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Encyclopedia > Atlas Shrugged
Atlas Shrugged
Author Ayn Rand
Cover artist Nick Gaetano
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Philosophical novel
Publisher Random House
Publication date 10 October 1957
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback)
Pages 1168 (depending on edition)
ISBN ISBN 0-394-41576-0 (hardback edition)

Atlas Shrugged is a novel by Ayn Rand, first published in 1957 in the United States. It was Rand's last work of fiction before concentrating her writings exclusively on philosophy, politics and cultural criticism. At over one thousand pages in length, it was considered by her to be her magnum opus.[1] The book explores a number of philosophical themes that Rand would subsequently develop into the philosophy of Objectivism. Atlas Shrugged is a film in active development by Baldwin Entertainment Group and Lions Gate Entertainment. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (400x681, 75 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] known for creating a philosophy she named Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the... Nick Gaetano is a prolific illustrator known for his distinctive art deco style. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Philosophical novels are works of fiction in which a significant proportion of the novel is devoted to a discussion of the sort of questions normally addressed in discursive philosophy. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Hardcover books A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth, heavy paper, or sometimes leather). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... ISBN redirects here. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher,[1] known for creating a philosophy she named Objectivism and for writing the novels We the Living, The Fountainhead, Atlas Shrugged and the... Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera), from the Latin meaning great work,[1] refers to the best, most popular, or most renowned achievement of an author, artist, or composer, and most commonly one who has contributed a very large amount of material. ... This article is about the philosophy of Ayn Rand. ...

Contents

Philosophy and writing

The theme of Atlas Shrugged is the role of the mind in man's existence and, consequently, presentation of the morality of rational self-interest.[2]


The main conflict of the book occurs as the "individuals of the mind" go on strike, refusing to contribute their inventions, art, business leadership, scientific research, or new ideas of any kind to the rest of the world. Society, they believe, hampers them by interfering with their work and underpays them by confiscating the profits and dignity they have rightfully earned. The peaceful cohesiveness of the world requires those individuals whose productive work comes from mental effort. But feeling they have no alternative, they eventually start disappearing from the communities of "looters" and "moochers" who bleed them dry. The strikers believe that they are crucial to a society that exploits them, and the near-total collapse of civilization triggered by their strike shows them to be correct.


Like the Greek Titan Atlas, individuals rationally and circumspectly seeking their own long-term happiness believe that they hold the world on their shoulders. The novel's title is an allusion to the Titan, discussing what might happen if those supporting the world suddenly decided to stop doing so. In the novel, the allusion comes during a conversation between two protagonists, Francisco d'Anconia and Hank Rearden, near the end of part two, chapter three, where Francisco tells Rearden that if he could suggest to Atlas that he do one thing, it would be to shrug. This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology, Atlas was one of the primordial Titans. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...


In the world of Atlas Shrugged, society stagnated when independent productive achievers began to be socially demonized and even punished for their accomplishments, even though society had been far more healthy and prosperous by allowing, encouraging and rewarding self-reliance and individual achievement. Independence and personal happiness flourished to the extent that people were free, and achievement was rewarded to the extent that individual ownership of private property was strictly respected. The hero, John Galt, lives a life of laissez-faire capitalism as the only way to live consistent with his beliefs. This page deals with property as ownership rights. ... John Galt is one of the main characters in Ayn Rands novel Atlas Shrugged. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ...


Atlas Shrugged is a political book. It portrays fascism, socialism and communism – any form of state intervention in society – as systemically and fatally flawed. However, Rand claimed that it is not a fundamentally political book, but that the politics portrayed in the novel are a result of her attempt to display her image of the ideal person and the individual mind's position and value in society.[3] Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Socialism is a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community for the purposes of increasing social and economic equality and cooperation. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Rand argues that independence and individual achievement enable society to survive and thrive, and should be embraced. But this requires a "rational" moral code. She argues that, over time, coerced self-sacrifice causes any society to self-destruct. Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ...


She is similarly dismissive of faith beyond empirical reason, in a god or higher being, or anything else as an authority over one's own mind. The book positions itself against religion specifically, often directly within the characters' dialogue. For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ...


Setting

Galt's Gulch was inspired by Ouray, Colorado. It was here that Rand found inspiration to complete the novel, though she greatly expanded the small valley to include her many ideas for the story. The City of Ouray (pronounced IPA: ) is a Statutory City that is the county seat of Ouray County, Colorado, USA. The population was 813 at U.S. Census 2000. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


Exactly when Atlas Shrugged is meant to take place is kept deliberately vague. In section 152, the population of New York City is given as 7 million. The historical New York City reached 7 million people in the 1930s, which might place the novel sometime after that. There are many early 20th century technologies available, but the political situation is clearly different from actual history. One interpretation is that the novel takes place many years in the future, implying that since the world lapsed into its socialistic morass, a global stagnation has occurred in technological growth, population growth, and indeed growth of any kind; the wars, economic depressions, and other events of the 20th century would be a distant memory to all but scholars and academicians. This would be in line with Rand's ideas and commentary on other novels depicting Utopian and dystopian societies. Furthermore, this is also in line with an excerpt from a 1964 interview with Playboy magazine in which Rand states "What we have today is not a capitalist society, but a mixed economy – that is, a mixture of freedom and controls, which, by the presently dominant trend, is moving toward dictatorship. The action in Atlas Shrugged takes place at a time when society has reached the stage of dictatorship. When and if this happens, that will be the time to go on strike, but not until then," thus implying that her novel takes place at some point in the future. The concept of societal stagnation in the wake of collectivist systems is central to the plot of another of Rand's works, Anthem. A scholar is either a student or someone who has achieved a mastery of some academic discipline, perhaps receiving financial support through a scholarship. ... The title Academician denotes a Full Member of an art, literary, or scientific academy. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... A mixed economy is an economy that has a mix of economic systems. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dictatorship is an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by a dictator. ... Anthem is a dystopian, science-fiction novella by philosopher Ayn Rand, first published in 1938. ...


