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Encyclopedia > Atlantis
Athanasius Kircher's map of Atlantis, in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean. From Mundus Subterraneus 1669, published in Amsterdam. The map is oriented with south at the top.

Atlantis (in Greek, Ἀτλαντὶς νῆσος, "island of Atlas") is the name of a legendary island first mentioned in Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias.[1] Atlantis may refer to: Originally to Platos island Atlantis. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Athanasius Kircher ( ) (sometimes erroneously spelled Kirchner) was a 17th century German Jesuit scholar who published around 40 works, most notably in the fields of oriental studies, geology and medicine. ... Lee Lawries colossal bronze Atlas, Rockefeller Center, New York For the Transformers character see King Atlas (Transformers). ... A legend (Latin, legenda, things to be read) is a narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to take place within human history and to possess certain qualities that give the tale verisimilitude. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... Critias, a dialogue of Platos, speaks about a variety of subjects. ...


In Plato's account, Atlantis, lying "beyond the Pillars of Heracles", was a naval power that conquered many parts of Western Europe and Africa 9,000 years before the time of Solon, or approximately 9500 BC. After a failed attempt to invade Athens, Atlantis sank into the ocean "in a single day and night of misfortune". Pillars of Hercules is the ancient name given to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Straits of Gibraltar. ... A Navy is the branch of a countrys military forces principally designated for naval warfare, namely maritime or ocean-borne combat operations and other functions. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


As a story embedded in Plato's dialogues, Atlantis is generally seen as a myth created by Plato to illustrate his political theories. Although the function of the story of Atlantis seems clear to most scholars, they dispute whether and how much Plato's account was inspired by older traditions. Some scholars argue Plato drew upon memories of past events such as the Thera eruption or the Trojan War, while others insist that he took inspiration from contemporary events like the destruction of Helike in 373 BC or the failed Athenian invasion of Sicily in 415–413 BC. Satellite image of Thera The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Helike (Greek: pron. ... The Sicilian Expedition was an Athenian expedition to Sicily from 415 BC to 413 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. ...


The possible existence of a genuine Atlantis was actively discussed throughout classical antiquity, but it was usually rejected and occasionally parodied by later authors. While little known during the Middle Ages, the story of Atlantis was rediscovered by Humanists in modern times. Plato's description inspired the utopian works of several Renaissance writers, like Francis Bacon's "New Atlantis". Atlantis inspires today's literature, from science fiction to comic books and films, its name having become a byword for any and all supposed prehistoric but advanced (and lost) civilizations. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For the specific belief system, see Humanism (life stance). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... For other persons named Francis Bacon, see Francis Bacon (disambiguation). ... Francis Bacon, in The New Atlantis (1626), depicts a mythical land, Bensalem, to which he sailed. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... This article is about motion pictures. ...

Contents

Plato's account

Plato's dialogues Timaeus and Critias, written in 360 BC, contain the earliest known references to Atlantis. For unknown reasons, Plato never completed Critias; however, the scholar Benjamin Jowett, among others, argues that Plato originally planned a third dialogue titled Hermocrates. John V. Luce assumes that Plato — after describing the origin of the world and mankind in Timaeus as well as the allegorical perfect society of ancient Athens and its successful defense against an antagonistic Atlantis in Critias — would have made the strategy of the Greek civilization during their conflict with the Persians a subject of discussion in the Hermocrates. Plato introduced Atlantis in Timaeus: Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... Hermocrates is a hypothetic dialogue, assumed to be the third part of Platos late trilogy along with Timaeus and Critias. ... John Victor Luce (1920 – ) is an Irish classicist, former professor and emeritus Fellow of Classics at Trinity College, Dublin. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Founder of empires: Cyrus, The Great is still revered in modern Iran as he was in all the successor Persian Empires. ...

For it is related in our records how once upon a time your State stayed the course of a mighty host, which, starting from a distant point in the Atlantic ocean, was insolently advancing to attack the whole of Europe, and Asia to boot. For the ocean there was at that time navigable; for in front of the mouth which you Greeks call, as you say, 'the pillars of Heracles,' there lay an island which was larger than Libya and Asia together; and it was possible for the travelers of that time to cross from it to the other islands, and from the islands to the whole of the continent over against them which encompasses that veritable ocean. For all that we have here, lying within the mouth of which we speak, is evidently a haven having a narrow entrance; but that yonder is a real ocean, and the land surrounding it may most rightly be called, in the fullest and truest sense, a continent. Now in this island of Atlantis there existed a confederation of kings, of great and marvelous power, which held sway over all the island, and over many other islands also and parts of the continent.[2]

The four persons appearing in those two dialogues are the politicians Critias and Hermocrates as well as the philosophers Socrates and Timaeus, although only Critias speaks of Atlantis. While most likely all of these people actually lived, these dialogues as recorded may have been the invention of Plato. In his written works, Plato makes extensive use of the Socratic dialogues in order to discuss contrary positions within the context of a supposition. Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ... Hermocrates (Ancient Greek: ) was a general of Syracuse during the Athenians Sicilian Expedition. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Timaeus of Locri (called Timaeus Locrus in Latin, Timée de Locres in French) was a Pythagorean philosopher living in the 5th century BC. He features in Platos Timaeus, where he is said to come from Locri in Italy. ... The Socratic dialogues (Greek Σωκρατικός λόγος or Σωκρατικός διάλογος) are prose literary works developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE, preserved today in the dialogues of Plato and the Socratic works of Xenophon - either dramatic or narrative - in which characters discuss moral and philosophical problems, illustrating the socratic method. ...


