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Encyclopedia > Atlantic Ocean
Earth's oceans
(World Ocean)

The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions; with a total area of about 106.4 million square kilometres (41.1 million square miles). It covers approximately one-fifth of the Earth's surface. The first part of its name refers to the Atlas of Greek mythology, making the Atlantic the "Sea of Atlas". The oldest known mention of this name is contained in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC (I 202); see also: Atlas Mountains. Before Europeans discovered other oceans, the term "ocean" was synonymous with the waters beyond Western Europe that we now know as the Atlantic and which the Greeks had believed to be a gigantic river encircling the world; see Oceanus. Atlantic may mean: The Atlantic Ocean, a major ocean in the world Atlantic Canada, consisting of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean Atlantic, Iowa Atlantic, Pennsylvania Atlantic, Virginia Atlantic City, New Jersey Atlantic County, New Jersey Atlantic Beach, Florida Atlantic Beach, North Carolina Atlantic Beach, New York Atlantic... The North Atlantic is the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... In Greek mythology, Atlas was one of the primordial Titans. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Map showing the location of the Atlas Mountains (colored red) across North Africa The Atlas Mountains (Arabic: ‎) are a mountain range in northwest Africa extending about 2,400 km (1,500 miles) through Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia, and including The Rock of Gibraltar. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ...

The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions.
The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions.

The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between the Americas to the west, and Eurasia and Africa to the east. A component of the all-encompassing World Ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean (which is sometimes considered a sea of the Atlantic), to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and the Southern Ocean in the south. (Alternatively, in lieu of it connecting to the Southern Ocean, the Atlantic may be reckoned to extend southward to Antarctica.) The equator subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and South Atlantic Ocean. File links The following pages link to this file: Atlantic Ocean Categories: CIA World Factbook images | Ocean maps ... File links The following pages link to this file: Atlantic Ocean Categories: CIA World Factbook images | Ocean maps ... The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region For the ship, see SS Arctic. ... Greek ἀνταρκτικός, opposite the arctic) is a continent surrounding the Earths South Pole. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The term World Ocean refers to the interconnected system of the planet Earths marine waters. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...

Contents

Geography

The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the eastern coast of North America near the shared boundary of North and South Carolina on a hazy summer day.
The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the eastern coast of North America near the shared boundary of North and South Carolina on a hazy summer day.

The Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by North and South America. In the north and northeast, it's separated from the Arctic Ocean by the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Greenland, Iceland, Jan Mayen, Svalbard, and mainland Europe. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea, and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe, the Strait of Gibraltar (where it connects with the Mediterranean Sea, one of its marginal seas, and, in turn, the Black Sea), and Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean, the border being defined by the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica. While some authorities show the Atlantic Ocean extending south to Antarctica, others show it as bounded to the south by the Southern Ocean [1]. In the southwest, the Drake Passage connects it to the Pacific Ocean. A man-made link between the Atlantic and Pacific is provided by the Panama Canal. Beside those mentioned, other large bodies of water adjacent to the Atlantic are the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, Hudson Bay, the Arctic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, and the Celtic Sea. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 2. ... World map depicting Canadian Arctic Archipelago Polar projection map of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago Reference map of Canadian Arctic Archipelago The Canadian Arctic Archipelago, also known as just the Arctic Archipelago, is an archipelago north of the Canadian mainland in the Arctic. ... The Denmark Strait is a strait between Greenland and Iceland. ... The Greenland Sea exists next to the Norwegian Sea. ... The Norwegian Sea (Norwegian: Norskehavet) is part of the North Atlantic Ocean northwest of Norway, located between the North Sea (i. ... Location of the Barents Sea. ... The Strait of Gibraltar as seen from space (on the left: Spain) A view across the Strait of Gibraltar taken from the hills over Tarifa, Spain The Strait of Gibraltar (Arabic: مضيق جبل طارق, Spanish: Estrecho de Gibraltar) is the strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain... Mediterranean redirects here. ... A marginal sea is a part of ocean partially enclosed by land such as islands, archipelagos, or peninsulas. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... A marker at Cape Agulhas indicates the official dividing line between the Atlantic and Indian oceans. ... Drake Passage between South America and Antarctica. ... The Panama Canal is a waterway in Central America which joins the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... New York Harbor, the outflow for Hudson River, is sometimes called Hudsons Bay. Hudson Bay, Canada. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Map of the Celtic Sea, an arm of the Atlantic. ...