In Atlas Shrugged, all countries outside the US have become, or become during the novel, "People's States". There are many examples of early 20th century technology in Atlas Shrugged, but no post-war advances such as nuclear weapons, helicopters, or computers. Jet planes are mentioned briefly as being a relatively new technology. Television is a novelty that has yet to assume any cultural significance, while radio broadcasts are prominent (in fact, television only makes its first appearance later on in the book, reflecting the fact that television appeared in the fifties, i.e., during the ten years it took to write the book). Although Rand does not use many of the technological innovations available while she was writing in the book, she introduces some advanced, fictional inventions (e.g., sonic-based weapons of mass destruction, torture devices, as well as power plants and a highly advanced strong steel alloy). Ayn Rands novel Atlas Shrugged mentions a variety of technological products and devices. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... This article is about the machine. ... Jet aircraft are aircraft with jet engines. ... Sonic and ultrasonic weapons (USW) are weapons of various types that use sound to injure, incapacitate, or kill an opponent. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ...


Most of the action in Atlas Shrugged occurs in the United States. However, there are important events around the world, such as in the People's States of Mexico, Chile, and Argentina, and piracy at sea. This article is about maritime piracy. ...


Plot

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The novel's plot is split into three parts. The first two parts, and to some extent the last, follow Dagny Taggart, a no-nonsense railroad executive, and her attempt to keep the company alive despite repeated encroachments by a society moving toward collectivism, altruism, and statism. All throughout the novel people repeat a platitude Dagny greatly resents: "Who is John Galt?" It is a reflection of their helplessness, as the saying means "Don't ask important questions, because we don't have answers." Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Statism (or Etatism) is a term that is used to describe: Specific instances of state intervention in personal, social or economic matters. ...


The leaders and innovators of industry in the world seem to be disappearing, and the apparent decline of civilization is making it more and more difficult for her to sustain her life-long aspirations of running the trans-continental railroad, which has been in her family for several generations. She deals with other characters who often personify archetypes of what Rand considers the various schools of philosophy for living and working in the world (though they are in most cases often unconscious of it).


Some of these are: Hank Rearden, a self-made businessman of great integrity whose career is hindered by his feelings of obligation toward his wife. Francisco d'Anconia, Dagny's childhood friend, first love, and king of the copper industry, appears to have become a worthless playboy who is purposely destroying his business. Dagny's brother, president of the railroad, who seems peripherally aware of the troubles facing the company and the country in general, but who almost always makes the most short term and ultimately self-destructive choice.


As the novel progresses, the myths about the real John Galt, as well as Francisco d'Anconia's actions, increasingly become a reflection of the state of the culture and seem to make more and more sense. Hank and Dagny begin to experience the futility of their attempts to survive in a society that hates them and those like them for their greatness.


Dagny and Hank find the remnants of a motor that turns atmospheric static electricity into kinetic energy, an astounding feat; they also find evidence that the minds (the "Atlases") of the world are disappearing because of one particular "destroyer" taking them away. Dagny and Hank deal with the irrationalities and apparent contradictions of their atmosphere, and search for the creator of the motor as well as "the destroyer" who is draining the world of its prime movers, in an effort to secure their ability to live rational lives. Cloud to ground Lightning in the global atmospheric electrical circuit. ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ...


The question "Who is John Galt?" is also answered towards the closing of the novel — John Galt is a man disgusted that non-productive members of society use laws and guilt to leech from the value created by productive members of society, and furthermore even exalt the qualities of the leeches over the workers and inventors. He made a pledge that he would never live his life for the sake of another man, nor ask another man to live for him, and founded an enclave, separate from the rest of the country, where he and other productive members of society have fled.

See also: Characters in Atlas Shrugged

Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...

Social concepts

Looters and moochers

Rand's heroes must continually fight against the "looters" and "moochers" of the society surrounding them.


The looters are those who confiscate others' earnings "at the point of a gun" (figuratively speaking) —often because they are government officials, and thus their demands are backed by the threat of force. Some looters are following the policies of the government, such as the officials who confiscate one state's seed grain to feed the starving citizens of another state; others are exploiting those policies, such as the railroad regulator who illegally sells the railroad's supplies on the side. The common factor is that both use force to take property from the people who produced or earned it, and both are ultimately destructive. In agriculture and gardening, seed saving is the practice of saving seeds from open-pollinated vegetables and flowers for use from year to year. ...


The moochers are those who demand others' earnings because they claim to be needy and unable to earn themselves. Even as they beg for their help, however, they curse the people who make that help possible, because they hate the talented for having the talent they don't possess. Although the moochers seem benign at first glance, they are portrayed as more destructive than the looters—they destroy the productive through guilt and often motivate the legal looting performed by governments.


Looting and mooching are seen at all levels of the world Atlas Shrugged portrays, from the looting officials Dagny Taggart must work around and the mooching brother Hank Rearden struggles with, to the looting of whole industries by companies like Associated Steel and the mooching demands for foreign aid by the starving countries of Europe. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Development aid. ...


