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Encyclopedia > Atlas Mountains
Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa
Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa

The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: جبال الأطلس‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. The highest peak is Jbel Toubkal, with an elevation of 4,167 m (13,665 feet) located at 31°03′43″N, 7°54′58″W in southwestern Morocco. The second highest mountain is the M'Goun of 4071 meters. The Atlas ranges separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines from the Sahara Desert. The population of the Atlas Mountains are mainly Berber in Morocco and Arab in Algeria. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1624x1824, 290 KB) NASA satellite photo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1624x1824, 290 KB) NASA satellite photo. ... The Arabic language ( ), or simply Arabic ( ), is the largest member of the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family (classification: South Central Semitic) and is closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... A mountain range is a group of mountains bordered by lowlands or separated from other mountain ranges by passes or rivers. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... The Rock of Gibraltar as seen from ground level The Rock of Gibraltar, sometimes called the Pillar of Hercules is located in Gibraltar, off the southwestern tip of Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. ... Jbel (Jebel) Toubkal / Adrar n Toubkal is a mountain peak in southwestern Morocco. ... The metre, or meter (US), is a measure of length. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of the Earths surface. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب) are a heterogenous ethnic group who are predominantly speakers of the Arabic language, mainly found throughout the Middle East and North Africa. ...


The mountains are divided into additional and separate ranges, including the Middle Atlas, High Atlas and Anti-Atlas. The lower Tell Atlas running near the coast and the larger Saharan Atlas running further south terminate in the Aurès Mountains located in Algeria and Tunisia. To the north in Morocco lies the Rif Mountains range. Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa (topographic and political) The Middle Atlas is part of the Atlas mountain range lying in Morocco, a mountainous country with more than 100,000 km or 22% of the surface rising above 2,000 meters. ... Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ... Map showing the location of the Anti-Atlas Mountains in North Africa Anti Atlas Anti Atlas close to Tafraoute At Tafraoute on a market day Anti Atlas, valley of the Ammeln (near Tafraout) The Anti-Atlas is one of the mountain ranges lying in Morocco lying as part of the... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... The Aurès Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ... The Aurès Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ... This is about a region in Morocco: RIF is also an acronym/initialism. ...

Contents

Geology

Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa
Enlarge
Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3755x1884, 1279 KB) Summary Updated Map of North Africa showing Mountains ranges and political boundaries. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3755x1884, 1279 KB) Summary Updated Map of North Africa showing Mountains ranges and political boundaries. ...

African geology

The basement rock of Africa was formed in the Precambrian period (approximately 4.5 billion to approximately 550 million years ago) and is much older than the Atlas mountains lying in Africa. The Atlas range developed later. The Precambrian is an informal name for the eons of the geologic timescale that came before the current Phanerozoic eon. ...


Creation of the Atlas Range

The tectonic boundary.
The tectonic boundary.

To understand the Atlas range, as it appears today, one must understand the parts, since its emergence took place to two different phases of earth’s history. The first part consists only of the Anti-Atlas, which was formed in the Paleozoic (~300 million years ago) as the result of continental collisions. North America, Europe and Africa were connected millions of years ago. The Anti-Atlas mountains are believed to have originally been formed as part of Alleghenian orogeny. These mountains were formed when Africa and America collided, and were once a chain far higher than today's Himalayas. Today, the remains of this chain can be seen in the Fall line in the eastern United States. Some remnants can also be found in the later formed Appalachians in North America. The Sierra Nevada mountains in Spain were similarly formed in this continental collision. Image File history File links Atlas_Mountains_tectonic_plates. ... Image File history File links Atlas_Mountains_tectonic_plates. ... Map showing the location of the Anti-Atlas Mountains in North Africa Anti Atlas Anti Atlas close to Tafraoute At Tafraoute on a market day Anti Atlas, valley of the Ammeln (near Tafraout) The Anti-Atlas is one of the mountain ranges lying in Morocco lying as part of the... The Paleozoic Era is a major division of the geologic timescale, one of four geologic eras. ... In physics, collision means the action of bodies striking or coming together (touching). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighbouring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ... The Appalachian Orogeny, a result of three separate continental collisions. ... Perspective view of the Himalayas and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... The fall line has meanings in both geographical features and the sport of alpine skiing. ... A rainy day in the Great Smoky Mountains, Western North Carolina The Appalachian Mountains (French: les Appalaches) are a vast system of North American mountains, partly in Canada, but mostly in the United States, forming a zone, from 100 to 300 miles wide, running from Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, 1... The Sierra Nevada, meaning snowy range in Spanish, is a mountain range in the region of Andalusia in Spain. ...