Covering approximately 22% of Earth's surface, the Atlantic Ocean is second only to the Pacific Ocean in size. With its adjacent seas it occupies an area of about 106,400,000 square kilometers (41,100,000 sq mi); without them, it has an area of 82,400,000 square kilometres (31,800,000 sq mi). The land area that drains into the Atlantic is four times that of either the Pacific or Indian oceans. The volume of the Atlantic Ocean with its adjacent seas is 354,700,000 cubic kilometers (85,100,000 cu mi) and without them 323,600,000 cubic kilometres (77,640,000 cu mi). Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A cubic kilometre (symbol km³) is an SI derived unit of volume. ... A cubic mile is an Imperial unit/U.S. customary unit (non-SI non-metric) of volume, used in the United States. ...


The average depths of the Atlantic, with its adjacent seas, is 3,339 meters (10,936 ft); without them it is 3,926 metres (12,881 ft). The greatest depth, 8,605 metres (28,232 ft), is in the Puerto Rico Trench. The width of the Atlantic varies from 2,848 kilometers (1,770 mi) between Brazil and sierra Leone to over 4,000 mi in the south. The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... Location map Puerto Rico trench - USGS The Puerto Rico Trench is an oceanic trench located on the boundary between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ...


Ocean bottom

The principal feature of the bathymetry (bottom topography) of the Atlantic Ocean is a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It extends from Iceland in the north to approximately 58° South latitude, reaching a maximum width of about 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi). A great rift valley also extends along the ridge over most of its length. The depth of water over the ridge is less than 2,700 m (8,900 ft) in most places, and several mountain peaks rise above the water and form islands. The South Atlantic Ocean has an additional submarine ridge, the Walvis Ridge. Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... For discussion of land surfaces themselves, see Terrain. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ... African Rift Valley. ...


The Mid-Atlantic Ridge separates the Atlantic Ocean into two large troughs with depths averaging between 3,700 and 5,500 metres (12,000 and 18,000 ft). Transverse ridges running between the continents and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge divide the ocean floor into numerous basins. Some of the larger basins are the Blake, Guiana, North American, Cape Verde, and Canaries basins in the North Atlantic. The largest South Atlantic basins are the Angola, Cape, Argentina, and Brazil basins. In geology, a trough generally referrs to a depression that extends laterally over a distence, while being less steep than a trench. ...


The deep ocean floor is thought to be fairly flat, although numerous seamounts and some guyots exist. Several deeps or trenches are also found on the ocean floor. The Puerto Rico Trench, in the North Atlantic, is the deepest. The Laurentian Abyss is found off the eastern coast of Canada. In the South Atlantic, the South Sandwich Trench reaches a depth of 8,428 metres (27,651 ft). A third major trench, the Romanche Trench, is located near the equator and reaches a depth of about 7,454 metres (24,455 ft). The shelves along the margins of the continents constitute about 11% of the bottom topography. Several deep channels cut across the continental rise. A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the waters surface (sea level), and thus is not an island. ... A guyot is a flat-topped seamount. ... The Laurentian Abyss is a trench in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Canada. ... The South Sandwich Trench is the deepest trench of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, and the second deepest of the Atlantic Ocean, after the Puerto Rico Trench. ... The Romanche Trench, also called Romanche Furrow or Romanche Gap, is the third deepest of the major trenches of the Atlantic Ocean, after the Puerto Rico Trench and the South Sandwich Trench. ... World map showing the equator in red In tourist areas, the equator is often marked on the sides of roads The equator marked as it crosses Ilhéu das Rolas, in São Tomé and Príncipe. ...