Sanction of the victim

The Sanction of the victim is defined as "the willingness of the good to suffer at the hands of the evil, to accept the role of sacrificial victim for the 'sin' of creating values." For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


The entire story of Atlas Shrugged can be seen as an answer to the question, what would happen if this sanction were revoked? When Atlas shrugs, relieving himself of the burden of carrying the world, he is revoking his sanction.


The concept may be original in the thinking of Ayn Rand and is foundational to her moral theory. She holds that evil is a parasite on the good and can only exist if the good tolerates it. To quote from Galt's Speech: "Evil is impotent and has no power but that which we let it extort from us,"[citation needed] and, "I saw that evil was impotent...and the only weapon of its triumph was the willingness of the good to serve it."[citation needed] Morality requires that we do not sanction our own victimhood, Rand claims. In adhering to this concept, Rand assigns virtue to the trait of rational selfishness. However, Rand contends that moral selfishness does not mean a license to do whatever one pleases, guided by whims. It means the exacting discipline of defining and pursuing one's rational self-interest. A code of rational self-interest rejects every form of human sacrifice, whether of oneself to others or of others to oneself. Rational selfishness, a term generally related to Ayn Rands philosophy of Objectivism, means to seek to make yourself happy before others. ...


Throughout Atlas Shrugged, numerous characters admit that there is something wrong with the world but they cannot put their finger on what it is. The concept they cannot grasp is the sanction of the victim. The first person to grasp the concept is John Galt, who vows to stop the motor of the world by getting the creators of the world to withhold their sanction. John Galt is one of the main characters in Ayn Rands novel Atlas Shrugged. ...


We first glimpse the concept in section 121 when Hank Rearden feels he is duty-bound to support his family, despite their hostility towards him. Atlas Shrugged was Ayn Rands third and final novel. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...


In section 146 the principle is stated explicitly by Dan Conway: "I suppose somebody's got to be sacrificed. If it turned out to be me, I have no right to complain."[citation needed] Atlas Shrugged was Ayn Rands third and final novel. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...


Social classes

Atlas Shrugged endorses the belief that a society's best hope rests on its adopting a system of pure laissez-faire. John Galt says,"The political system we will build is contained in a single moral premise: no man may obtain any values from others by resorting to physical force," and claims, "no rights can exist without the right to translate one’s rights into reality—to think, to work and to keep the results—which means: the right of property." The characters are assessed negatively or positively based their productive effort, respect for rights, intellectual honesty, and moral integrity, and this does not necessarily reflect their class backgrounds. Different social classes are represented among both the heroes and the villains of Atlas Shrugged. Among the heroes, John Galt and Hank Rearden are from working class backgrounds, while Dagny Taggart and Francisco d'Anconia are from wealthy families. Among the villains, Fred Kinnan is from a working class background, while James Taggart and Betty Pope are from wealthy families. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... John Galt is one of the main characters in Ayn Rands novel Atlas Shrugged. ...


Compare: Aristocracy Aristocrat redirects here. ...


Theory of sex

In rejecting the traditional altruistic moral code, Rand also rejects the sexual code that, in her view, is the logical implication of altruism. For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ... In logical calculus of mathematics, the logical conditional (also known as the material implication, sometimes material conditional) is a binary logical operator connecting two statements, if p then q where p is a hypothesis (or antecedent) and q is a conclusion (or consequent). ...


Rand introduces a theory of sex in Atlas Shrugged that is based in her broader ethical and psychological theories. Far from being a debasing animal instinct, sex to Rand is the highest celebration of human values, a physical response to intellectual and spiritual values that gives concrete expression to what could otherwise only be experienced in the abstract. A pair of lions copulating in the Maasai Mara, Kenya. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... Value redirects here. ...


In Atlas Shrugged, characters are sexually attracted to those who embody or seem to embody their values, be they higher or lower values by Rand's standards. Characters who lack clear purpose find sex devoid of meaning. This is illustrated in the contrasting relationships of Hank Rearden with Lillian Rearden and Dagny Taggart, by the relationships of James Taggart with Cherryl Brooks and later with Lillian Rearden, and finally in the relationship between Dagny and John Galt. Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... John Galt is one of the main characters in Ayn Rands novel Atlas Shrugged. ...


Illustrations of this theory are found in:

  • Section 152 – recounts Dagny's relationship with Francisco d'Anconia.
  • Section 161 – recounts Hank and Lillian Rearden's courtship, and Lillian's attitude towards sex.
  • Section 231 – recounts the value for value basis of Dagny's seemingly unconditional love for Rearden

Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...

Companies

The companies in Atlas Shrugged are generally divided into two groups: those that are operated by sympathetic characters are given the name of the owner, while companies operated by "evil" or incompetent characters are given generic names.


For example, Hank Rearden's companies are all named after him; Wyatt Oil after Ellis Wyatt; and Taggart Transcontinental and d'Anconia Copper are named after their founders (and, being family-held, their present owners). Nielsen Motors, Hammond Cars and Ayers Music Publishing are also presented as competent. Those who use their own names to name their companies become Strikers, with the minor exception of Mr. Ayers of the Ayers Music Publishing Company. Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...


On the other hand, Orren Boyle named his government-dependent, influence-peddling company Associated Steel. Another company in the novel is the Amalgamated Switch and Signal Company, Inc. The exceptions here are the Phoenix Durango Railroad, which was run by a competent entrepreneur who becomes a Striker in his own way without joining the actual Strikers in Galt's Gulch, and the Twentieth Century Motor Company, originally run by Jed Starnes. The mismanagement of the Twentieth Century in the hands of Starnes' heirs first seeds the thoughts of a strike in John Galt's mind. Galts Gulch is a fictional place from Ayn Rands novel Atlas Shrugged. ...


