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Encyclopedia > Atom (standard)
Atom
The Firefox and Internet Explorer 7 Feed icon.
File extension: .atom, .xml
MIME type: application/atom+xml
Type of format: Syndication
Extended from: XML

The name Atom applies to a pair of related standards. The Atom Syndication Format is an XML language used for web feeds, while the Atom Publishing Protocol (APP for short) is a simple HTTP-based protocol for creating and updating Web resources. Image File history File links Feed-icon. ... A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to show its format. ... Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) is an Internet Standard that extends the format of e-mail to support: text in character sets other than US-ASCII; non-text attachments; multi-part message bodies; and header information in non-ASCII character sets. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... For Atom and RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ... HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ...


Web feeds allow software programs to check for updates published on a web site. To provide a web feed, a site owner may use specialized software (such as a content management system) that publishes a list (or "feed") of recent articles or content in a standardized, machine-readable format. The feed can then be downloaded by web sites that syndicate content from the feed, or by feed reader programs that allow Internet users to subscribe to feeds and view their content. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... A Content Management System (CMS) is a software system used for content management. ... An aggregator or news aggregator is client software that uses a web feed to retrieve syndicated web content such as weblogs, podcasts, vlogs, and mainstream mass media websites, or in the case of a search aggregator, a customized set of search results. ...


A feed contains entries, which may be headlines, full-text articles, excerpts, summaries, and/or links to content on a web site, along with various metadata. Metadata (Greek meta after and Latin data information) are data that describe other data. ...


The development of Atom was motivated by the existence of many incompatible versions of the RSS syndication format, all of which had shortcomings, and the poor interoperability [1] of XML-RPC-based publishing protocols. The Atom syndication format was published as an IETF "proposed standard" in RFC 4287. The Atom Publishing Protocol is still in draft form. For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ... XML-RPC is a remote procedure call protocol encoded in XML. It is a very simple protocol, defining only a handful of data types and commands, and the entire description can be printed on two pages of paper. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ...

Contents

Usage

Web feeds are used by the weblog community to share the latest entries' headlines or their full text, and even attached multimedia files. (See podcasting, vodcasting, broadcasting, screencasting, Vloging, and MP3 blogs.) These providers allow other websites to incorporate the weblog's "syndicated" headline or headline-and-short-summary feeds under various usage agreements. Atom and other web syndication formats are now used for many purposes, including journalism, marketing, bug-reports, or any other activity involving periodic updates or publications. Atom also provides a standardized way to export an entire blog, or parts of it, for backup or for importing into other blogging systems. A weblog (now more commonly known as a blog) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). ... Podcasting is the method of distributing multimedia files, such as audio or video programs, over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. ... Vodcast (a portmanteau of video podcast or video on demand-cast), VODcast or video podcast is an emerging term used for the online delivery of video on demand video clip content via Atom or RSS enclosures. ... Broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video signals which transmit programs to an audience. ... A screencast is a digital recording of computer screen output, often containing audio narration. ... Videoblog, a portmanteau combining video, web, and log, (usually shortened to vlog) is a blog that includes video clips. ... An MP3 blog is a type of weblog in which the creator makes music files, normally in the MP3 format, available for download. ...


A program known as a feed reader or aggregator can check webpages on behalf of a user and display any updated articles that it finds. It is common to find web feeds on major Web sites, as well as many smaller ones. Some websites let people choose between RSS or Atom formatted web feeds; others offer only RSS or only Atom. In particular, many blog and wiki sites offer their web feeds in the Atom format. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Client-side readers and aggregators may be designed as standalone programs or as extensions to existing programs like web browsers. Browsers are moving toward integrated feed reader functions, such as Safari RSS, Web Browser for S60, Opera, Firefox and Internet Explorer. Such programs are available for various operating systems. Client/Server is a network application architecture which separates the client (usually the graphical user interface) from the server. ... An example of a web browser (Internet Explorer), displaying the English Wikipedia main page. ... Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Computer, Inc. ... In November 2005 Nokia launched [1] the Web Browser for S60, based on the WebCore and JavaScriptCore components of Apple Computer’s Safari WebKit, an open source software full Web rendering engine that Apple uses in its Safari Web browser. ... Opera is a cross-platform internet software suite consisting of a web browser, e-mail/news client, address book, newsfeed reader, IRC chat client, and download manager. ... Mozilla Firefox is a graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation and a large community of external contributors. ... Windows Internet Explorer (also called Microsoft Internet Explorer) is a series of proprietary graphical web browsers developed by Microsoft and included as part of the Microsoft Windows line of operating systems starting in 1995. ...