Ocean sediments are composed of terrigenous, pelagic, and authigenic material. Terrigenous deposits consist of sand, mud, and rock particles formed by erosion, weathering, and volcanic activity on land and then washed to sea. These materials are found mostly on the continental shelves and are thickest off the mouths of large rivers or off desert coasts. Pelagic deposits, which contain the remains of organisms that sink to the ocean floor, include red clays and Globigerina, pteropod, and siliceous oozes. Covering most of the ocean floor and ranging in thickness from 60 to 3,300 metres (200 to 11,000 ft), they are thickest in the convergence belts and in the zones of upwelling. Authigenic deposits consist of such materials as manganese nodules. They occur where sedimentation proceeds slowly or where currents sort the deposits This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...  Sediment  Rock  Mantle  The global continental shelf, highlighted in cyan The continental shelf is the extended perimeter of each continent and associated coastal plain, which is covered during interglacial periods such as the current epoch by relatively shallow seas (known as shelf seas) and gulfs. ... An order of calcareous planktic Foraminifera. ... Families Limacinidae Cavoliniidae Clioidae Creseidae Cuvierinidae Praecuvierinidae Peraclididae Cymbuliidae Desmopteridae Sea butterflies, or flapping snails, are holoplanktonic mollusks (Mollusca, Gasteropoda), belonging to the suborder Thecosomata (Blainville, 1824). ... Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Water characteristics

The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the west coast of Ireland on a fair day
The Atlantic Ocean as seen from the west coast of Ireland on a fair day

On average, the Atlantic is the saltiest of the world's major oceans; the salinity of the surface waters in the open ocean ranges from 33 to 37 parts per thousand (3.3 - 3.7%) by mass and varies with latitude and season. Surface salinity values are influenced by evaporation, precipitation, river inflow, and melting of sea ice. Although the minimum salinity values are found just north of the equator (because of heavy tropical rainfall), in general the lowest values are in the high latitudes and along coasts where large rivers flow into the ocean. Maximum salinity values occur at about 25° north and south of the equator, in subtropical regions with low rainfall and high evaporation. Image File history File links Ireland-AtlanticOceanwithAranIsland. ... Image File history File links Ireland-AtlanticOceanwithAranIsland. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... An icebreaker navigates through young (1 year old) sea ice Nilas Sea Ice in arctic Sea ice is formed from ocean water that freezes. ... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ...


Surface water temperatures, which vary with latitude, current systems, and season and reflect the latitudinal distribution of solar energy, range from less than −2 °C to 29 °C (28 °F to 84 °F). Maximum temperatures occur north of the equator, and minimum values are found in the polar regions. In the middle latitudes, the area of maximum temperature variations, values may vary by 7 °C to 8 °C (13 °F to 14 °F). For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ...


The Atlantic Ocean consists of four major water masses. The North and South Atlantic central waters constitute the surface waters. The sub-Antarctic intermediate water extends to depths of 1,000 metres (3,300 ft). The North Atlantic Deep Water reaches depths of as much as 4,000 metres (13,200 ft). The Antarctic Bottom Water occupies ocean basins at depths greater than 4,000 metres (13,200 ft). North Atlantic Deep Water The North Atlantic Deep Water is a water mass, buit in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Within the North Atlantic, ocean currents isolate a large elongated body of water known as the Sargasso Sea, in which the salinity is noticeably higher than average. The Sargasso Sea contains large amounts of seaweed and is also the spawning ground for both the European eel and the American eel. For the novel by Jean Rhys, see Wide Sargasso Sea. ... Ascophyllum nodosum exposed to the sun in Nova Scotia, Canada Dead Mans Fingers (Codium fragile) off Massachusetts coast For the band, see; Seaweed (band) For the rock musician, see; Seaweed (musician) Seaweeds are any of a large number of marine benthic algae. ... Binomial name Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758) The European Eel, Anguilla anguilla, is a snakelike fish. ... Binomial name Anguilla rostrata Le Sueur, 1821 The American eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a fish found on the Eastern coast of the United States. ...


Because of the Coriolis effect, water in the North Atlantic circulates in a clockwise direction, whereas water circulation in the South Atlantic is counter-clockwise. The south tides in the Atlantic Ocean are semi-diurnal; that is, two high tides occur during each 24 lunar hours. The tides are a general wave that moves from south to north. In latitudes above 40° North some east-west oscillation occurs. In the inertial frame of reference (upper part of the picture), the black object moves in a straight line. ... This article is about tides in the Earths oceans. ...