The Timaeus begins with an introduction, followed by an account of the creations and structure of the universe and ancient civilizations. In the introduction, Socrates muses about the perfect society, described in Plato's Republic, and wonders if he and his guests might recollect a story which exemplifies such a society. Critias mentions an allegedly historical tale that would make the perfect example, and follows by describing Atlantis as is recorded in the Critias. In his account, ancient Athens seems to represent the "perfect society" and Atlantis its opponent, representing the very antithesis of the "perfect" traits described in the Republic. Critias claims that his accounts of ancient Athens and Atlantis stem from a visit to Egypt by the Athenian lawgiver Solon in the 6th century BC. In Egypt, Solon met a priest of Sais, who translated the history of ancient Athens and Atlantis, recorded on papyri in Egyptian hieroglyphs, into Greek. According to Plutarch, Solon met with "Psenophis of Heliopolis, and Sonchis the Saite, the most learned of all the priests" (Life of Solon). Because of the 500+ year distance between Plutarch and the alleged event, and that this information is not provided by Plato in Timaeus and Critias, this identification is questionable.[original research?] The Republic (Greek: ) is an influential work of philosophy and political theory by the Greek philosopher Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. It is written in the format of a Socratic dialogue. ... For other uses, see Solon (disambiguation). ... Sais was the chief city of the fifth nome of Lower Egypt, located in the western edge of the Nile Delta. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ...


According to Critias, the Hellenic gods of old divided the land so that each god might own a lot; Poseidon was appropriately, and to his liking, bequeathed the island of Atlantis. The island was larger than Ancient Libya and Asia Minor combined,[3] but it afterwards was sunk by an earthquake and became an impassable mud shoal, inhibiting travel to any part of the ocean. The Egyptians described Atlantis as an island comprising mostly mountains in the northern portions and along the shore, and encompassing a great plain of an oblong shape in the south "extending in one direction three thousand stadia [about 555  km; 345 mi], but across the center inland it was two thousand stadia [about 370 km; 230 mi]." The term ancient Greece refers to the periods of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... Ancient Greek weights and measures - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Fifty stadia (10 km; 6 mi) from the coast was a

mountain that was low on all sides...broke it off all round about[4]
...
the central island itself was of a stade's breadth [607 feet][5]

Here lived a native woman, Cleito, the daughter of Evenor and Leucippe, with whom Poseidon fell in love and who bore him five pairs of male twins. The eldest of these, Atlas, was made rightful king of the entire island and the ocean (called the Atlantic Ocean in honor of Atlas), and was given the mountain of his birth and the surrounding area as his fiefdom. Atlas's twin Gadeirus or Eumelus in Greek, was given the extremity of the island towards the Pillars of Heracles. The other four pairs of twins — Ampheres and Evaemon, Mneseus and Autochthon, Elasippus and Mestor, and Azaes and Diaprepes — were also given "rule over many men, and a large territory." In Greek mythology, Leucippe was the name of several individuals: Leucippe was one of the Minyades who were driven by Dionysus to kill Hippasus. ... Fraternal twin boys in the tub The term twin most notably refers to two individuals (or one of two individuals) who have shared the same uterus (womb) and usually, but not necessarily, born on the same day. ... Fief depiction in a book of hours Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud, feoff, or fee, often consisted of inheritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord, generally to a vassal, in return for a form of allegiance, originally to give him the means... This article is about the Spanish city. ... Eumelus was the name of several men in Greek mythology: A Eumelus succeeded Adrastus as the King of Pherae. ... In Greek mythology, Mneseus is the twin brother of Autochthon. ... Look up autochthonous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Poseidon carved the mountain where his love dwelt into a palace and enclosed it with three circular moats of increasing width, varying from one to three stadia and separated by rings of land proportional in size. The Atlanteans then built bridges northward from the mountain, making a route to the rest of the island. They dug a great canal to the sea, and alongside the bridges carved tunnels into the rings of rock so that ships could pass into the city around the mountain; they carved docks from the rock walls of the moats. Every passage to the city was guarded by gates and towers, and a wall surrounded each of the city's rings. The walls were constructed of red, white and black rock quarried from the moats, and were covered with brass, tin and orichalcum (bronze or brass), respectively (Critias 116bc). The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ... Brazen redirects here. ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... Orichalcum is a legendary metal mentioned in several ancient writings, most notably the story of Atlantis as recounted in the Critias dialogue, recorded by Plato. ...


According to Critias, 9,000 years before his lifetime a war took place between those outside the Pillars of Hercules (generally thought to be the Strait of Gibraltar)[citation needed] and those who dwelt within them. The Atlanteans had conquered the parts of Libya within the columns of Heracles as far as Egypt and the European continent as far as Tyrrhenia, and subjected its people to slavery. The Athenians led an alliance of resistors against the Atlantean empire and as the alliance disintegrated, prevailed alone against the empire, liberating the occupied lands. The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Etruria was an ancient country in central Italy, located in an area that covered part of what now are Tuscany, Latium and Umbria. ...