More recently in the Tertiary period (~65 millions to ~1.8 million years ago) the remaining mountain chains that today comprise the Atlas were uplifted as the land masses of Europe and Africa collided at the southern end of the Iberian peninsula. Convergent tectonic boundaries occur where two plates slide towards each other commonly forming a subduction zone (if one plate moves underneath the other) and a continental collision (when the two plates contain continental crust). Deep marine trenches are typically associated with subduction zones. Due to friction and heating of the subducting slab volcanism is almost always closely linked as is observed in southern Italy. In this case the movement not only formed the High Atlas, but closed the Straits of Gibraltar, and formed the Alps and Pyrenees. The Tertiary period is one of the major divisions of the geologic timescale, from the end of the Cretaceous period about 64 million years ago to the start of the Quaternary period about 1. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Juan de Fuca plate sinks below the North America plate at the Cascadia subduction zone. ... Orogeny is the process of mountain building, and as such is both a tectonic structural event, a geographical event and a chronological event, in that orogenic events happen within a time frame, affect certain regions of rocks and crust, and cause distinctive structural phenomena and related tectonic activity. ... It has been suggested that Coefficient of friction be merged into this article or section. ... HVAC may also stand for High-voltage alternating current HVAC is an initialism that stands for heating, ventilation and air-conditioning. This is sometimes referred to as climate control. ... This article is about volcanoes in geology. ... Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space. ... The West face of the Petit Dru above the Chamonix valley near the Mer de Glace. ... Central Pyrenees. ...


Seismic activity

Because the Atlas mountains lie on the fault zone, the area is seismically active. The city of Blida in Algeria which lies today it the middle of the Tell Atlas with a population of about 265,000 (2005) inhabitants was completely destroyed by strong quakes in the 19th century. Likewise the city of Cheliff lying in Algeria with a population of ~235,000 (2005) inhabitants suffered 5,000 fatalities in a 1980 earthquake of magnitude 7.3 on Richter Scale. Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... Blida (Arabic: البليدة) is a major town of Algeria, chief town of the department(Wilaya) of Blida, 45 km south-west of Algiers. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chlef (Arabic: الشلف) is the capital of Chlef Province, Algeria. ... The Richter magnitude test scale (or more correctly local magnitude ML scale) assigns a single number to quantify the size of an earthquake. ...


Natural resources

The Atlas is rich in natural resources. There is iron ore, lead ore, copper, rock salt, phosphate, mercury, marble, silver, hard coal and natural gas among other resources. This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish white Atomic mass 207. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Atomic mass 63. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with formula NaCl. ... Above is a ball-and-stick model of the inorganic phosphate molecule (HPO42−). Colour coding: P (orange); O (red); H (white). ... General Name, Symbol, Number mercury, Hg, 80 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 6, d Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 200. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... Anthracite coal Anthracite is a hard, compact variety of mineral coal that has a high luster. ... Natural gas is commonly referred to as gas. ...


Subranges of the Atlas Mountains

The range can be divided into three general regions from west to east:

  • Moroccan Atlas in Morocco, which further divides from north to south into:
  • Saharan Atlas (Algeria).
  • Tell Atlas (Algeria, Tunisia)

The Aurès Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...

Moroccan Atlas ranges

From north to south the Moroccan ranges divide into the Rif range[1], the Middle Atlas range, the High Atlas range, and the Anti-Atlas range. Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa (topographic and political) The Middle Atlas is part of the Atlas mountain range lying in Morocco, a mountainous country with more than 100,000 km or 22% of the surface rising above 2,000 meters. ... Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ... Map showing the location of the Anti-Atlas Mountains in North Africa Anti Atlas Anti Atlas close to Tafraoute At Tafraoute on a market day Anti Atlas, valley of the Ammeln (near Tafraout) The Anti-Atlas is one of the mountain ranges lying in Morocco lying as part of the...