Comparison with real-life railways

James Jerome Hill was known as the Empire Builder because of his company the Great Northern Railway. This article needs cleanup. ... Several Great Northern Railways have existed: Great Northern Railway of Australia. ...


It is commonly noted that in actuality there had never been a US railway company as the one described in the book, maintaining tracks of its own all the way from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Rather, in the United States, the term transcontinental railroad usually refers to a line over the Rocky Mountains between the Midwest and Pacific Ocean, and such companies tend to have the area of the Mississippi River as a transfer point with other companies active in the East. The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... A Transcontinental Railroad is a railway that crosses a continent typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Red shows states east of the Mississippi River, pink shows states not fully eastern or western The U.S. Eastern states are the states east of the Mississippi River. ...


Taggart Transcontinental in the later part of the book is driven to act in this manner and rely on other companies for the western part of its traffic; that is, however, an emergency measure which is part of the gradual collapse of the company (and the entire world) and Dagny is far from pleased with the need to resort to it.


By 1957, the date of the book's publication, railways were facing a decline that had begun in the 1920s. Passengers were increasingly switching to road transport. Air transport was also growing quickly.[citation needed] (For details, see Amtrak; Passenger rail service before Amtrak.) Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ... The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ...


Fictional technology

Because the book centers on industrial capitalism, Ayn Rand mentions many technologies throughout the book. In addition to normal technologies, she introduces several fictional inventions, including refractor rays (Gulch mirage), Rearden Metal, a sonic death ray ("Project X"), motors powered by static electricity, and a sophisticated electrical torture device. The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s through the 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Nikola Tesla, Edwin R. Scott, Harry Grindell Matthews, Graichen [1], as well as others. ... Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


Rearden metal

Rearden metal is a fictitious metal alloy invented by Hank Rearden. It is lighter than traditional steel but stronger, and is to steel what steel was to iron. It is described as greenish-blue. Among its ingredients are iron and copper, two metals seldom found together in real-world alloys. Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ...


Initially, no one is willing to use Rearden metal because no one wants to stick his neck out and be the first to try it. Dagny Taggart places an order for Rearden metal when she needs rails to rebuild the dying Rio Norte Line. Once the metal is proven, the "looters" seek both to place it on the market for everyone, and also to deny it to the industrialists who would make the most profitable use of it. Later, the formula for the metal itself is extorted from Rearden and dubbed "Miracle Metal." Characters in Ayn Rands novel, Atlas Shrugged. ...


Project X

Project X, a.k.a. Project Xylophone, is an invention of the scientists at the State Science Institute, requiring tons of Rearden metal. It is a sonic weapon, capable of destroying everything in a 300-mile radius. The scientists claim that the project will be used to preserve peace and quash rebellion. The mechanism is destroyed towards the end of the book, and emits a sonic pulse that destroys everything in the surrounding area, including Cuffy Meigs and Dr. Stadler, as well as the Taggart Bridge. Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ...


Galt's motor

John Galt invented a new type of electrical apparatus described in the book as a motor. This motor is revolutionary because it uses static electricity from the atmosphere as its main source of energy, requiring only a small amount of conventional fuel to run the conversion mechanism. This approximates a perpetual motion machine of the second kind, a machine which spontaneously converts thermal energy into mechanical work (versus conventional heat engines, which convert thermal energy into mechanical work by transferring thermal energy from one reservoir to another). The theory is that the power is drawn from the environment (possibly approximating the Casimir effect, though that was extremely obscure and scientifically controversial at the time Atlas Shrugged was written). For other kinds of motors, see motor. ... This article or section should include material from Parallel Path See also Perpetuum mobile as a musical term Perpetual motion machines (the Latin term perpetuum mobile is not uncommon) are a class of hypothetical machines which would produce useful energy in a way science cannot explain (yet). ... A heat engine is a physical or theoretical device that converts thermal energy to mechanical output. ... In physics, the Casimir effect is a physical force exerted between separate objects, which is due to neither charge, gravity, nor the exchange of particles, but instead is due to resonance of all-pervasive energy fields in the intervening space between the objects. ...


The book gives the source as static electricity from the air, and suggests that a new physics was necessary to tap it. Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. ...


Dagny discovers a discarded prototype of the motor, and it is superficially described in section Part 1, Chapter 9. In Part 3, Chapter 1, Dagny learns that Galt is using a working version of the motor to generate electricity for Galt's Gulch. Atlas Shrugged was Ayn Rands third and final novel. ...


Project F

A torture device invented by Dr. Floyd Ferris is introduced towards the end where John Galt is tortured. It consists of having the victim tied to a mattress with electrodes attached to the wrists, the ankles and the hips. Electricity is passed in various combinations (wrist-to-wrist, ankle-to-hip) to inflict pain on the victim. The electricity amount being passed through the victim is so calculated to cause maximum pain without inflicting any permanent physical damage to the victim. It is located in the Science Institute. For other uses, see Electrode (disambiguation). ...


Advanced technology

Rand also mentioned technologies that were unavailable at the time, but which have since been invented. Examples are voice activated door locks (Gulch power station), palm-activated door locks (Galt's NY lab), and shale-oil drilling. A voice command device is a device controlled by means of the human voice. ... This article is about fingerprint authentication. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ...


Galt's speech

John Galt's speech is the core of Atlas Shrugged. In it, Galt explains the philosophy of Objectivism. The speech encompasses metaphysical, epistemological, ethical, and political ideas. This article is about the philosophy of Ayn Rand. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ...