But at a later time there occurred portentous earthquakes and floods, and one grievous day and night befell them, when the whole body of your warriors was swallowed up by the earth, and the island of Atlantis in like manner was swallowed up by the sea and vanished; wherefore also the ocean at that spot has now become impassable and unsearchable, being blocked up by the shoal mud which the island created as it settled down.[6]

Reception

Ancient

Other than Plato's Timaeus and Critias there is no primary ancient account of Atlantis, which means every other account on Atlantis relies on Plato in one way or another.


Many ancient philosophers viewed Atlantis as fiction, including (according to Strabo) Aristotle. However, in antiquity, there were also philosophers, geographers, and historians who believed that Atlantis was real.[7] For instance, the philosopher Crantor, a student of Plato's student Xenocrates, tried to find proof of Atlantis's existence. His work, a commentary on Plato's Timaeus, is lost, but another ancient historian, Proclus, reports that Crantor traveled to Egypt and actually found columns with the history of Atlantis written in hieroglyphic characters.[8] Plato never mentioned these columns. According to the Greek philosopher, Solon saw the Atlantis story on a different source that can be "taken to hand".[9] The Greek geographer Strabo in a 16th century engraving. ... Crantor was a Greek philosopher of the Old Academy, born probably about the middle of the 4th century BC, at Soli in Cilicia. ... Xenocrates of Chalcedon (396 - 314 BC) was a Greek philosopher and scholarch or rector of the Academy from 339 to 314 BC. Removing to Athens in early youth, he became the pupil of the Socratic Aeschines, but presently joined himself to Plato, whom he attended to Sicily in 361. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ... It has been suggested that Hieroglyph (French Wiki article) be merged into this article or section. ...


Another passage from Proclus' 5th century AD commentary on the Timaeus gives a description of the geography of Atlantis: "That an island of such nature and size once existed is evident from what is said by certain authors who investigated the things around the outer sea. For according to them, there were seven islands in that sea in their time, sacred to Persephone, and also three others of enormous size, one of which was sacred to Pluto, another to Ammon, and another one between them to Poseidon, the extent of which was a thousand stadia [200 km]; and the inhabitants of it—they add—preserved the remembrance from their ancestors of the immeasurably large island of Atlantis which had really existed there and which for many ages had reigned over all islands in the Atlantic sea and which itself had like-wise been sacred to Poseidon. Now these things Marcellus has written in his Aethiopica".[10] Marcellus remains unidentified. This article is about the Greek goddess. ...


Other ancient historians and philosophers believing in the existence of Atlantis were Strabo and Posidonius.[11] The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ...


Plato's account of Atlantis may have also inspired parodic imitation: writing only a few decades after the Timaeus and Critias, the historian Theopompus of Chios wrote of a land beyond the ocean known as Meropis. This description was included in Book 8 of his voluminous Philippica, which contains a dialogue between King Midas and Silenus, a companion of Dionysus. Silenus describes the Meropids, a race of men who grow to twice normal size, and inhabit two cities on the island of Meropis (Cos?): Eusebes (Εὐσεβής, "Pious-town") and Machimos (Μάχιμος, "Fighting-town"). He also reports that an army of ten million soldiers crossed the ocean to conquer Hyperborea, but abandoned this proposal when they realized that the Hyperboreans were the luckiest people on earth. Heinz-Günther Nesselrath has argued that these and other details of Silenus' story are meant as imitation and exaggeration of the Atlantis story, for the purpose of exposing Plato's ideas to ridicule.[12] In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Theopompus, a Greek historian and rhetorician, was born at Chios about 380 BC. In early youth he seems to have spent some time at Athens, along with his father, who had been exiled on account of his Laconian sympathies. ... Chios (IPA: )[2] (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios) is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Meropis (Ancient Greek: ) is a fictional island mentioned by ancient Greek writer Theopompus of Chios in his work Philippica, which is only fragmentarily maintained via Ailianus. ... For other uses, see Midas (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, sileni were a race of half-horse, half-humans, unlike the satyrs, who were half-goat. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Hyperborea (disambiguation). ...


Zoticus, a Neoplatonist philosopher of the 3rd century AD, wrote an epic poem based on Plato's account of Atlantis.[13] Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ...


The 4th century AD historian Ammianus Marcellinus, relying on a lost work by Timagenes, a historian writing in the 1st century BC, writes that the Druids of Gaul said that part of the inhabitants of Gaul had migrated there from distant islands. Some have understood Ammianus's testimony as a claim that at the time of Atlantis's actual sinking into the sea, its inhabitants fled to western Europe; but Ammianus in fact says that “the Drasidae (Druids) recall that a part of the population is indigenous but others also migrated in from islands and lands beyond the Rhine" (Res Gestae 15.9), an indication that the immigrants came to Gaul from the north and east, not from the Atlantic Ocean.[14] Ammianus Marcellinus (325/330-after 391) was a fourth-century Greek historian [1][2]. His is the last major historical account of the late Roman empire which survives today: his work chronicled the history of Rome from 96 to 378, although only the sections covering the period 353 - 378 are... Druidry or Druidism was the religion of the ancient druids, the priestly class in ancient Celtic and Gallic societies through much of Western Europe north of the Alps and in the British Isles. ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... For other uses, see Rhine (disambiguation). ...


