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Encyclopedia > Atman (Hinduism)

The Atman or Atma (IAST: Ātmā, sanskrit: आत्म‍ ) is a philosophical term used within Hinduism and Vedanta to identify the soul. It is one's true self (hence generally translated into English as 'Self') beyond identification with the phenomenal reality of worldly existence. IAST, or International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is the academic standard for writing the Sanskrit language with the Latin alphabet and very similar to National Library at Calcutta romanization standard being used with many Indic scripts. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Hinduism (known as in modern Indian languages[1]) is a religious tradition[2] that originated in the Indian subcontinent. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Schools of thought

Some schools such as Advaita see the soul within each living entity as being fully identical with Brahman - the all-pervading soul of the universe, whereas other schools such as Dvaita differentiate between the individual atma in living beings, and the Supreme atma (Paramatma) as being at least partially separate beings.[1] Thus atman can be used to describe an individual soul or the impersonal 'supreme' depending on the speaker's philosophical point of view.[2] Advaita Vedanta is probably the best known of all Vedanta schools of Hinduism, the others being Dvaita and Vishishtadvaita. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... In Hindu theology, Paramatman is Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul. ...


In Advaita the Atman is the universal life-principle, the animator of all organisms, and the world-soul. This view is of a sort of panentheism (not pantheism) and thus is sometimes not equated with the single creator God of monotheism. Dvaita Vedanta calls the all-pervading aspect of Brahman Paramatman quantitatively different from individual Atman. “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... Panentheism (from Greek (pân) all; (en) in; and (Theós) god; all-in-God) is the theological position that God is immanent within the Universe, but also transcends it. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... God is the divine being that created the omniverse. ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For the Celtic Frost album, see Monotheist (album) In theology, monotheism (from Greek one and god) is the belief in the existence of one deity or God, or in the oneness of God. ... Dvaita (Devanagari:द्बैत, Kannada:ದ್ವೈತ) (also known as Tattvavada and Bheda-vada), a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu philosophy) founded by Madhvacharya, stresses a strict distinction between God (Vishnu) and the individual living beings (jivas). ... In Hindu theology, Paramatman is the Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul or Spirit (also known as Supersoul or Oversoul) in the Vedanta and Yoga philosophies of India. ...


Identification of individual living beings/souls, or jiva-atmas, with the 'One Atman' is the monistic Advaita Vedanta position, which is critiqued by dualistic/theistic Dvaita Vedanta. Dvaita Vedanta claims reality for both a God functioning as the ultimate metaphorical "soul" of the universe, and for actual individual "souls" as such. The 'dvaita' (or dualist) schools, therefore, in contrast to Advaita, advocate an exclusive monotheistic position wherein Brahman is made synonymous with Vishnu. A compromise is taught by schools like Vishishtadvaita Vedanta. Achintya Bheda Abheda school harmonizes both views by teaching their quantitative difference and qualitative sameness. Advaita Vedanta (IAST ; Sanskrit ; IPA ) is a sub-school of the Vedānta (literally, end or the goal of the Vedas, Sanskrit) school of Hindu philosophy. ... Dvaita, a school of Vedanta (the most widespread Hindu theology), founded by Shri Madhvacharya, stresses strict distinction between God (expressed as Vishnu) and souls. ... This page deals with the Hindu concept of The Supreme Reality. ... Vishnu (IAST , Devanagari ), (honorific: Sri Vishnu) also known as Narayana is the Supreme Being or Ultimate Reality for Vaishnavas and a manifestation of Brahman in the Advaita or Smarta traditions. ... The book, All about Hinduism by Swami Sivananda discusses aspects of Vishisthadvaita, theological school founded by Ramanuja. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ...


In some instances both Advaita and Dvaita schools may accommodate the others's belief as a lower form of worship or practice towards the same ultimate goal. [3]


Miscellaneous

Adherents to Jainism also use the phrase the atman to refer to 'the self'. Often atma is mistaken as being interchangeable with the word jiva with the difference being somewhat subtle. Whereas atman refers to the self, jiva refers to the living being, the exact comprehension of which varies throughout the philosophical schools. Jain and Jaina redirect here. ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ...


See also

Atman is a Sanskrit word, normally translated as soul or self (also ego). ... In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva is the immortal essence of a living being, subject to maya. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Achintya-Bheda-Abheda is the philosophy of inconceivable one-ness and difference, in relation to the individual soul (jiva) and God (Krishna) within the Gaudiya Vaishnava tradition. ... In Buddhist philosophy, anatta (Pāli) or anātman (Sanskrit) refers to non-self or absence of separate self[1]. One scholar describes it as ...meaning non-selfhood, the absence of limiting self-identity in people and things. ... Ramanuja Tamil: ,  [?] (traditionally 1017–1137) was a theologian, philosopher, and scriptural exegete. ... The Tree of Jivan and Atman appears in the Vedic mythology predating Hinduism, as a metaphysical metaphor concerning the soul. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Bhagavata Purana 3.28.41
  2. ^ Bhagavata Purana 7.7.19-20 ""Atma" refers to the Supreme Lord or the living entities. Both of them are spiritual."
  3. ^ Bhagavad Gita 12.3-4 "But those who fully worship the unmanifested, that which lies beyond the perception of the senses, the all-pervading, inconceivable, unchanging, fixed and immovable -- the impersonal conception of the Absolute Truth -- by controlling the various senses and being equally disposed to everyone, such persons, engaged in the welfare of all, at last achieve Me."

  Results from FactBites:
 
Hinduism - MSN Encarta (1221 words)
According to Hinduism, however, this current life is merely one link in a chain of lives that extends far into the past and projects far into the future.
Hinduism takes a comprehensive view of our human condition and has classified all the things we seek in the world and beyond into four broad categories: kāma, artha, dharma, and moksha.
Thus, Hindus consider that birth as a human being is a unique and valuable opportunity for seeking moksha, an opportunity that should not be wasted.
Atman (Hinduism) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (375 words)
According to Advaita Vedanta, a philosophical branch of Hinduism, ātman is the all-pervading soul of the universe.
Synonymous with Brahman, Atman is the universal life-principle, the animator of all organisms, and the world-soul.
Identification of individual souls, or jiva-atmas, with the 'One Atman' is the monistic Advaita Vedanta position, which is critiqued by dualistic/theistic Dvaita Vedanta (which claims reality for both a God functioning as the ultimate metaphorical "soul" of the universe, and for actual individual "souls" as such) and compromise schools like Vishishtadvaita Vedanta.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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