The speech is very long, spanning 56 pages in one paperback edition (the only interruption occurs after the first paragraph), and appears in the chapter "This is John Galt Speaking" in the third section of the book.[4]


Critical reception

Atlas Shrugged was largely a critical failure, despite being a popular success. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ...


It was reviewed shortly after its publication in 1957 by many major newspapers and magazines. The initial reviews were largely negative, criticizing both the book's literary qualities and its political vision.[5] Arguably, the bulk of critical discussion has focused on the latter. As Thomas Reed Whissen has said, “Rand's critics say that she cannot write, but one senses in such an indictment more of a political than a literary posture; for surely the enduring success of The Fountainhead — not to mention the enormously popular Atlas Shrugged — cannot be attributed to her philosophy alone. Her style may be somewhat overwrought and her characters cardboard, but she is a genius at plotting, and she knows how to tell a story.”[6]


In the conservative magazine the National Review, Whittaker Chambers wrote a critical review of the Atlas Shrugged, in which he argues against, among other things, the novel's implicit endorsement of atheism whereby "Randian man, like Marxian man is made the center of a godless world."[7] In response, the strictly Objectivist and laissez-faire-capitalism-endorsing website, Capitalism Magazine, argued in an opinion piece that Chambers' review was "an invective against the atheistic belief in the natural world (which he condemns as "materialism"); against certainty in epistemology (which he calls "arrogance"); against "black and white" judgment in morality (which he objects to as "inflexibly self-righteous"); against idealism in politics; and against stylization in literature (which he caricatures as "caricature")."[8] National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... Whittaker Chambers, 1948 Jay Vivian (David Whittaker) Chambers (April 1, 1901 – July 9, 1961) was an American writer, editor, Communist party member and spy for the Soviet Union who defected and became an outspoken opponent of communism. ... “Atheist” redirects here. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... Capitalism Magazine is an online magazine dedicated to the advocacy of unregulated capitalism, which is maintained by Marc Da Cunha. ... An Op-Ed is a piece of writing expressing an opinion. ...


Former Ayn Rand associate Nathaniel Branden argues that Atlas Shrugged "encourages emotional repression and self-disowning" and that it, along with Rand's other major Objectivist novel, The Fountainhead, contains contradictory messages. Though he notes that the book shows that Rand understood the human need for social interaction, Branden claims that "rarely you find the heroes and heroine talking to each other on a simple, human level without launching into philosophical sermons," which he believes is used to increase the reader's self-alienation. He further questions the psychological impact of the novel, stating that John Galt's claim that contempt and moral condemnation are appropriate responses to wrongdoing clashes with the recommendations of psychologists, who say that this kind of behavior only causes the wrongdoing to repeat itself.[9] Nathaniel Branden (b. ...


On the other hand, Howard Dickman of Reader's Digest wrote that the novel had "turned millions of readers on to the ideas of liberty" and said that the book had the important message of the readers' "profound right to be happy." This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


The libertarian Cato Institute held a joint conference with The Atlas Society, an Objectivist organization, to celebrate the fortieth anniversary of the publication of Atlas Shrugged.[10] See also Libertarianism and Libertarian Party Libertarian,is a term for person who has made a conscious and principled commitment, evidenced by a statement or Pledge, to forswear violating others rights and usually living in voluntary communities: thus in law no longer subject to government supervision. ... The Cato Institute is a libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. The Institutes stated mission is to broaden the parameters of public policy debate to allow consideration of the traditional American principles of limited government, individual liberty, free markets, and peace by striving to achieve greater involvement... The Atlas Society (formerly the Objectivist Center (TOC) and originally the Institute for Objectivist Studies or IOS) is a global online community linking those who admire the fiction of Ayn Rand, including Atlas Shrugged and The Fountainhead. It is not merely a literary fan club, but a part of the...


Conservative Associate Justice of the Supreme Court Clarence Thomas cites Atlas Shrugged as among his favorite novels,[11] as does neolibertarian Larry Elder.[12] The Justices of the United States Supreme Court, other than the Chief Justice, are termed Associate Justices. ... Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American jurist and has been an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States since 1991. ... Larry Elder Laurence Allen Larry Elder (born April 27, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) aka the Sage from South Central is an American libertarian-minded Republican (he has sometimes referred to his views as conservatarian) radio and former TV talk show host and author whose program The Larry Elder Show...


In an article titled "Celebrity Rand Fans" in the Objectivist magazine The New Individualist, Robert James Bidinotto traces the novel's growing influence among major Hollywood stars, sports champions, and public figures.[13]


Chip Mellor of the libertarian Institute for Justice writes that "whether they have adopted her philosophy wholeheartedly or found her writings of more transitory interest, countless individuals working to secure liberty have found inspiration in the works of Ayn Rand. With her unique ability to depict heroism, idealism, and romance behind the creativity of the individual, Rand inspires readers to come to the defense of free minds and free markets."[14] Founded in 1991 by Chip Mellor and Clint Bolick, the Institute for Justice is a libertarian public interest law firm in the United States. ...


