Fission bombs derive their power from nuclear fission, where heavy nuclei (uranium or plutonium) split into lighter elements when bombarded by neutrons (produce more neutrons which bombard other nuclei, triggering... Nuclear weapon design
    • A nuclear explosion (nuclear detonation) has occurred: twice using a nuclear weapon during war (during World War II, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) many times testing a nuclear weapon a series of tests of nuclear explosives for construction purposes; see Operation Plowshare Potential other applications (not yet applied... Nuclear explosion
  • History
    • The history of nuclear weapons chronicles the development of nuclear weapons—devices of enormous destructive potential which derive their energy from nuclear fission or nuclear fusion reactions—starting with the scientific breakthroughs of the 1930s which made their development possible, continuing through through the nuclear arms race and... History of nuclear weapons
    • Control panels and operators for calutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. During the Manhattan Project the operators, mostly women, worked in shifts covering 24 hours a day. The Manhattan Project, or more formally, the Manhattan Engineering District, was an effort during World War II to develop the first nuclear weapons... Manhattan Project
    • Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) (previously known at various times as Los Alamos Laboratory and Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed by the University of California, located in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The... Los Alamos National Laboratory
    • Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... Nuclear test explosion
    • Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A_Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing, on August 6, 2004 During World War II, the cities of Hiroshima and Japan, were destroyed by atomic bombs dropped by the United States military on August 6 and August 9... Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
    • The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. They tested their first nuclear weapon in 1949. Andrei Sakharov (l) with Igor Kurchatov (r) Contents // 1 The beginnings 2 Adminstration and personnel 3 Espionage 4 Logistical problems the Soviets faced 5 Important... Soviet atomic bomb project
    • Yoshio Nishina The Japanese atomic program was a program by the Empire of Japan to develop a genzai bakudan, an atomic bomb during World War II. The program started around the same time as the U.S. Manhattan Project. Most experts believe that the program was small, and managed neither... Japanese atomic program
    • German nuclear energy project
    • Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man This is a list of notable accidents involving nuclear material. In some cases, these incidents involve people being injured or killed due to the release of radioactive contamination. Most incidents involve accidental releases that have caused contamination, but had no other immediate effects... List of nuclear accidents (including nuclear weapons accidents)
  • Related Technology and Science
    • Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. Topics include: Strong interaction Radioactivity Models of the nucleus liquid drop model shell model interacting boson model Fission Fusion Nuclear reactions Applications Nuclear magnetic resonance Mössbauer effect Nuclear medicine Nuclear power Nuclear weapons History Radioactivity... Nuclear physics
    • Sketch of induced nuclear fission, a neutron (n) strikes a uranium nucleus which splits into daughter products, and releases more neutrons to continue the process, and energy in the form of gamma and other radiation In physics, fission is a nuclear process, meaning it occurs in the nucleus of an... Nuclear fission
    • In physics, nuclear fusion (a thermonuclear reaction) is a process in which two nuclei join, forming a larger nucleus and releasing energy. Nuclear fusion is the energy source which causes stars to shine, and hydrogen bombs to explode. It takes considerable energy to force nuclei to fuse, even those of... Nuclear fusion
    • Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. The nuclear reactor is inside the dome-shaped containment building. A nuclear reactor is a device in which nuclear chain reactions are initiated, controlled, and sustained at a steady rate (as opposed to a nuclear explosion, where the chain reaction occurs in a split... Nuclear reactor
    • Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the principles of nuclear physics and the interaction between radiation and matter. This field of engineering includes the design, analysis, development, testing, operation and maintenance of nuclear fission systems and components, specifically, nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons. The field can also include the... Nuclear engineering
  • Military strategy in the Waterloo campaign Military strategy is a collective name for planning the conduct of warfare. Derived from the Greek strategos, strategy was seen as the art of the general. Military strategy deals with the planning and conduct of campaigns, the movement and disposition of forces, and the... Military strategy
    • History of warfare Eras Prehistoric warfare Ancient warfare Medieval warfare Early modern warfare Modern warfare Types Naval warfare Siege warfare Trench warfare Guerrilla warfare Aerial warfare Nuclear warfare Lists List of wars List of battles List of sieges Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are... Nuclear warfare
    • Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons. Nuclear strategy attempts to allow the political leadership of a nation to answer the question, should we develop nuclear weapons, what types of nuclear weapons should we develop, and when should we use... Nuclear strategy
    • Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. It is based on the theory of deterrence according to which the deployment... Mutual Assured Destruction
    • Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM in the 1960s with a low Earth orbit that would de-orbit for an attack. It had no range limit and the orbital flight path would not reveal the target location. This would allow a path to North America over the... Fractional Orbital Bombardment System
  • Proliferation and Politics
    • Nuclear proliferation is the spread from nation to nation of nuclear technology, including nuclear power plants but especially nuclear weapons. The primary focus of anti-proliferation efforts is to maintain control over the specialized materials necessary to build such devices because, this is the most difficult and expensive part of... Nuclear proliferation
    • The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. The vast majority of sovereign states (189) are parties to the treaty. Only five states are permitted by the NPT to own nuclear weapons: the United States (signed... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
    • The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, for military or civilian purposes and was opened for signature in New York on 24 September 1996, when it was signed by 71 States, including the five nuclear weapon states at the time (which did not... Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty
    • Nuclear Disarmament is the proposed recall and dismantling of nuclear weapons, particularly those the US and USSR targeted on each other. Proponents of nuclear disamament said that it would lessen the probability of nuclear war occurring, since nuclear bombs cannot be used if they do not exist. Critics of nuclear... Nuclear disarmament
    • The Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice of 8 July 1996 provides one of the few authoritative judicial decisions concerning the legality under international law of the use (or the threatened use) of nuclear weapons. The International Court of Justice is also known as the World Court or... International Court of Justice advisory opinion on legality of nuclear weapons
    • Weapons of mass destruction By Type Biological weapons Chemical weapons Nuclear weapons Radiological weapons By Country Brazil Canada China (PRC) France India Iran Iraq Israel North Korea Pakistan Russia South Africa Taiwan (ROC) United Kingdom United States Nuclear weapon topics Nuclear countries Nuclear proliferation Nuclear strategy Nuclear terrorism Nuclear warfare... List of countries with nuclear weapons
    • This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. The states are ordered by the timing of their gaining of nuclear weapons, certainly in the case of the declared nuclear powers and somewhat speculatively in the case of the non-declared powers. Contents... List of nuclear weapons
  • Popular Culture

References

  • Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J., The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (third edition) (http://www.cddc.vt.edu/host/atomic/nukeffct/), U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977. PDF Version (http://www.princeton.edu/~globsec/publications/effects/effects.shtml)
  • NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations (Part I - Nuclear) (http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/usa/doctrine/dod/fm8-9/1toc.htm), Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force, Washington, D.C., 1996.
  • Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History, Arlington, TX: Aerofax, 1988.
  • Hansen, Chuck. The Swords of Armageddon: U.S. nuclear weapons development since 1945, Sunnyvale, CA: Chukelea Publications, 1995 [1] (http://www.uscoldwar.com/).
  • Henry DeWolf Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and a bureaucrat who played a number of key roles in the early development of nuclear energy. He is most famous for authoring the Smyth Report, the first official US history of the Manhattan Project... Smyth, Henry DeWolf. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes (http://nuclearweaponarchive.org/Smyth/), Princeton University Press, 1945. (The first declassified report by the US government on nuclear weapons) ( The Smyth Report was the common name given to an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Allied World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. The full title of the report was the unwieldy Atomic Energy for Military Purposes; The Official Report... Smyth Report)
  • The Effects of Nuclear War (http://www.fas.org/nuke/intro/nuke/7906/index.html), Office of Technology Assessment (May 1979).
  • Rhodes, Richard. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. Simon and Schuster, New York, ( 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. It was the first year of the International Decade of the Worlds Indigenous People (1995- 2005): http://www.unesco.org/culture/indigenous/ Years: 1992 1993 1994 - 1995 - 1996 1997 1998 Decades: 1960s 1970s 1980s - 1990s - 2000s 2010s... 1995 ISBN 0684824140)
  • Rhodes, Richard. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon and Schuster, New York, ( 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Years: 1983 1984 1985 - 1986 - 1987 1988 1989 Decades: 1950s 1960s 1970s - 1980s - 1990s 2000s 2010s Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century 1986 in topic: Arts Architecture - Art - Film - Literature - Music - Television Science and technology Aviation - Rail... 1986 ISBN 0684813785)
  • Weart, Spencer R. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1988.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Atomic Bomb (3340 words)
Not a dirty bomb, or a crop duster, or a hijacked jet-missile, or anthrax in the mail, or smallpox-ridden subway riders, or sarin gas suitcases, or fertilizer-packed trucks.
It might have taken millennia to come up with the notion of the atomic bomb, but it took just 12 years from the first public articulation of the idea to The Bomb's first public use to kill enemies in a war.
The cities were ordered to be spared conventional bombing, so that the psychological and collateral impact of the atomic bombing would be higher.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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