Climate

Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes
Waves in the trade winds in the Atlantic Ocean—areas of converging winds that move along the same track as the prevailing wind—create instabilities in the atmosphere that may lead to the formation of hurricanes

The climate of the Atlantic Ocean and adjacent land areas is influenced by the temperatures of the surface waters and water currents as well as the winds blowing across the waters. Because of the ocean's great capacity for retaining heat, maritime climates are more moderate and have less tendency toward extreme seasonal variations than inland climates. Precipitation can be approximated from coastal weather data and air temperature from the water temperatures. The oceans are the major source of the atmospheric moisture that is obtained through evaporation. Climatic zones vary with latitude; the warmest climatic zones stretch across the Atlantic north of the equator. The coldest zones are in the high latitudes, with the coldest regions corresponding to the areas covered by sea ice. Ocean currents contribute to climatic control by transporting warm and cold waters to other regions. Adjacent land areas are affected by the winds that are cooled or warmed when blowing over these currents. The Gulf Stream and its northern extension towards Europe, the North Atlantic Drift, for example, warms the atmosphere of the British Isles and north-western Europe, and the cold water currents contribute to heavy fog off the coast of eastern Canada (the Grand Banks area) and the north-western coast of Africa. In general, winds tend to transport moisture and warm or cool air over land areas. Hurricanes develop in the southern part of the North Atlantic Ocean. Image File history File links http://earthobservatory. ... Image:Atmospheric circulatlion. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... The North Atlantic drift is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast. ... Map showing the Grand Banks Historic map of the Grand Banks. ... Cyclone Catarina, a rare South Atlantic tropical cyclone viewed from the International Space Station on March 26, 2004 Hurricane and Typhoon redirect here. ...


History

Pangaea separation animation, which formed the Atlantic Ocean known today.
Pangaea separation animation, which formed the Atlantic Ocean known today.

The Atlantic Ocean appears to be the second youngest of all five oceans. Evidence indicates that it did not exist prior to 130 million years ago, when the continents that formed from the breakup of the ancestral super continent, Pangaea, were being rifted apart by the process of seafloor spreading. The Atlantic has been extensively explored since the earliest settlements were established along its shores. The Vikings, the Portuguese, and Christopher Columbus were the most famous among its early explorers. After Columbus, European exploration rapidly accelerated, and many new trade routes were established. As a result, the Atlantic became and remains the major artery between Europe and the Americas (known as transatlantic trade). Numerous scientific explorations have been undertaken, most famously the Challenger expedition, but also including those by the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont Geological Observatory, and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office. Image File history File links Pangea_animation_03. ... Image File history File links Pangea_animation_03. ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Pangaea (disambiguation). ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... For other uses, see Transatlantic (disambiguation). ... The Challenger Expedition was a scientific expedition that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... USN redirects here. ... A hydrographic office is an organisation which is devoted to acquiring and publishing hydrographic information. ...


While there is evidence of pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact of various dates, here are some important recent events in relation to the Atlantic:

In 1865 the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable was laid by Brunell's ship the Great Eastern. Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... [--168. ... Giovanni da Verrazzano (c. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Hearts Content, in eastern Newfoundland. ... Cyrus West Field Cyrus West Field c. ... Great Eastern may refer to: The Great Eastern, a steam ship built by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1858. ...