In a three-month online poll[15][16] of reader selections of the hundred best novels of the twentieth century, administered by publisher Modern Library, Atlas Shrugged was voted number one, ahead of The Fountainhead, Battlefield Earth, and The Lord of the Rings, while the list chosen by the Modern Library panel of authors and scholars contains no works by Rand.[17] The Modern Library's lists, particularly the reader selections, however, have come under heavy scrutiny as so unscientific as to be highly dubious in their representation of actual opinion (see Modern Library). Because Battlefield Earth and two other books by science fiction writer and Scientology founder L. Ron Hubbard were in the top ten, Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Ray Jenkins compares Rand's popularity to that of Hubbard, calling her "a goddess of a great American cult."[18] He goes on to point out that her works were "ignored or deplored by the critics of the day." This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the film, see The Fountainhead (film). ... For the film of the same name, see Battlefield Earth (film). ... This article is about the novel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Doctrine Practices Concepts People Public outreach Organization Controversy Scientology is a body of beliefs and related practices created by American pulp fiction author L. Ron Hubbard in 1952 as an outgrowth of his earlier self-help system, Dianetics. ... Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (March 13, 1911 – January 24, 1986), better known as L. Ron Hubbard, was the creator of Dianetics, and founder of the Church of Scientology. ...


Literary critic Harold Bloom included her in a critical anthology he edited, American Women Fiction Writers, 1900-1960, Vol. Three, (Chelsea House, 1998). The C-SPAN television series American Writers listed Rand as one of twenty-two surveyed figures of American literature, though primarily mentioning The Fountainhead rather than Atlas Shrugged.[19] Harold Bloom (born July 11, 1930) is an American professor and prominent literary and cultural critic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Film adaptation

Main article: Atlas Shrugged (film)

Film rights to the novel Atlas Shrugged were purchased by the Baldwin Entertainment Group in 2003. Lions Gate Entertainment has picked up worldwide distribution rights and screenwriter Randall Wallace has created a 127-page screenplay from the novel.[20] Angelina Jolie has been confirmed to play the role of Dagny Taggart[21] and Brad Pitt is rumored to be cast as John Galt.[22] Both are fans of Rand's works.[13] According to IMDb, as of September 5, 2007, the Atlas Shrugged project is "Back in development." [23] Lionsgate has hired director Vadim Perelman to direct the film. [1] Atlas Shrugged is a film in active development by Baldwin Entertainment Group and Lions Gate Entertainment. ... Film rights, like dramatic rights, these belong to the author, who may sell or option them to someone in the film industry - a producer or director, for example (or sometimes a specialist broker of such properties) - who will then try to gather the other professionals and secure the financial backing... Lions Gate redirects here, for other meanings see Lions Gate (disambiguation)‎. Lions Gate Entertainment Corporation, (usually renderred as Lionsgate), (NYSE: LGF) is an American entertainment company which originated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. ... Randall Wallace is an American screenwriter, producer and director. ... Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight on June 4, 1975) is an American film actor, a former fashion model, and a Goodwill Ambassador for the UN Refugee Agency. ... William Bradley Brad Pitt (born December 18, 1963) is an American actor, film producer, and social activist. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Vadim Perelman is a Soviet-American film director. ...


In popular culture

  • In the Futurama episode "I Second That Emotion", the 'library' in the mutants' village is a lone bookshelf stocking literary items flushed down toilets from above. When Bender takes a look on it, he finds Atlas Shrugged and says "Nothing but crumpled porno and Ayn Rand."
  • In the South Park episode "Chicken Lover", Officer Barbrady reads Atlas Shrugged after overcoming his illiteracy. He later states to the town that he "read every last word of this piece of garbage" and because he did so "will never read anything ever again."
  • In the Marvel comic book X-Factor, the mysterious, precognitive teenage character Layla Miller is seen reading Atlas Shrugged, which makes the other characters slightly uneasy.
  • In an episode of Beverly Hills 90210, Kelly Taylor can be seen reading a hard-cover version of Atlas Shrugged, with the camera resting on the book for a lengthy period of time before moving off.
  • In Undeclared episode "Addicts", several of the main characters write a report on the novel. One of them declares it "not bad."
  • Fashion designer and visual artist Sean D'Anconia often slips in hidden references to Atlas Shrugged in his designs and avante-guard advertisements, appearing regularly in Flaunt and YRB Magazine.[24]
  • The story "The Rogue" by Science Fiction writer Poul Anderson seems to transfer many of the themes of Atlas Shrugged to a futuristic setting.
  • Another well-known Science Fiction writer, Robert A. Heinlein, pays Rand's book an explicit tribute in his The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress - like the above Anderson book, dealing with a rebellion of space colonists (on the Moon in this case). In one passage of the book the rebels describe their leader, the sentient computer "Mike", as "Our John Galt."
  • In the Dean Koontz novel Mr. Murder, two characters take on assumed names John and Ann Gault in order to hide from an evil secret government agency.
  • In the newspaper cartoon Zits, Jeremy's friend Pierce declares Atlas Shrugged to be his favorite novel because it is thick enough to use as a pillow in the school library.
  • In an episode of The Simpsons called "A Streetcar Named Marge", Maggie attends the Ayn Rand School for Tots. A poster on the wall reads "A is A," the title of Part Three of Atlas Shrugged.
  • The video game BioShock is influenced by the works of Ayn Rand and Atlas Shrugged in particular. A character's name Andrew Ryan is a play on Ayn Rand.
  • In the second episode of One Tree Hill, Lucas Scott is given a copy of Atlas Shrugged by fellow teammate Jake Jagielski.
  • The book Sewer, Gas and Electric by Matt Ruff is a science fiction book largely critical of Ayn Rand and many specific concepts in Atlas Shrugged.
  • Episode of Mad Men on AMC. The senior partner of the ad agency where the show is set tells his protege, Don Draper, that he is motivated by "rational self interest" and the two are alike in that regard. The boss points to the book "Atlas Shrugged" on his credenza and recommends it to Draper, then gives him a huge bonus, which leaves Draper, and possibly the viewer, somewhat puzzled.
  • In the film adaptation of Philip K Dick's "A Scanner Darkly", character Charles Freck can be seen reading the novel.
  • The Illuminatus! Trilogy by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson mentions Ayn Rand several times and refers a lot to Telemachus Sneezed, a spoof of the work by character Atlanta Hope.
  • In the October 31st, 2007, episode of The Colbert Report, Stephen suggested that instead of giving children free candy on Halloween, they should receive things such as bootstraps (to pull themselves up by), and a copy of Atlas Shrugged because "who would want a fun-size Snickers, when they could have the gift of rational self-interest as embodied by maverick railroad executive Dagny Taggart?"