A Hebrew treatise on computational astronomy dated to AD 1378/79, apparently a paraphrase of an unknown earlier Islamic work, alludes to the Atlantis myth in a discussion concerning the determination of zero points for the calculation of longitude: Hebrew redirects here. ... For other uses, see Astronomy (disambiguation). ...

Some say that they [the inhabited regions] begin at the beginning of the western ocean [the Atlantic] and beyond. For in the earliest times [literally: the first days] there was an island in the middle of the ocean. There were scholars there, who isolated themselves in [the pursuit of] philosophy. In their day, that was the [beginning for measuring] the longitude[s] of the inhabited world. Today, it has become [covered by the?] sea, and it is ten degrees into the sea; and they reckon the beginning of longitude from the beginning of the western sea.[15]

Modern

A map showing the supposed extent of the Atlantean Empire. From Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, 1882.
A map showing the supposed extent of the Atlantean Empire. From Ignatius L. Donnelly's Atlantis: the Antediluvian World, 1882.

Francis Bacon's 1627 novel The New Atlantis describes a utopian society, called Bensalem, located off the western coast of America. A character in the novel gives a history of Atlantis that is similar to Plato's and places Atlantis in America. It is not clear whether Bacon means North or South America. Image File history File links Atlantis_map_1882. ... Image File history File links Atlantis_map_1882. ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... Sir Francis Bacon Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Albans, KC (22 January 1561 – 9 April 1626) was an English astrologer, philosopher, statesman, spy, freemason and essayist. ... Columbus Santa Maria, by Eertvelt The New Atlantis is a utopian novel written by Francis Bacon in 1626. ... North American redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Isaac Newton's 1728 The Chronology of the Ancient Kingdoms Amended studies a variety of mythological links to Atlantis.[16] Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ...


In middle and late 19th century, several renowned Mesoamerican scholars, starting with Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg, and including Edward Herbert Thompson and Augustus Le Plongeon proposed that Atlantis was somehow related to Mayan and Aztec culture. This article is about the culture area. ... Charles Etienne Brasseur de Bourbourg (8 September 1814 - 8 January 1874) was a Belgian ethnographer. ... Edward Herbert Thompson (28 September 1856 - 11 May 1935) was a United States born archaeologist and diplomat. ... Augustus Le Plongeon (1825-1908) was an archaeologist who excavated the Mayan ruins of Chichen Itza in Yucatan. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ...

Ignatius L. Donnelly, American congressman, and writer on Atlantis.
Ignatius L. Donnelly, American congressman, and writer on Atlantis.
American psychic Edgar Cayce, 1910
American psychic Edgar Cayce, 1910

The 1882 publication of Atlantis: the Antediluvian World by Ignatius L. Donnelly stimulated much popular interest in Atlantis. Donnelly took Plato's account of Atlantis seriously and attempted to establish that all known ancient civilizations were descended from its high Neolithic culture. Image File history File links Ignatius-Donnelly. ... Image File history File links Ignatius-Donnelly. ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... A Congressman or Congresswoman (generically, Congressperson) is a politician who is a member of a Congress. ... Image File history File links Cayce_1910. ... Image File history File links Cayce_1910. ... Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ...


During the late 19th century, ideas about the legendary nature of Atlantis were combined with stories of other lost continents such as Mu and Lemuria. Helena Blavatsky, the "Grandmother of the New Age movement," writes in The Secret Doctrine that the Atlanteans were cultural heroes (contrary to Plato who describes them mainly as a military threat), and are the fourth "Root Race", succeeded by the "Aryan race". Rudolf Steiner wrote of the cultural evolution of Mu or Atlantis. Famed psychic Edgar Cayce first mentioned Atlantis in a life reading given in 1923,[17] and later gave its geographical location as the Caribbean, and proposed that Atlantis was an ancient, now-submerged, highly-evolved civilization which had ships and aircraft powered by a mysterious form of energy crystal. He also predicted that parts of Atlantis would rise in 1968 or 1969. The Bimini Road, found by Dr.J Manson Valentine, was a submerged rock formation that resembles a road just off North Bimini Island, discovered in 1968, has been claimed by some to be evidence of the lost civilization (among many other things) and is still being explored today. Lost lands are continents, islands or other regions believed by some to have existed during prehistory, but to have since disappeared as a result of catastrophic geological phenomena or slowly rising sea levels since the end of the last Ice Age. ... Underwater structures controversially identified as remnants of Mu, near Yonaguni, Japan Mu is the name of a hypothetical vanished continent. ... Lemuria is the name of a hypothetical lost land variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. ... Helena Blavatsky Helena Petrovna Hahn (also Hélène) (July 31, 1831 (O.S.) (August 12, 1831 (N.S.)) - May 8, 1891 London), better known as Helena Blavatsky (Russian: ) or Madame Blavatsky, born Helena von Hahn, was a founder of the Theosophical Society. ... The Secret Doctrine, the Synthesis of Science, Religion and Philosophy, a book originally published as two volumes in 1888, is Helena P. Blavatskys magnum opus. ... Root Race is a term first used by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in her book The Secret Doctrine. ... The Aryan race is a concept in European culture that was influential in the period of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. ... Rudolf Steiner. ... Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Bimini Road The Bimini Road is an underwater rock formation near North Bimini island in the Bahamas. ... Bimini Island from space, June 1998 Map of the Bahamas with the Biminis positioned center left (click to enlarge). ...