Web-based feed readers and news aggregators require no software installation and make the user's "feeds" available on any computer with Web access. Some aggregators syndicate (combine) web feeds into new feeds, e.g., taking all football related items from several sports feeds and providing a new football feed. There are also search engines for content published via web feeds, including Technorati and Blogdigger. Technorati is an Internet search engine for searching blogs, competing with Google, Yahoo and IceRocket. ...


On Web pages, web feeds (Atom or RSS) are typically linked with the word "Subscribe" or with the unofficial web feed logo ( ). Image File history File links Feed-icon. ...


Atom Compared to RSS 2.0

The main motivation for the development of Atom was dissatisfaction with RSS [2]. Among other things, there are multiple incompatible and widely adopted versions of RSS. The intention was to ease the difficulty of developing applications with web syndication feeds. For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ...


A brief description of the ways Atom 1.0 seeks to differentiate itself from RSS 2.0 follows [3], [4]:

  • RSS 2.0 may contain either plain text or escaped HTML as a payload, with no way to indicate which of the two is provided. Atom in contrast uses an explicitly labeled (i.e. typed) "entry" (payload) container. It allows for a wider variety of payload types including plain text, escaped HTML, XHTML, XML, Base64-encoded binary, and references to external content such as documents, video and audio streams, and so forth.
  • RSS 2.0 has a "description" element which can contain either a full entry or just a description. Atom has separate “summary” and “content” elements. Atom thus allows the inclusion of non-textual content that can be described by the summary.
  • Atom is defined within an XML namespace whereas RSS 2.0 is not.
  • Atom specifies use of the XML's built-in xml:base for relative URIs. RSS 2.0 does not have a means of differentiating between relative and non-relative URIs.
  • Atom uses XML's built-in xml:lang attribute as opposed to RSS 2.0's use of its own "language" element.
  • In Atom, it is mandatory that each entry have a globally unique ID, which is important for reliable updating of entries.
  • Atom 1.0 allows standalone Atom Entry documents whereas with RSS 2.0 only full feed documents are supported.
  • Atom specifies that dates be in the format described in RFC 3339 (which is a subset of ISO 8601). The date format in RSS 2.0 was underspecified and has led to many different formats being used.
  • Atom 1.0 has IANA-registered MIME-type. RSS 2.0 feeds are often sent as application/rss+xml, although it is not a registered MIME-type.
  • Atom 1.0 includes an XML schema. RSS 2.0 does not.
  • Atom is an open and evolvable standard developed through the IETF standardization process. RSS 2.0 is not standardized by any standards body. Furthermore according to its copyright it may not be modified.
  • Atom 1.0 elements can be used as extensions to other XML vocabularies, including RSS 2.0 as illustrated in a weblog post by Tim Bray entitled "Atomic RSS".
  • Atom 1.0 describes how feeds and entries may be digitally signed using the XML Digital Signature specification such that entries can be copied across multiple Feed Documents without breaking the signature.

