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Encyclopedia > Atlas
A political and physical map of the world
A political and physical map of the world

An atlas is a collection of maps, traditionally bound into book form, but also found in multimedia formats. As well as geographic features and political boundaries, many often feature geopolitical, social, religious and economic statistics. Physical world map (2004) with country borders and capitals A world map is a map of the surface of the Earth, which may be made using any of a number of different map projections. ... Look up atlas, Atlas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Physical map of the Earth (Medium) (Large 2 MB) Geography is the scientific study of the locational and spatial variation in both physical and human phenomena on Earth. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Geopolitics analyses politics, history and social science with reference to geography. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... Religious is a term with both a technical definition and folk use. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...

Contents

History

World map from the first modern atlas by Ortelius - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570)
World map from the first modern atlas by Ortelius - Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (1570)

The earliest atlases were not called by that name at the time of their publication, as it was introduced in 1595 by Gerardus Mercator. Ortelius world map 1570 File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Ortelius Wikipedia:WikiProject Maps/World Categories: NowCommons | Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Ortelius world map 1570 File links The following pages link to this file: Abraham Ortelius Wikipedia:WikiProject Maps/World Categories: NowCommons | Author died more than 100 years ago public domain images ... Abraham Ortelius. ... Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World) is considered to be the first true modern atlas. ... Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ...


The first book that in hindsight could be called an atlas was constructed from the calculations of Claudius Ptolemy, a geographer working in Alexandria circa A.D. 150. The first edition was published in Bologna in 1477 and was illustrated with a set of 27 maps, though scholars say that it is not known whether the printed maps were engraved versions of original maps made by Ptolemy, or whether they were constructed by medieval Greek scholars from Ptolemy's text. This article is about the geographer and astronomer Ptolemy. ... A geographer is a crazy psycho whose area of study is geocrap, the pseudoscientific study of Earths physical environment and human habitat and the study of boring students to death. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... For the food product, see Bologna sausage. ... Events January 5 - Battle of Nancy - Charles the Bold of Burgundy is again defeated, and this time is killed. ... Roman Greece The Greek peninsula became a Roman protectorate in 146 BC, and the Aegean islands were added to this territory in 133. ...


From about 1544, many maps were produced, especially in the important trading centers of Rome and Venice. Each publisher worked independently, producing maps based upon their own needs. The maps often varied dramatically in size. Over time, it became common to bind the maps together into composite works. Although the term atlas was not in use in 1544, these works are now called "IATO" atlases - (Italian, Assembled to Order) or more frequently "Lafreri atlases" after one of the leading publishers of the period. Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... From about 1544, many individual maps where printed in Italy, especially in the important trading centers of Rome and Venice. ...


Abraham Ortelius is credited with issuing the first modern atlas on May 20, 1570. His Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, contained 53 map-sheets covering the countries of the World. This work was the first book of its kind to reduce the best available maps to a uniform size. It was an immediate critical and commercial success. Abraham Ortelius. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 23 - The assassination of regent James Stewart, Earl of Moray throws Scotland into civil war February 25 - Pope Pius V excommunicates Queen Elizabeth I of England with the bull Regnans in Excelsis May 20 - Abraham Ortelius issues the first modern atlas. ... Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World) is considered to be the first true modern atlas. ...


However, use of the word "atlas" for a bound collection of maps was not to come into use until the 1595 publication of Gerardus Mercator's "Atlas, Sive Cosmographicae Meditationes De Fabrica Mundi ..." (Atlas, or Description of the Universe) (Duisburg, 1585-1595). Gerardus Mercator (March 5, 1512 – December 2, 1594) was a Flemish cartographer. ... 1585 was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ...


"Atlas" etymology

The origin of the term atlas is a common source of misconception, perhaps because two different mythical figures named 'Atlas' are associated with mapmaking. Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ...