It has been claimed that before the time of Eratosthenes about 250 BC, Greek writers located the Pillars of Hercules on the Strait of Sicily, but there is little evidence for this. According to Herodotus (c. 430 BC) a Phoenician expedition had circumnavigated Africa at the behest of pharaoh Necho, sailing south down the Red Sea and Indian Ocean and northwards in the Atlantic, re-entering the Mediterranean Sea through the Pillars of Hercules. His description of northwest Africa makes it very clear that he located the Pillars of Hercules precisely where they are located today. Nevertheless, the belief that they had been placed at the Strait of Sicily prior to Eratosthenes, has been cited in some Atlantis theories. This article is about the Greek scholar of the third century BC. For the ancient Athenian statesman of the fifth century BC, see Eratosthenes (statesman). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Strait of Sicily is the strait between Sicily and Tunisia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Nomen: Necho Horus name: Maaib Nebty name: Maakheru Golden Horus: Merynetjeru Consort(s) Khedebarbenet Died 595 BC Necho II (sometimes Nekau) was a king of the Twenty-sixth dynasty of Egypt (610 BC - 595 BC), and the son of Psammetichus I by his Great Royal Wife Mehtenweskhet. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Atlantis is the subject of a legend about an advanced island civilization that was destroyed or lost. ...


Nationalist ideas

The concept of Atlantis attracted Nazi theorists. In 1938, Heinrich Himmler organized a search in Tibet to find a remnant of the white Atlanteans. According to Julius Evola (Revolt Against the Modern World, 1934), the Atlanteans were Hyperboreans—Nordic supermen who originated on the North pole (see Thule). Similarly, Alfred Rosenberg (The Myth of the Twentieth Century, 1930) spoke of a "Nordic-Atlantean" or "Aryan-Nordic" master race. Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Himmler redirects here. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Julius Evola born Giulio Cesare Andrea Evola, aka Baron Evola (May 19, 1898-June 11, 1974), was an Italian esotericist and occult author, who wrote extensively on Hermeticism, the metaphysics of sex, Tantra, Buddhism, Taoism, mountaineering, the Holy Grail, militarism, aristocracy, on matters political, philosophical, historical, racial, religious, as well... Revolt Against the Modern World (La Rivolta contro il Mondo Moderno) is a book written by Julius Evola in 1934. ... In Greek mythology, according to tradition, the Hyperboreans were a mythical people who lived to the far north of Greece. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see North Pole (disambiguation). ... Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... Alfred Rosenberg around 1935   (January 12, 1893 Reval (today Tallinn) – October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. ... The Myth of the Twentieth Century (Ger. ... Herrenvolk redirects here. ...


Recent times

As continental drift became more widely accepted during the 1960s, most “Lost Continent” theories of Atlantis began to wane in popularity. In response, some recent theories propose that elements of Plato's story were derived from earlier myths. Plates in the crust of the earth, according to the plate tectonics theory Continental drift refers to the movement of the Earths continents relative to each other. ...


Plato scholar Dr Julia Annas (Regents Professor of Philosophy, University of Arizona) has had this to say on the matter: Julia Annas (Ph. ... At many universities the honorary title of Distinguished Professor is given to a small number of members of the faculty who are recognized by colleagues throughout the world as leaders in their fields. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... The University of Arizona (UA or U of A) is a land-grant and space-grant public institution of higher education and research located in Tucson, Arizona, United States. ...

The continuing industry of discovering Atlantis illustrates the dangers of reading Plato. For he is clearly using what has become a standard device of fiction — stressing the historicity of an event (and the discovery of hitherto unknown authorities) as an indication that what follows is fiction. The idea is that we should use the story to examine our ideas of government and power. We have missed the point if instead of thinking about these issues we go off exploring the sea bed. The continuing misunderstanding of Plato as historian here enables us to see why his distrust of imaginative writing is sometimes justified.[18]

Location hypotheses

Since Donnelly's day, there have been dozens – perhaps hundreds – of locations proposed for Atlantis, to the point where the name has become a generic term rather than referring to one specific (possibly even genuine) location. This is reflected in the fact that many proposed sites are not within the Atlantic at all. Some are scholarly or archaeological hypotheses, while others have been made by psychic or other pseudoscientific means. Many of the proposed sites share some of the characteristics of the Atlantis story (water, catastrophic end, relevant time period), but none has been proven conclusively to be a true historical Atlantis. Atlantis is the subject of a legend about an advanced island civilization that was destroyed or lost. ... A genericized trademark (Commonwealth English genericised trade mark), sometimes known as a generic trade mark, generic descriptor or proprietary eponym, is a trademark or brand name which is often used as the colloquial description for a particular type of product or service as a result of widespread popular or cultural... Edgar Cayce (1877 – 1945) was one of the best-known American psychics of the 20th century and made many highly publicized predictions. ... A typical 18th century phrenology chart. ...


In or near the Mediterranean Sea

Satellite image of the islands of Santorini. This location is one of many sites purported to have been the location of Atlantis.
Satellite image of the islands of Santorini. This location is one of many sites purported to have been the location of Atlantis.