Rif range

Main article: Rif
Rif mountains near Al Hoceima
Rif mountains near Al Hoceima

The Rif is a mountainous region of northern Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas (Ras Tleta Madari) and Oujda in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river of Ouargha in the south. The people of the Rif are Berbers (Amazigh people) of north Morocco who call themselves Imazighen. Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 425 KB)Photo of Rif mountains looking toward the Mediterranean Sea near Al Hoceima. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 425 KB)Photo of Rif mountains looking toward the Mediterranean Sea near Al Hoceima. ... Al Hoceima is a port in the Rif, and its main city. ... Cape Spartel is a promontory in Morocco about 1,000 feet above sea level at the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar. ... Tangier, Morocco Tangier (Tanja طنچة in Berber and Arabic, Tánger in Spanish, and Tanger in French), is a city of northern Morocco with a population of 669,685 (2004 census). ... Oujda is a city in eastern Morocco with an estimated population of half a million inhabitants. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Atlantic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ...


Middle Atlas range

Main article:Middle Atlas

The Middle Atlas is a portion of the Atlas mountain range lying completely in Morocco. The Middle Atlas is the westernmost of three Atlas Mountains chains that define a large plateaued basin extending eastward into Algeria. South of the Middle Atlas and separated by the Moulouya and Oum Er-Rbia rivers, the High Atlas stretches for 700 km with a succession of peaks among which ten reach above 4,000 meters. North of the Middle Atlas and separated by the Sebou River, the Rif mountains are an extension of the Baetic Cordillera (Baetic mountains, which include the Sierra Nevada) in the south of Spain. Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa (topographic and political) The Middle Atlas is part of the Atlas mountain range lying in Morocco, a mountainous country with more than 100,000 km or 22% of the surface rising above 2,000 meters. ... Moulouya River (Wadi Muluya) is a 520 km long river in Morocco. ... Oum Er-Rbia (Arabic: ‎, the mother of spring), is a river in central Morocco. ... Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ... Sebou is a river in northern Morocco. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... The Baetic Cordillera is a mountain system in southern Spain. ... Sierra Nevada, meaning snowy range in Spanish, is the name of at least three mountain ranges: Sierra Nevada (Spain) in Andalusia, Spain Sierra Nevada (US) in California and Nevada, United States Sierra Nevada (Mexico) in Mexico There are also two single mountains named Sierra Nevada in the Andes which are...


High Atlas

Main articles:High Atlas
Jbel Toubkal at 4,167 m in Toubkal National Park in the High Atlas.

The High Atlas in central Morocco rises in the west at the Atlantic coast and stretches in an eastern direction to the Moroccan-Algerian border. At the Atlantic and to the southwest the range drops abruptly and makes an impressive transition to the coast and the Anti-Atlas range. To the north, in the direction of Marrakech, the range descends less abruptly. Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 435 KB) View of the saddle (3940 meters above sea level) under the Jebel Toubkal from the final ridge. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 435 KB) View of the saddle (3940 meters above sea level) under the Jebel Toubkal from the final ridge. ... Jbel Toubkal is a mountain peak in southwestern Morocco. ... Brecon Beacons National Park, Wales, UK A national park is a reserve of land, usually declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest ocean, covering approximately one-fifth of the Earths surface. ... Insert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text here To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


On the heights of Ouarzazate the massif is cut through by the Dráa valley which opens southward. In this chaos of rocks the contrasts are astonishing: water runs in some places, forming clear basins. It is mainly inhabited by Berber people, who live in small villages and cultivate the high plains of Ourika Valley. The surroundings of Ouarzazate Ouarzazate (Arabic, ورزازات, Warzāzāt) (called The door of the desert) is a city in southern Morocco, situated at the crossroads of the roads of Marrakech and Agadir. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ...

Panoramic picture of the artificial lake of Lala Takerkoust near Barrage Cavagnac, with the hydroelectric dam (extreme right)
Panoramic picture of the artificial lake of Lala Takerkoust near Barrage Cavagnac, with the hydroelectric dam (extreme right)

Near Barrage Cavagnac, there is a hydroelectric dam that has created the artificial lake Lala Takerkoust. The lake serves also as a source for fish for the local fishermen. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1680x200, 54 KB) Summary Images taken and stitched by me. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1680x200, 54 KB) Summary Images taken and stitched by me. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ... Scrivener Dam, in Canberra, Australia, was engineered to withstand a once-in-5000-years flood event A dam is a barrier across flowing water that obstructs, directs or retards the flow, often creating a reservoir, lake or impoundment. ...


The largest villages and towns of the area are Tahanaoute, Amizmiz, Asni, Tin Mal, Ijoukak, and Oukaïmden. Amizmiz from the nearby hills. ... Asni is a small town, in the foothills of the High Atlas mountains in Morocco. ... Tinmel (also Tin Mal) is a small moutainious village High Atlas in Nffis valley at 100 km of Marrakech. ...