  • On April 15, 1912 the RMS Titanic sank after hitting an iceberg with loss of 1,593 people.
  • In 1919, the American NC-4 became the first airplane (seaplane) to cross the Atlantic (though it made a couple of landings on islands and the sea along the way, and taxied several hundred miles on the surface).
  • Later in 1919, a British airplane piloted by Alcock and Brown made the first non-stop transatlantic flight, from Newfoundland to Ireland.
  • In 1921, the British were the first to cross the North Atlantic in an airship.
  • In 1922, the Portuguese were the first to cross the South Atlantic in an airship.
  • The first transatlantic telephone call was made on January 7, 1927.
  • In 1927, Charles Lindbergh made the first solo non-stop transatlantic flight in an airplane (between New York City and Paris).
  • In 1952, Ann Davison was the first woman to single-handedly sail the Atlantic Ocean.
  • In 1980, Gérard d'Aboville is the first man to cross the Atlantic Ocean rowing.
  • In 1994, Guy Delage was the first man to swim across the Atlantic Ocean, from the Cape Verde islands to Barbados.
  • In 1998, Benoit Lecomte was the first man to swim across the northern Atlantic Ocean, stopping for only one week in the Azores.
  • After rowing for 81 days and 4,767 kilometres (2,962 mi), on December 3, 1999, Tori Murden became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by rowboat alone when she reached Guadeloupe from the Canary Islands.

is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Titanic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... The NC-4 was the first aircraft to fly across the Atlantic Ocean. ... Airplane and Aeroplane redirect here. ... Fixed-wing aircraft is a term used to refer to what are more commonly known as aeroplanes in Commonwealth English (excluding Canada) or airplanes in North American English. ... Statue of Alcock and Brown at London Heathrow Airport. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... USS Akron (ZRS-4) in flight, November 2, 1931 An airship or dirigible is a buoyant lighter-than-air aircraft that can be steered and propelled through the air. ... For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Augustus Lindbergh (4 February 1902 – 26 August 1974), known as Lucky Lindy and The Lone Eagle, was an American pilot famous for the first solo, non-stop flight across the Atlantic, from Roosevelt Field, Long Island to Paris in 1927 in the Spirit of St. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Ann Davison was, at the age of 39, the first woman to single-handedly sail the Atlantic Ocean. ... A gaff-rigged cutter flying a mainsail, staysail and genoa jib For other uses, see Sail (disambiguation). ... Motto: Unity, Work, Progress Anthem: Cântico da Liberdade Capital Praia Largest city Praia Official language(s) Portuguese (official) and nine Portuguese Creoles Government Republic  - President Pedro Pires  - Prime Minister José Maria Neves Independence from Portugal   - Recognized July 5, 1975  Area    - Total 4,033 km² (165th)   1,557 sq mi... Benoit Lecomte was the first man to swim across the Atlantic Ocean. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Tori Murden became the first woman to cross the Atlantic Ocean by rowboat alone on December 3, 1999 After rowing for 81 days and 4,767 kilometres (2,962 miles). ... The GB coxless pair of Toby Garbett & Rick Dunn at Henley Royal Regatta 2004. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...

Economy

The ocean has also contributed significantly to the development and economy of the countries around it. Besides its major transatlantic transportation and communication routes, the Atlantic offers abundant petroleum deposits in the sedimentary rocks of the continental shelves and the world's richest fishing resources, especially in the waters covering the shelves. The major species of fish caught are cod, haddock, hake, herring, and mackerel. The most productive areas include the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, the shelf area off Nova Scotia, Georges Bank off Cape Cod, the Bahama Banks, the waters around Iceland, the Irish Sea, the Dogger Bank of the North Sea, and the Falkland Banks. Eel, lobster, and whales have also been taken in great quantities. All these factors, taken together, tremendously enhance the Atlantic's great commercial value. Because of the threats to the ocean environment presented by oil spills, marine debris, and the incineration of toxic wastes at sea, various international treaties exist to reduce some forms of pollution. Petro redirects here. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... For other uses, see Haddock (disambiguation). ... The term hake refers to fish in either of: families Gadidae (subfamily Phycinae) families Merlucciidae (both subfamilies Merlucciinae and Steindachneriinae). ... Species Clupea alba Clupea bentincki Clupea caspiopontica Clupea chrysotaenia Clupea elongata Clupea halec Clupea harengus Clupea inermis Clupea leachii Clupea lineolata Clupea minima Clupea mirabilis Clupea pallasii Clupea sardinacaroli Clupea sulcata Herrings are small, oily fish of the genus Clupea found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Atlantic... Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867... Georges Bank is a large elevated area of the sea floor which separates the Gulf of Maine from the Atlantic Ocean and is situated between Cape Cod, Massachusetts and Cape Sable Island, Nova Scotia. ... This article is about the area of Massachusetts known as Cape Cod. For other uses, see Cape Cod (disambiguation). ... Relief map of the Irish Sea. ... Location of the Dogger Bank Dogger Bank (from dogge, an old Dutch word for fishing boat) is a large sandbank in a shallow area of the North Sea about 100 km off the coast of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see Eel (disambiguation). ... Subfamilies and Genera Neophoberinae Acanthacaris Thymopinae Nephropsis Nephropides Thymops Thymopsis Nephropinae Homarus Nephrops Homarinus Metanephrops Eunephrops Thymopides Clawed lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans. ... This article is about the animal. ... A turtle is trapped in a ghost net, an abandoned fishing net Marine debris usually applies to floating waste such as bottles, cans, styrofoam, cruise ship waste, offshore oil and gas exploration and production facilities pollution, and fishing paraphanalia from professional and recreational boaters. ...