Most of the historically proposed locations are in or near the Mediterranean Sea—islands such as Sardinia, Crete and Santorini, Sicily, Cyprus, and Malta; land-based cities or states such as Troy, Tartessos, and Tantalus (in the province of Manisa), Turkey; and Israel-Sinai or Canaan. The massive Thera eruption, dated either to the 17th or the 16th century BC, caused a massive tsunami that experts hypothesise devastated the Minoan civilization on the nearby island of Crete, further leading some to believe that this may have been the catastrophe that inspired the story.[19] In the area of the Black Sea the following locations have been proposed: Bosporus and Ancomah (a legendary place near Trabzon). The nearby Sea of Azov was proposed as another site in 2003.[20] A. G. Galanopoulos argued that the time scale has been distorted by an error in translation, probably from Egyptian into Greek, which produced "thousands" instead of "hundreds"; this same error would rescale Plato's Kingdom of Atlantis to the size of Crete, while leaving the city the size of the crater on Thera. 900 years before Solon would be the 15th century BC.[21] Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 70 KB)Santorini island, Greece - Landsat photo Source: NASA, public domain https://zulu. ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... Sardinia (pronounced ; Italian: ; Sardinian: or ) is the second-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (after Sicily). ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Santorini (Greek Σαντορίνη, IPA: ) is a small, circular archipelago of volcanic islands located in southern Aegean Sea, about 200 km south-east from Greeces mainland. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ... Tartessos (also Tartessus) was a harbor city on the south coast of the Iberian peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir river. ... Manisa is the capital of the Turkish province of Manisa. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... Satellite image of Thera The devastating volcanic eruption of Thera in the Bronze Age (dated to ca. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... I LOVE BORAT!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Two bridges cross the Bosporus. ... Ancomah (Antzomakh, Antzimah) is a mythological place which was first mentioned by Hasan Umur in the 1940s, approximately fifty meters inland near Trabzon, Turkey. ... Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: ), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. ... The shallow Sea of Azov is clearly distinguished from the deeper Black Sea. ...


In the Atlantic Ocean

The location of Atlantis in the Atlantic Ocean has certain appeal given the closely related names. Popular culture increasingly places Atlantis there which perpetuates the original Platonic ideal. Several hypotheses place the sunken island in Northern Europe, including Sweden (by Olof Rudbeck in Atland, 1672–1702), or off the coasts of countries adjoining the North Sea. Some have proposed Ireland, the Celtic Shelf and Andalusia as a possible locations.[22] The Canary Islands have also been identified as a possible location, west of the Straits of Gibraltar but in close proximity to the Mediterranean Sea. Various islands or island groups in the Atlantic were also identified as possible locations, notably the Azores. The submerged island of Spartel near the Strait of Gibraltar has also been suggested.[23] The Atlantic Ocean is Earths second-largest ocean, covering approximately one_fifth of its surface. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Olaus Rudbeckius, senior or (1630-1702), Swedish scientist and writer, professor of medicine at Uppsala University and for several periods rector magnificus (headmaster) of the same university. ... Atland, or Aldland as it is sometimes spelt, is the name applied to Atlantis by the Oera Linda Book. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto:  (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem:  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Ethnic groups  Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,346 km² (n/a... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Other locations

Other locations include Antarctica, Indonesia, underneath the Bermuda Triangle,[24] and the Caribbean Sea have been proposed as the true site of Atlantis. Areas in the Pacific and Indian Oceans have also been proposed including Indonesia, Malaysia or both (i.e. Sundaland) and stories of a lost continent off India named "Kumari Kandam" have drawn parallels to Atlantis. So has the Yonaguni monument of Japan. Even Cuba and the Bahamas have been suggested. According to Ignatius L. Donnelly in his book Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, there is a connection between Atlantis and Aztlan (the ancestral home of the Aztecs). He claims that the Aztecs pointed east to the Caribbean as the former location of Aztlan. NASA image of the western Atlantic, showing the popular borders of the Bermuda Triangle. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Pacific redirects here. ... Sundaland is a biogeographical region of Southeast Asia that comprises the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian islands of Sumatra, Java, Bali, Borneo, and surrounding smaller islands. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... For the breed of horse, see Yonaguni (horse). ... [--168. ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... Aztl n is the Aztec/Mexica place of origin in Northern Mexico — perhaps in the area of the present-day southwestern US states or perhaps an island in part of the modern Mexican state of Nayarit. ...


Art, literature and popular culture

Illustration by Lloyd K. Townsend.
Illustration by Lloyd K. Townsend.

The legend of Atlantis is featured in many books, films, television series, games, songs and other creative works. Recent examples of Atlantis on-screen include the television series Stargate Atlantis and the Disney animated film Atlantis: The Lost Empire. The video game Tomb Raider features Atlantis as the basis of its plot and the location for its climactic ending. It is also featured prominently and somewhat philosophically in Robert Anton Wilson and Robert Shea's epic Illuminatus! trilogy. Having become a permanent member of popular culture, Atlantis is frequently featured in many books, television shows, movies and other creative works. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (626 × 770 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Atlantis Imaginary world ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 487 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (626 × 770 pixel, file size: 212 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Atlantis Imaginary world ... Stargate Atlantis (often abbreviated as SGA) is an American-Canadian science fiction television program, part of the Stargate franchise owned by MGM. Developed by longtime SG-1 producers Brad Wright and Robert C. Cooper, it is a spin-off from the television series Stargate SG-1. ... Milo trying to convince scholars of Atlantis existence. ... This article is about the original video game. ...