Anti-Atlas ranges

Main article:Anti-Atlas

The Anti-Atlas extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the southwest of Morocco toward the northeast to the heights of Ouarzazate and further east to the city of Tafilalt (altogether a distance of approximately 500 km). In the south it borders the Sahara. The easternmost point of the anti-Atlas is the Djebel Sarhro mountains and its eastern boundary is set by sections of the High Atlas range. Map showing the location of the Anti-Atlas Mountains in North Africa Anti Atlas Anti Atlas close to Tafraoute At Tafraoute on a market day Anti Atlas, valley of the Ammeln (near Tafraout) The Anti-Atlas is one of the mountain ranges lying in Morocco lying as part of the... The surroundings of Ouarzazate Ouarzazate (Arabic, ورزازات, Warzāzāt) (called The door of the desert) is a city in southern Morocco, situated at the crossroads of the roads of Marrakech and Agadir. ... Tafilalt or Tafilet is the most important oasis of the Moroccan Sahara, ten days journey south of Fez, across the Atlas. ... Village in the high atlas High Atlas, also called the Grand Atlas Mountains (or Haut Atlas), is a mountain range in central Morocco. ...


Saharan Atlas range

Main article: Saharan Atlas

The Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range. Not as high as the Grand Atlas they are far more imposing than the Tell Atlas range that runs to the north of them and closer to the coast. The tallest peak in the range is the 2236 m high Djebel Aissa. They mark the northern edge of the Sahara Desert. The mountains see some rainfall and are better suited to agriculture than the plateau region to the north. Today most of the population of the region are Berbers. The Aurès Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ... The Sahara is the worlds second largest desert (second to Antarctica), over 9,000,000 km² (3,500,000 mi²), located in northern Africa and is 2. ... Monte Roraima In geology and earth science, a plateau, also called a high plateau or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ...


Tell Atlas range

Main article: Tell Atlas
Enlarge
Panoramic view of typical Berber village (Morocco - High Atlas Mountains).

The Tell Atlas is a mountain chain over 1,500 kilometers in length, belonging to the Atlas mountain ranges and stretching from Morocco, through Algeria to Tunisia. It parallels the Mediterranean coast. Together with the Saharan Atlas to the south it forms the northernmost of two more or less parallel ranges which gradually approach one another towards the east, merging in Eastern Algeria. At the western end, it ends at the Rif and Middle Atlas ranges in Morocco. The area immediately to the south of this range is high plateau, with lakes in the wet season and salt flats in the dry. This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1743x400, 154 KB) Summary Pictures taken and stitched by me personally. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1743x400, 154 KB) Summary Pictures taken and stitched by me personally. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to Northwest Africa, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Rif mountains near Al Hoceima The Rif (Arif in Berber, er-Rif الريف in Arabic) is a mainly mountainous region of north Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains across North Africa (topographic and political) The Middle Atlas is part of the Atlas mountain range lying in Morocco, a mountainous country with more than 100,000 km or 22% of the surface rising above 2,000 meters. ...


Aurès mountain range

Main article: Aurès Mountains

The Aurès Mountains of Algeria and Tunisia are the furthest eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range. The Aurès Mountains also known as the Saharan Atlas of Algeria is the eastern portion of the Atlas Mountains. ...


See also

The Capsian culture (named after the town of Gafsa) was a Neolithic culture of the Maghreb. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa. ...

References and notes

  1. ^ The Rif is not strictly of the Atlas range, but is included here for completeness.

External links

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Atlas Mountains

  Results from FactBites:
 
Atlas Mountains (281 words)
The Atlas is divided into 5 regions, and stretch from Morocco, through northern Algeria, until it touches Tunisia.
The northernmost area of Morocco belongs to the Rif Mountains, which is not a part of the Atlas.
The Atlas mountains contain many fertile valleys, since the high peaks force the clouds to give away large quantities of rainfall.
Atlas Mountains - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1290 words)
The population of the Atlas Mountains are mainly Berber in Morocco and Arab in Algeria.
The Rif is a mountainous region of northern Morocco, from Cape Spartel and Tangier in the west to Cape Tres Forcas (Ras Tleta Madari) and Melilla in the east, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the river of Ouargha in the south.
The Aurès Mountains of Algeria and Tunisia are the furthest eastern portion of the Atlas mountain range.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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