Terrain

Atlantic bathymetry
Atlantic bathymetry

The surface is usually covered with sea ice in the Labrador Sea, Denmark Strait, and Baltic Sea from October to June. There is a clockwise warm-water gyre in the northern Atlantic, and a counter-clockwise warm-water gyre in the southern Atlantic. The ocean floor is dominated by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, a rugged north-south centerline for the entire Atlantic basin, first discovered by the Challenger Expedition. This was formed by the vulcanism that also formed the floor of the Atlantic, and the islands rising from it. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1825x2000, 449 KB) Summary The Atlantic Ocean. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1825x2000, 449 KB) Summary The Atlantic Ocean. ... Bathymetry is the underwater equivalent to topography. ... Labrador Sea (French: mer du Labrador) (60°00N, 55°00W) is an arm of the North Atlantic Ocean between Labrador and Greenland. ... A gyre is any manner of swirling vortex. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ... The Challenger Expedition was a scientific expedition that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography. ...


The Atlantic Ocean has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays, gulfs, and seas. These include Norwegian Sea, Baltic Sea, North Sea, Labrador Sea, Black Sea, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Bay of Fundy, Gulf of Maine, Mediterranean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean Sea. For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Gulf of Saint Lawrence, the worlds largest estuary, is the outlet of North Americas Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Gulf of Maine The Gulf of Maine is a large gulf of the Atlantic Ocean on the northeastern coast of North America. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ...


Islands in the Atlantic Ocean include Greenland, Iceland, Faroe Islands, The British Isles (including Great Britain, Ireland and numerous surrounding islands), Rockall, Newfoundland, Sable Island, Azores, Madeira, Bermuda, Canary Islands, Caribbean, Cape Verde, Sao Tome e Principe, Annobon Province, St. Peter, Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Ascension Island, Saint Helena, The Islands of Trindad, Tristan da Cunha, Diego Alverez (Also known as Gough Island), Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, South Georgia Island, South Sandwich Islands, and Bouvet Island. Location of the British Isles The British Isles are a group of islands off the north west coast of continental Europe comprising Great Britain, Ireland and a number of smaller islands. ... Rockall, a small, isolated rocky islet in the North Atlantic Ocean Rockall is a small, uninhabited, rocky islet in the North Atlantic, and one of the sea areas named in the Shipping Forecast broadcast on BBC Radio 4. ... Newfoundland —   IPA: [nuw fÉ™n lænd] (French: , Irish: ) is a large island off the east coast of North America, and the most populous part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ... Sable Island from space, April 1994. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The islands of São Tomé and Príncipe, situated in the equatorial Atlantic about 300 and 250 kilometers (200 and 150 miles), respectively, off the northwestern coast of Gabon, constitute one of Africas smallest countries. ... Location of Annobón. ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ... Aerial view of the island from the north east Image:Orthographic projection centred over Fernando de Noronha Fernando de Noronha is an archipelago in the Atlantic Ocean, around 220 miles (354 km) offshore from the Brazilian coast. ... Rocas Atoll ( Atol das Rocas) is an atoll in the Atlantic Ocean at location 03°52′S 33°49′W. It is part of Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. ... Anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Georgetown Largest city Georgetown Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... The islands of Trindade and Martim Vaz (also called Martin Vaz), which are located 715 km East of Vitória in the Southern Atlantic Ocean, belong to the Brazilian state of Espírito Santo. ... Motto Our faith is our strength Anthem God Save the Queen Capital (and largest city) Edinburgh of the Seven Seas Official languages English Government Dependency of St. ... Gough Island (occasionally referred to (erroneously) as Diego Alvarez) is a volcanic island rising from the South Atlantic Ocean to heights of over 900 metres (2950 ft) above sea level with an area of approximately 65 km² (25 mi²). It is part of Tristan da Cunha, a dependency of the... Tierra del Fuego Cerro Sombrero Village, Chile. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ... South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is an overseas territory of the United Kingdom, also claimed by Argentina. ...