Despite the emergence of Atom as an IETF Proposed Standard and the decision by major companies such as Google to embrace Atom, use of the older and more widely known RSS 1.0 and RSS 2.0 formats has continued. In cargo transport, the payload is the valuable contents of the vehicle. ... In cargo transport, the payload is the valuable contents of the vehicle. ... The Extensible HyperText Markup Language, or XHTML, is a markup language that has the same depth of expression as HTML, but with a syntax that conforms to XML syntax. ... Base 64 is a positional numeral system using a base of 64. ... An XML namespace is a W3C standard for providing uniquely named elements and attributes in an XML instance. ... A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), is a compact string of characters used to identify or name a resource. ... A Globally Unique Identifier or GUID (IPA pronunciation: or ) is a pseudo-random number used in software applications. ... ISO 8601, Data elements and interchange formats – Information interchange – Representation of dates and times is an international standard for date and time representations. ... The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, DNS root zone management, and other Internet protocol assignments. ... An XML schema is a description of a type of XML document, typically expressed in terms of constraints on the structure and content of documents of that type, above and beyond the basic syntax constraints imposed by XML itself. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... A weblog (now more commonly known as a blog) is a web-based publication consisting primarily of periodic articles (normally, but not always, in reverse chronological order). ... XML Signature (also called XMLDsig) is a W3C recommendation that defines an XML syntax for digital signatures. ... Google, Inc. ...

  • Many sites choose to publish their feeds in only a single format. For example CNN, the New York Times, and the BBC offer their web feeds only in RSS 2.0 format.
  • News articles about web syndication feeds have increasingly used the term "RSS" to refer generically to any of the several variants of the RSS format such as RSS 2.0 and RSS 1.0 as well as the Atom format. (For example, "There's a Popular New Code for Deals: RSS" (NYT January 29, 2006))
  • RSS 2.0 support for enclosures led directly to the development of podcasting. While many podcasting applications, such as iTunes, support the use of Atom 1.0, RSS 2.0 remains the preferred format [5].
  • Each of the various web syndication feed formats has attracted large groups of supporters who remain satisfied by the specification and capabilities of their respective formats.

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion (US$7. ... Podcasting is the method of distributing multimedia files, such as audio or video programs, over the Internet using syndication feeds, for playback on mobile devices and personal computers. ... The correct title of this article is . ...

Development History

Background

Before the creation of Atom the primary method of web content syndication was the RSS family of formats. For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ...


Members of the community who felt there were significant deficiencies with this family of formats were unable to make changes directly to RSS 2.0 because it was not an open standard. RSS 2.0 was copyrighted by Harvard University and in the official specification document it stated that it was purposely frozen: "no significant changes can be made and it is intended that future work be done under a different name". [6] Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ...


Initial Work

In June 2003, Sam Ruby set up a wiki to discuss what makes "a well-formed log entry". This initial posting acted as a rallying point. [7] People quickly started using the wiki to discuss a new syndication format to address the shortcomings of RSS. It also became clear that the new format could also form the basis of a more robust replacement for blog editing protocols such as Blogger API and LiveJournal XML-RPC Client/Server Protocol. June 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December Events June 1, 2003 The Group of Eight summit opens in Evian, France to tight security and tens of thousands of protestors. ... Sam Ruby is a prominent software developer who is also active in the open source and internet and web standardization world. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ... Blogger is a weblog publishing system owned by Google since 2003. ... LiveJournal logo LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a virtual community where Internet users can keep a blog, journal, or diary. ...


The project aimed to develop a web syndication format that was: [8]

  • "100% vendor neutral,"
  • "implemented by everybody,"
  • "freely extensible by anybody, and"
  • "cleanly and thoroughly specified."