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... This article is about the television series. ... I Second That Emotion is episode one in season two of Futurama. ... Look up bender in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the TV series. ... Chickenlover is episode 203 of Comedy Centrals animated series South Park. ... Officer Barbrady is a police officer in the animated series South Park. ... Marvel Comics, sometimes called by the nickname House of Ideas, is an American comic book company. ... X-Factor is a comic book series published by Marvel Comics. ... Precognition (from the Latin præ-, “prior to,” + cognitio, “a getting to know”) denotes a form of extra-sensory perception wherein a person is able to perceive information about places or events before they happen through paranormal means. ... Layla Rose Miller, also known as Butterfly, is a fictional character in the Marvel Comics universe. ... Beverly Hills 90210 was a popular primetime television soap opera that aired from October 1990 to May 2000 on the Fox Network in the United States and subsequently on various networks around the world. ... Kelly Taylor was, for the majority of the shows run, the lead female character on the series Beverly Hills 90210, and remains the most well known role portrayed by actress Jennie Garth. ... Undeclared is a U.S. television series that aired on FOX during the 2001–2002 TV season. ... List of Undeclared episodes Ron excitedly announces to his roommates that Theyre giving away money! and leads them to a kiosk outside the dorm where theyre holding registration for credit cards. ... Cover of an issue of Flaunt magazine Flaunt is a monthly American fashion magazine distributed by the Curtis Circulation Company. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Poul William Anderson (November 25, 1926–July 31, 2001) was an American science fiction author of the genres Golden Age. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... The Moon Is A Harsh Mistress cover The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress is a 1966 science fiction novel by Robert A. Heinlein about a lunar penal colonys revolt against rule from Earth. ... Dean Ray Koontz (born July 9, 1945 in Everett, Pennsylvania), also known under a number of pseudonyms, including Leigh Nichols, is an American writer. ... Mr. ... Zits is a comic strip about a teenager named Jeremy Duncan and his relationship with family and friends. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... A Streetcar Named Marge is the second episode of The Simpsons fourth season. ... For the singer-songwriter, see Maggie Simpson (musician). ... BioShock is a first-person shooter[10] video game by 2K Boston/2K Australia (previously Irrational Games),[11] designed by Ken Levine. ... This article is about the American television series. ... Lucas Eugene Scott is a fictional character on the CW television series One Tree Hill, played by Chad Michael Murray. ... Jake Jagielski is a fictional character, played by Bryan Greenberg on The CWs (formerly The WBs) One Tree Hill. ... Matt Ruff is an author who graduated from Cornell University. ... Mad Men is an American television drama series set and produced in New York City. ... “Illuminatus” redirects here. ... Robert Joseph Shea (1933 - March 10, 1994) was the co-author (with Robert Anton Wilson) of The Illuminatus! Trilogy. ... Robert Anton Wilson Robert Anton Wilson or RAW (January 18, 1932 – January 11, 2007) was a prolific American novelist, essayist, philosopher, psychologist, futurologist, anarchist, and conspiracy theory researcher. ... The Colbert Report (IPA ) is an American satirical television program that airs from 11:30 p. ...

See also

James Clavell, born Charles Edmund Dumaresq Clavell (10 October 1924 – 7 September 1994) was a British novelist, screenwriter, director and World War II hero and POW. Clavell is best known for his epic Asian Saga series of novels and their televised adaptations, along with such films as The Great Escape... Laissez-faire capitalism is, roughly stated, the doctrine that the free market functions to the greatest good when left unfettered and unregulated by government. ... This article is about the philosophical concept and literary form. ... A Transcontinental Railroad is a railway that crosses a continent typically from sea to sea. Terminals are at or connected to different oceans. ...