  • King Atlas, a mythical King of Mauretania, was, according to legend, a wise philosopher, mathematician and astronomer who supposedly made the first celestial globe. It was this Atlas that Mercator was referring to when he first used the name 'Atlas', and he included a depiction of the King on the title-page.
  • However, the more widely known Atlas is a figure from Greek mythology. He is the son of the Titan Iapetus and Clymene (or Asia), and brother of Prometheus. Atlas was punished by Zeus and made to bear the weight of the heavens (the idea of Atlas carrying the Earth isn't correct according to the original myth)on his back. One of Heracles's labours was to collect the apples of the Hesperides. Heracles went to Atlas and reasoned with him. Eventually, Atlas agreed to collect the apples, and Heracles was left to carry the weight. Atlas tried to leave Heracles there, but Heracles tricked him and Atlas was left to carry the heavens forever. In his epic Odyssey, Homer refers to this Atlas as "one who knows the depths of the whole sea, and keeps the tall pillars who hold heaven and earth asunder".

In works of art, this Atlas is represented as carrying the heavens or the Celestial Sphere, on his shoulders. The earliest such depiction is the Farnese Atlas, now housed at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli in Naples, Italy. This figure is frequently found on the cover or title-pages of atlases. This is particularly true of atlases published by Dutch publishers during the second half of the seventeenth century. The image became associated with Dutch merchants, and a statue of this figure adorns the front of the World Trade Center in Amsterdam. Bold text:For the modern country, see Mauritania. ... In Greek mythology, Atlas was one of the primordial Titans. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... In Greek mythology Iapetus, or Iapetos, was a Titan, the son of Uranus and Gaia, and father (by an Oceanid named Clymene or Asia) of Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Menoetius and through Prometheus and Epimetheus and Atlas an ancestor of the human race. ... In Greek mythology, Clymene or Klymenê (famous might) is the name of at least six possibly distinct females. ... Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind, by Heinrich Füger, (1817). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... The celestial sphere is divided by the celestial equator. ... The Farnese Atlas at the Museo Archaeologico Nazionale in Naples, Italy. ... The Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli (National Archaeological Museum) is located in Naples, Italy. ... Alternate uses: See Naples (disambiguation) Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα-Πόλις, latinised in Neapolis) is the largest town in southern Italy, capital of Campania region. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


The first publisher to associate the Titan Atlas with a group of maps was Lafreri, on the title-page to "Tavole Moderne Di Geografia De La Maggior Parte Del Mondo Di Diversi Autori ...". However, he did not use the word "atlas" in the title of his work.


Modern atlases

With the coming of the global market, publishers in different countries can reprint maps from plates made elsewhere. This means that the place names on the maps often use the designations or abbreviations of the language of the country in which the feature is located, to serve the widest market. For example, islands near Russia have the abbreviation "O." for "ostrov", not "I." for "island". This practise differs from what is standard for any given language, and it reaches its extremity concerning transliterations from other languages. Particularly, German mapmakers use the transliterations from Cyrillic developed by the Czechs which are hardly used in English-speaking countries. Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...


Selected general atlases

Some cartographically or commercially important atlases include the following:

17th century and earlier
18th century
  • Britannia Depicta (London, 1720)
  • Atlas Nouveau (Amsterdam, 1742)
  • Cary's New and Correct English Atlas (London, 1787)
19th century
20th century