In short order, a project road map was built. The effort quickly attracted more than 150 supporters including David Sifry of Technorati, Mena Trott of Six Apart, Brad Fitzpatrick of LiveJournal, Jason Shellen of Blogger, Jeremy Zawodny of Yahoo, Timothy Appnel of the O'Reilly Network, Glenn Otis Brown of Creative Commons and Lawrence Lessig. Other notables supporting Atom include Mark Pilgrim, Tim Bray, Aaron Swartz, Joi Ito, and Jack Park. [9] Also, Dave Winer, the key figure behind RSS 2.0, gave tentative support to the Atom endeavor (which at the time was called Echo.)[10] Dave Sifry is a software entrepreneur and blogosphere icon known most recently for founding Technorati, a leading blog search engine. ... Technorati is an Internet search engine for searching blogs, competing with Google, Yahoo and IceRocket. ... Ben Trott and Mena G. Trott (born September 1977) are the married co-founders of Six Apart, creators of Movable Type and TypePad. ... Six Apart Ltd. ... Brad Fitzpatrick. ... LiveJournal logo LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a virtual community where Internet users can keep a blog, journal, or diary. ... Blogger is a weblog publishing system owned by Google since 2003. ... Jeremy Zawodny Jeremy Zawodny is currently an employee of Yahoo! in the platform engineering group. ... Yahoo! Inc. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... Note: This article title may be easily confused with Lawrence Lessing. ... Mark Pilgrim is the author of Dive into Python, a guide to the Python programming language. ... Timothy William Bray (born 1955), commonly known as Tim Bray, co-invented XML and XML namespaces while an Invited Expert at the World Wide Web Consortium between 1996 and 1999. ... Aaron Swartz with Lawrence Lessig at a launch party for Creative Commons, 2001. ... Joi Ito at the Ars Electronica Joichi Ito (伊藤穰 Itō Jōichi, born June 19, 1966), more commonly known as Joi Ito, is a Japanese-born, American-educated, activist, entrepreneur, and venture capitalist. ... Dave Winer Dave Winer (b. ... For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ...


After this point, discussion became chaotic, due to the lack of a decision-making process. The project also lacked a name, tentatively using "Pie," "Echo," and "Necho" before settling on Atom. After releasing a project snapshot known as Atom 0.2 in early July 2003, discussion was shifted off the wiki.


Atom 0.3 and Adoption by Google

The discussion then moved to a newly set up mailing list. The next and final snapshot during this phase was Atom 0.3, released in December 2003. This version gained widespread adoption in syndication tools, and in particular it was added to several Google-related services, such as Blogger, Google News, and Gmail. Google's Data APIs (Beta) GData are based on Atom 1.0 and RSS 2.0. Google, Inc. ... Blogger is a weblog publishing system owned by Google since 2003. ... Google News is an automated news aggregator provided by Google Inc. ... Gmail, officially Google Mail in Germany and the United Kingdom, is a free Webmail and POP3 e-mail service provided by Google. ... GData provides a simple standard protocol for reading and writing data on the internet. ...


Atom 1.0 and IETF Standardization

In 2004, discussions began about moving the project to a standards body such as the World Wide Web Consortium or the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The group eventually chose the IETF and the Atompub working group was formally set up in June 2004, finally giving the project a charter and process. The Atompub working group is co-chaired by Tim Bray (the co-editor of the XML specification) and Paul Hoffman. Initial development was focused on the syndication format. shelby was here 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web (W3). ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) develops and promotes Internet standards, cooperating closely with the W3C and ISO/IEC standard bodies; and dealing in particular with standards of the TCP/IP and Internet protocol suite. ... 2004 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December See also: June 2004 in sports Deaths in June • 28 Anthony Buckeridge • 26 Naomi Shemer • 26 Yash Johar • 22 Bob Bemer • 22 Thomas Gold • 22 Francisco Ortiz Franco • 16 Thanom Kittikachorn • 10 Ray Charles • 5 Ronald Reagan... Timothy William Bray (born 1955), commonly known as Tim Bray, co-invented XML and XML namespaces while an Invited Expert at the World Wide Web Consortium between 1996 and 1999. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


The final draft of Atom 1.0 was published in July 2005 and was accepted by the IETF as a "proposed standard" in August of 2005. Work then continued on the further development of the publishing protocol and various extensions to the syndication format.


The Atom Syndication Format was issued as a proposed "internet official protocol standard" in IETF RFC 4287 in December 2005. The co-editors of it were Mark Nottingham and Robert Sayre.