References

  1. ^ Rand, Ayn. Journals of Ayn Rand, edited by David Harriman. (1997) Dutton. ISBN 0525943706 p.704 Harriman quotes from a 1961 interview in which Rand says, "Atlas Shrugged was the climax and completion of the goal I had set for myself at the age of nine. It expressed everything that I wanted of fiction writing."
  2. ^ Rand, Ayn. Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal. (1986) Signet. ISBN 0451147952 p.150
  3. ^ Peikoff, Leonard. "Introduction to the 35th Anniversary Edition," in Ayn Rand, Atlas Shrugged (1996/1957) Signet. ISBN 0-451-19114-5 p. 6-8.
  4. ^ Atlas Shrugged, Centennial Edition, Signet, 1992.
  5. ^ See http://www.noblesoul.com/orc/books/rand/atlas/, retrieved August 9, 2006, for a list of reviews and bibliographical information.
  6. ^ Thomas Reed Whissen, Classic Cult Fiction: A Companion to Popular Cult Literature, Greenwood Press, Westport, CT, 1992.
  7. ^ Chambers, Whittaker. "Big Sister Is Watching You." National Review. December 28, 1957.
  8. ^ Tracinski, Robert W. "A Half-Century-Old Attack on Ayn Rand Reminds Us of the Dark Side of Conservatism". Capitalism Magazine. January 6, 2005.
  9. ^ Branden, Nathaniel. "The Benefits and Hazards of the Philosophy of Ayn Rand: A Personal Statement". 1984.
  10. ^ "Cato Events: Hundreds Gather to Celebrate Atlas Shrugged". Cato Policy Report. November/December 1997.
  11. ^ Bidinotto, Robert James. "Celebrity 'Rand Fans' – Clarence Thomas". Retrieved May 26, 2006.
  12. ^ Larry Elder Recommended Books, Larry Elder.com, Retrieved June 13, 2007
  13. ^ a b Celebrity Rand Fans, The New Individualist, Retrieved June 13, 2007
  14. ^ Thinkers of Freedom and IJ, Institute for Justice, Retrieved June 13, 2007
  15. ^ Subject of article: Headlam, Bruce. "Forget Joyce; Bring on Ayn Rand." The New York Times July 30, 1998, G4 (Late Edition, East Coast).
  16. ^ Subject of article: Yardley, Jonathan. "The Voice of the People Speaks. Too Bad It Doesn't Have Much to Say." The Washington Post August 10, 1998, D2 (Final Edition). Retrieved from ProQuest Historical Newspapers.
  17. ^ "100 Best Novels". RandomHouse.com. Retrieved June 20, 2006.
  18. ^ Jenkins, Ray. "Ayn Rand after a century: Who was she – and why?" Baltimore Sun February 16, 2003. Retrieved from http://www.rickross.com/reference/general/general531.html.
  19. ^ C-SPAN American Writers: Ayn Rand
  20. ^ Fleming, Michael. "Vadim Perelman to direct 'Atlas'". Variety. September 4, 2007
  21. ^ McClintock, Pamela. "Jolie shoulders 'Atlas' : Thesp slated for Rand adaptation". Variety. September 21, 2006
  22. ^ McClintock, Pamela. "Lionsgate shrugging: 'Atlas' pic mapped". Variety. April 26, 2006
  23. ^ Atlas Shrugged at IMDb.
  24. ^ Flaunt Magazine Ad

is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... National Review (NR) is a biweekly magazine of political opinion, founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Variety is a daily newspaper for the entertainment industry. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) [1] is an online database of information about actors, movies, television shows, television stars and video games. ...

Further reading

Publications

  • Atlas Shrugged, Ayn Rand; Signet; (September 1996) ISBN 0-451-19114-5
  • Atlas Shrugged (Cliffs Notes), Andrew Bernstein; CliffsNotes; (June 5, 2000) ISBN 0-7645-8556-8
  • The World of Atlas Shrugged, Robert Bidinotto/The Objectivist Center; HighBridge Company; (April 19, 2001) ISBN 1-56511-471-X
  • Atlas Shrugged: Manifesto of the Mind (Twayne's Masterwork Studies, No. 174) Mimi Reisel Gladstein; Twayne Pub; (June 2000) ISBN 0-8057-1638-6
  • The Moral Revolution in Atlas Shrugged, Nathaniel Branden; The Objectivist Center; (July 1999) ISBN 1-57724-033-2
  • Odysseus, Jesus, and Dagny, Susan McCloskey; The Objectivist Center; (August 1, 1998) ISBN 1-57724-025-1

CliffsNotes for Romeo and Juliet CliffsNotes (often, incorrectly, CliffNotes) are a series of student study guides available primarily in the United States. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Nathaniel Branden (b. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Foreign language translations

  • Dutch: Atlas in Staking, published by the "De Boekenmaker", www.boekenmaker.nl, tel: +31-75-61471772 (Krommenie, 2006).
  • French: La révolte d'Atlas, 2 vol. (Paris 1958 et 1959, Editions Jeheber)
  • German: Wer ist John Galt? (Hamburg, Germany: GEWIS Verlag), ISBN 3-932564-03-0.
  • Italian: La rivolta di Atlante, 2 vol. (Milano, Garzanti, 1958), Out of print. Translator: Laura Grimaldi
  • Japanese: 肩をすくめるアトラス (ビジネス社), ISBN 4-8284-1149-6. Translator: 脇坂 あゆみ.
  • Norwegian: De som beveger verden. (Kagge Forlag, 2000), ISBN 82-489-0083-5 (hardcover), ISBN 82-489-0169-6 (paperback). Translator: John Erik Bøe Lindgren.
  • Polish: Atlas Zbuntowany (Zysk i S-ka, 2004), ISBN 83-7150-969-3 (hardcover). Translator: Iwona Michałowska.
  • Portuguese: Quem é John Galt? (Editora Expressão e Cultura), ISBN 85-208-0248-6 (paperback). Translator: Paulo Henriques Britto.
  • Russian: Атлант расправил плечи (Издательство Альпина Бизнес Букс, 2007 г.), ISBN 978-5-9614-0603-0. Translator: Ю.Соколов, В.Вебер, Д.Вознякевич.
  • Spanish: La rebelión de Atlas. (Editorial Grito Sagrado), ISBN 987-20951-0-8 (hardcover), ISBN 987-20951-1-6 (paperback).
  • Swedish: Och världen skälvde. (Timbro Förlag, 2005), ISBN 91-7566-556-5. Translator: Maud Freccero.
  • Turkish: Atlas Vazgeçti. (Plato Yayınları, 2003), ISBN 975-96772-6-1. Translator: Belkıs Çorapçı.

External links

The Ayn Rand Institute: The Center for the Advancement of Objectivism (ARI) was established in 1985, three years after Ayn Rands death, by Leonard Peikoff, Rands legal and intellectual heir. ...

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