See also

This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Lemuria is the name of a hypothetical lost land variously located in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. ... Lyonesse, Lyoness, or Lyonnesse is the sunken land believed in legend to lie off the Isles of Scilly, to the south-west of Cornwall. ... Meropis (Ancient Greek: ) is a fictional island mentioned by ancient Greek writer Theopompus of Chios in his work Philippica, which is only fragmentarily maintained via Ailianus. ... Underwater structures controversially identified as remnants of Mu, near Yonaguni, Japan Mu is the name of a hypothetical vanished continent. ... Thule as Tile on the Carta Marina by Olaus Magnus. ... Flight of King Gradlon, by E. V. Luminais, 1884 (Musée des Beaux-Arts, Quimper) Ys (also spelled Is or Ker-Ys in Breton) is a mythical city built in the Douarnenez bay in Brittany by Gradlon, King of Cornouaille, for his daughter Dahut. ... Vineta or Wineta is an ancient and possibly legendary town believed to have been on the German or Polish coast of the Baltic Sea. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Atlantis: the Myth by Alan G. Hefner
  2. ^ Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
  3. ^ Atlantis — Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  4. ^ Critias 113, Bury translation.
  5. ^ Critias 115e, Bury translation.
  6. ^ Timaeus 25c–d, Bury translation.
  7. ^ Nesselrath (2005), pp. 161–171.
  8. ^ Proclus, In Tim. 1,76,1–2 (= FGrHist 665, F 31)
  9. ^ Timaios 24a: τὰ γράμματα λαβόντες.
  10. ^ Proclus, Commentary on Plato's Timaeus, p. 117.10–30 (=FGrHist 671 F 1), trans. Taylor, Nesselrath).
  11. ^ Strabo 2.3.6
  12. ^ Nesselrath 1998, pp. 1–8.
  13. ^ Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 7=35.
  14. ^ Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Keith. Lost Continents: Atlantis.
  15. ^ Selin, Helaine 2000, Astronomy Across Cultures: The History of Non-Western Astronomy, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands, pg 574. ISBN 0-7923-6363-9
  16. ^ Isaac Newton (1728). The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms Amended
  17. ^ Robinson, Lytle, 1972, Edgar Cayce’s Story of the Origin and Destiny of Man, Berkeley Books, New York, pg 51.
  18. ^ J.Annas, Plato: A Very Short Introduction (OUP 2003), p.42 (emphasis not in the original)
  19. ^ The wave that destroyed Atlantis Harvey Lilley, BBC News Online, 2007-04-20. Retrieved 2007-04-21.
  20. ^ Atlantis Motherland http://atlantis-today.com]
  21. ^ Galanopoulos, Angelos Geōrgiou, and Edward Bacon, Atlantis: The Truth Behind the Legend, Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1969
  22. ^ Lovgren, Stefan (2004-08-19). Atlantis "Evidence" Found in Spain and Ireland. National Geographic. Retrieved on 2007-12-05.
  23. ^ http://antiquity.ac.uk/ProjGall/kuhne/ A location for "Atlantis"? Rainer W. Kühne Antiquity Vol 78 No 300 June 2004
  24. ^ Hanson, Bill. The Atlantis Triangle. 2003.

Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, better known as FGrH (Fragments of the Greek Historians), is a monumental collection by Felix Jacoby of the works of those ancient Greek historians whose works have been lost, but we have citations, extracts or summaries. ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ... Porphyry (Greek Πορφύριος purple-clad) may refer to: Porphyry of Tyros (c. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Ancient sources

  • Plato, Not full version: Timaeus. Full version: Web archive backup: Timaeus, translated by Benjamin Jowett; alternative version with commentary.
  • Plato, Not full version: Critias. Full version: Web archive backup: Critias, translated by Benjamin Jowett; alternative version with commentary.

For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Benjamin Jowett (April 15, 1817 – October 1, 1893) was an English scholar and theologian, Master of Balliol College, Oxford. ...