See External links below for online modern atlases and digitized historical atlases. The collection of digitized world atlases at DavidRumsey.com lists many significant atlases of the 18th-20th centuries. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... The Piri Reis map The Piri Reis map is a famous premodern world map created by 16th century Ottoman-Turkish admiral and cartographer Piri Reis. ... Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World) is considered to be the first true modern atlas. ... Sir Robert Dudleys DellArcano del Mare is the earliest printed sea atlas to cover the entire world, and the first made by an Englishman, and the first to use the Mercator projection. ... Front Page, 1645 The Atlas Maior (or Atlas Novus, as it was originally called) is a comprehensive world atlas, conceived by Willem Blaeu but compiled by his son Joan Blaeu, and completed in 1665. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stielers Handatlas (after Adolf Stieler, 1775-1836) was the leading German world atlas of the last three decades of the 19th and the first half of the 20th century. ... Cover of the third edition of Andrees Allgemeiner Handatlas, 1896. ... The first edition of The Times Atlas of the World appeared as The Times Atlas in 1895. ... Rand McNally & Company is the preeminent American publisher of maps, atlases, and globes for travel, reference, commercial, and educational uses. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The first edition of The Times Atlas of the World appeared as The Times Atlas in 1895. ... The Touring Club Italiano (TCI), the equivalent of the British Tourist Association, was founded in 1894. ... Although initially Russian cartography could not glory in original work _ the Atlas Marxa (1905), for example, is merely a translation of Debes Neuer Handatlas - the large Atlas Mira (World Atlas, 1954, 2nd ed. ... The first comprehensive world atlas of Spanish origin just appeared in the fifties of the past century and was published by Aguilar, S.A. de Ediciones in Madrid: the Atlas Universal Aguilar (1954, with 116 pages of maps preceded by an atlas of Spain; five further editions until 1968), but... The Pergamon World Atlas (in English, 1968) was originally prepared by the Polish Army Topographical Service and published as the Atlas Åšwiata (World Atlas) in 1962. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... There havenot been a lot of sets of atlas of the historical placenames of China named The Historical Atlas of China. ... A political and physical map of the world For other uses, see Atlas (disambiguation). ...


See also

Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Google Maps (for a time named Google Local) is a free web mapping service application and technology provided by Google that powers many map-based services including the Google Maps website, Google Ride Finder and embedded maps on third-party websites via the Google Maps API. It offers street maps... On a sphere, the sum of the angles of a triangle is not equal to 180° (see spherical trigonometry). ... Animation showing atmosphere and shading effects in v1. ... A Star Atlas is a variant of the traditional geographic atlas, ie. ... TerraServer-USA web site For other uses, see TerraServer. ... Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World) is considered to be the first true modern atlas. ...

External links

Atlas Portal 
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Sources Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 23 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

Online atlases

  • Gheos Worldguide, world atlas with maps and statistical information from all countries of the world.
  • Microsoft/Encarta/Expedia World atlas, world atlas, plus atlas for North America and Europe to street level.
  • MapChart EarthAtlas, free online atlas with interactive maps about topics like demography, economy, health and environment.
  • Multimap World atlas: on UK, US, Canada, Australia and Western Europe more detailed than the rest of the world
  • world atlas by country
  • Atlas of the World A world atlas with hundreds of very detailed and elaborate maps
  • Physical Atlas of the World Online world atlas with physical maps
  • National Atlas of the United States
  • Geospatial One-Stop geodata.gov
  • Geography Network
  • National Geographic MapMachine
  • Tirolatlas An online atlas of North-, South- and Eastern-Tyrol (Austria), requires SVG capabilities in the browser.

History of atlases

Historical atlases online

Other links Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the...

  • Live Maps: 2D and 3D interactive maps on live.com.
  • Google Earth: a visual 3D interactive atlas.
  • Wikimapia a wikiproject designed to describe the entire world.
  • World Atlas
  • Atlas World: a directory of atlases currently in print.
  • NASA's World Wind software
  • One Planet, Many People UN Atlas of the Human impact on the Environment
  • Malaria Atlas Project
  • Soil Atlas of Europe
  • InstantAtlas Create your own interactive atlas for any area

  Results from FactBites:
 
National Atlas home page (345 words)
A new set of maps that illustrate the boundaries of the current session of the American Congress are ready.
The National Atlas staff has prepared a revised series of Printable Maps for each District.
We are also temporarily removing a set of United States and individual State maps that illustrated the boundaries of the 109th Congressional Districts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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