Example of an Atom 1.0 Feed

An example of a document in the Atom Syndication Format:

 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <feed xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2005/Atom"> <title>Example Feed</title> <subtitle>A subtitle.</subtitle> <link href="http://example.org/"/> <updated>2003-12-13T18:30:02Z</updated> <author> <name>John Doe</name> <email>johndoe@example.com</email> </author> <id>urn:uuid:60a76c80-d399-11d9-b91C-0003939e0af6</id> <entry> <title>Atom-Powered Robots Run Amok</title> <link href="http://example.org/2003/12/13/atom03"/> <id>urn:uuid:1225c695-cfb8-4ebb-aaaa-80da344efa6a</id> <updated>2003-12-13T18:30:02Z</updated> <summary>Some text.</summary> </entry> </feed> 

See also

The name Atom applies to a pair of related standards. ... This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... Sam Ruby is a prominent software developer who is also active in the open source and internet and web standardization world. ... Timothy William Bray (born 1955), commonly known as Tim Bray, co-invented XML and XML namespaces while an Invited Expert at the World Wide Web Consortium between 1996 and 1999. ... Dave Winer Dave Winer (b. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... XML Shareable Playlist Format (XSPF), pronounced spiff, is an XML-based playlist format for digital media, sponsored by the Xiph. ... A typical web feed logo Web syndication is a form of syndication in which a section of a website is made available for other sites to use. ... A family tree of syndication formats, showing the closest predecessor and date of first major publication of each. ... The following is a list of content syndication markup languages. ... An orange square with waves indicates that an RSS feed is present on a web page. ...

External links

Podcasting
v  d  e

Types This article may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to enhance clarity. ... HTML, short for Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for the creation of web pages. ... An orange square with waves indicates that an RSS feed is present on a web page. ...

Audio Podcasts • AutocastingBlogcasting • Commercial Podcast Networks • Mobilecast • Video Podcasts Autocasting is an automated form of podcasting that allows bloggers and blog readers to generate audio versions of text blogs from RSS feeds. ... An orange square with waves was introduced by Mozilla Firefox to indicate that an RSS feed is present on a webpage. ... A free iPodder add-on to converts podcasts to the widely supported AMR-NB mobile phone audio format. ...

Related articles

AggregatorAtomHistory of PodcastingMP3Push TechnologyRSSSocial PodcastingUses of Podcasting An aggregator or news aggregator or feed reader is a client software that uses web feed to retrieve syndicated web content such as blogs, podcasts, vlogs, and mainstream mass media websites, or in the case of a search aggregator, a customized set of search results. ... This article is specifically dedicated to the history of podcasting and the medium as a whole. ... MPEG-1 Audio Layer 3, more commonly referred to as MP3, is a popular digital audio encoding format. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Push media. ... For RSS feeds from Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Syndication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into podcasting. ... Podcasting can be used in a number of different ways, including: A way for people and organizations to avoid regulatory bodies, such as the British Ofcom, that would not allow a program to be broadcast in traditional media. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Atom (standard) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1823 words)
The development of Atom was motivated by the existence of many incompatible versions of the RSS syndication format, all of which had shortcomings, and the poor interoperability [1] of XML-RPC-based publishing protocols.
Atom standardizes autodiscovery in contrast to the many non-standard variants used with RSS 2.0.
Atom specifies that dates be in the format described in RFC 3339 (which is a subset of ISO 8601).
Tom’s Infinite Science Archive: Atom and Atomic Theory (4679 words)
When oxygen is taken as a standard and the oxygen atom is assigned a value of 16.0000 atomic mass units, helium is found to have an atomic weight of 4.003 atomic mass units, fluorine 19.000, and sodium 22.997.
This standard was used by chemists even after the rare isotopes of oxygen (oxygen-17 and oxygen-18) were discovered in 1929, because the small amounts of these isotopes in natural oxygen are relatively, although not absolutely, in constant proportion to the abundant isotope, oxygen-16.
That the atom is not a solid bit of matter, incapable of further subdivision, became evident with the discovery of radioactivity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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