Modern sources

  • Bichler, R (1986). 'Athen besiegt Atlantis. Eine Studie über den Ursprung der Staatsutopie', Canopus, vol. 20, no. 51, pp. 71–88.
  • Cayce, Edgar Evans (1968). Edgar Cayce's Atlantis. ISBN 9780876045121
  • Crowley, Aleister - Lost Continent
  • De Camp, LS (1954). Lost Continents: The Atlantis Theme in History, Science, and Literature, New York: Gnome Press.
  • Castleden, Rodney (2001) Atlantis Destroye'd', London:Routledge
  • Donnelly, I (1882). Atlantis: The Antediluvian World, New York: Harper & Bros. Retrieved November 6, 2001, from Project Gutenberg.
  • Ellis, R (1998). Imaging Atlantis, New York: Knopf. ISBN 0-679-44602-8
  • Erlingsson, U (2004). Atlantis from a Geographer's Perspective: Mapping the Fairy Land, Miami: Lindorm. ISBN 0-9755946-0-5
  • Flem-Ath R, Wilson C (2001). The Atlantis Blueprint: Unlocking the Ancient Mysteries of a Long-Lost Civilization, Delacorte Press
  • Frau, S (2002). Le Colonne d'Ercole: Un'inchiesta, Rome: Nur neon. ISBN 88-900740-0-0
  • Gill, C (1976). 'The origin of the Atlantis myth', Trivium, vol. 11, pp. 8–9.
  • Gordon, J.S. (2008). 'The Rise and Fall of Atlantis: and the mysterious origins of human civilization', Watkins Publishing, London. ISBN 978-1-905857-24-1
  • Görgemanns, H (2000). 'Wahrheit und Fiktion in Platons Atlantis-Erzählung', Hermes, vol. 128, pp. 405–420.
  • Griffiths, JP (1985). 'Atlantis and Egypt', Historia, vol. 34, pp. 35f.
  • Heidel, WA (1933). 'A suggestion concerning Platon's Atlantis', Daedalus, vol. 68, pp. 189–228.
  • Jordan, P (1994). The Atlantis Syndrome, Stroud: Sutton Publishing. ISBN 0-7509-3518-9
  • Luce, J V (1982). End of Atlantis: New Light on an Old Legend, Efstathiadis Group: Greece
  • Martin, TH [1841] (1981). 'Dissertation sur l'Atlantide', in TH Martin, Études sur le Timée de Platon, Paris: Librairie philosophique J. Vrin, pp. 257–332.
  • Morgan, KA (1998). 'Designer history: Plato's Atlantis story and fourth-century ideology', Journal of Hellenic Studies, vol. 118, pp. 101–118.
  • Muck, O (1978). 'The Secret of Atlantis', Book Club associates London
  • Nesselrath, HG (1998). 'Theopomps Meropis und Platon: Nachahmung und Parodie', Göttinger Forum für Altertumswissenschaft, vol. 1, pp. 1–8.
  • Nesselrath, HG (2001a). 'Atlantes und Atlantioi: Von Platon zu Dionysios Skytobrachion', Philologus, vol. 145, pp. 34–38.
  • Nesselrath, HG (2001b). 'Atlantis auf ägyptischen Stelen? Der Philosoph Krantor als Epigraphiker', Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik, vol. 135, pp. 33–35.
  • Nesselrath, HG (2002). Platon und die Erfindung von Atlantis, München/Leipzig: KG Saur Verlag. ISBN 3-598-77560-1
  • Nesselrath, HG (2005). 'Where the Lord of the Sea Grants Passage to Sailors through the Deep-blue Mere no More: The Greeks and the Western Seas', Greece & Rome, vol. 52, pp. 153–171.
  • Phillips, ED (1968). 'Historical Elements in the Myth of Atlantis', Euphrosyne, vol. 2, pp. 3–38.
  • Ramage, ES (1978). Atlantis: Fact or Fiction?, Bloomington: Indiana University Press. ISBN 0-253-10482-3
  • Settegast, M. (1987). Plato Prehistorian: 10,000 to 5000 B.C. in Myth and Archaeology, Cambridge, MA, Rotenberg Press.
  • Spence, L [1926] (2003). The History of Atlantis, Mineola, NY: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-42710-2
  • Szlezák, TA (1993). 'Atlantis und Troia, Platon und Homer: Bemerkungen zum Wahrheitsanspruch des Atlantis-Mythos', Studia Troica, vol. 3, pp. 233–237.
  • Vidal-Naquet, P (1986). 'Athens and Atlantis: Structure and Meaning of a Platonic Myth', in P Vidal-Naquet, The Black Hunter, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, pp. 263–284. ISBN 0-8018-3251-9
  • Wilson, Colin (1996). From Atlantis to the Sphinx ISBN 1-85227-526-X
  • Zangger, E (1993). The Flood from Heaven: Deciphering the Atlantis legend, New York: William Morrow and Company. ISBN 0-688-11350-8

Edgar Cayce (March 18, 1877 – January 3, 1945) (pronounced or like Casey) was an American who claimed psychic abilities. ... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley, (12 October 1875 – 1 December 1947; the surname is pronounced // i. ... Lyon Sprague de Camp, (November 27, 1907 – November 6, 2000) was an American science fiction and fantasy author. ... Lost Lands are islands or continents believed by some to have existed during pre-history, but to have since disappeared as a result of catastrophic geological phenomena. ... Ignatius Loyola Donnelly (November 3, 1831 – January 1, 1901) was a U.S. Congressman, populist, and writer, known primarily today for his theories on the history of Atlantis and Shakespearean authorship. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Mary Settegast is a contemporary American scholar and author who specializes in the Neolithic Age. ... Lewis Spence (November 25, 1874 - March 3, 1955) was a Scottish journalist and writer. ... Pierre Vidal-Naquet (1930, Paris) is a French historian, teacher at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sciences Sociales (EHESS). ... For other uses, see Colin Wilson (disambiguation). ... From Atlantis to the Sphinx is a work of non-fiction by the British author, Colin Wilson, with the subheading Recovering the Lost Wisdom of the Ancient World. ... Eberhard Zangger, (born in 1958), a senior research associate in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Cambridge (1988–91), is a German writer on geoarchaeology investigating the global interrelations between man and environment, especially in the prehistoric and protohistoric Aegean. ...

External links

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Atlantis


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