Elevation extremes

  • lowest point: Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench −8,605 metres (-28,232 ft)
  • highest point: sea level, 0 m (0 ft)

Milwaukee Deep is the deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean, with a maximum depth of 28,232 feet (8605 meters) and is part of the Puerto Rico Trench. ...

Natural resources

Petroleum and gas fields, fish, marine mammals (seals and whales), sand and gravel aggregates, placer deposits, polymetallic nodules, precious stones For other uses, see Gas (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... In geology, a placer deposit is a deposit of earth, sand, or gravel, containing valuable minerals in particles, especially by the side of a river, or in the bed of a mountain stream. ... Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core. ...


Natural hazards

Icebergs are common in the Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, and the northwestern Atlantic Ocean from February to August and have been spotted as far south as Bermuda and the Madeira Islands. Ships are subject to superstructure icing in extreme northern Atlantic from October to May. Persistent fog can be a maritime hazard from May to September, as can hurricanes north of the equator (May to December). For other uses, see Iceberg (disambiguation). ... Map of Baffin Island and surrounding areas, including Davis Strait. ... The Denmark Strait is a strait between Greenland and Iceland. ... Location Motto of the autonomous region: Das ilhas, as mais belas e livres (Portuguese: Of the islands, the most beautiful and free) Official language Portuguese Capital Funchal Other towns Porto Santo, Machico, Santa Cruz, Câmara de Lobos, Santana, Ribeira Brava, Caniço Area 797 km² Population  - Total (1991)  - Density... // Sociological concept In social sciences, superstructure is the set of socio-psychological feedback loops that maintain a coherent and meaningful structure in a given society, or part thereof. ... The crew of this ship was glad to make it to port Icing on ships is a serious hazard where cold temperatures (below about -10°C) combined with high wind speed (typically force 8 or above on the Beaufort scale) result in spray blown off the sea freezing immediately on...


The Bermuda Triangle is popularly believed to be the site of numerous aviation and shipping incidents because of unexplained and supposedly mysterious causes, but coast guard records do not support this belief. NASA image of the western Atlantic, showing the popular borders of the Bermuda Triangle. ...


Current environmental issues

Endangered marine species include the manatee, seals, sea lions, turtles, and whales. Drift net fishing is killing dolphins, albatrosses and other seabirds (petrels, auks), hastening the decline of fish stocks and contributing to international disputes [2]. There is municipal sludge pollution off the eastern United States, southern Brazil, and eastern Argentina; oil pollution in the Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, Lake Maracaibo, Mediterranean Sea, and North Sea; and industrial waste and municipal sewage pollution in the Baltic Sea, North Sea, and Mediterranean Sea. For other uses, see Manatee (disambiguation). ... Families Odobenidae Otariidae Phocidae Pinnipeds (fin-feet, lit. ... Genera Eumetopias <marquee> Zalophus Otaria Neophoca Phocarctos A resting Sea Lion in Galapagos National Park, Ecuador. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ... Drift nets are nets used in oceans. ... For other uses, see Dolphin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the bird family. ... A Southern Giant Petrel petrel chick Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. ... Genera Uria Alle Alca Pinguinus Synthliboramphus Cepphus Brachyramphus Ptychoramphus Aethia Cerorhinca Fratercula Extinct genera, see Systematics Auks are birds of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. ... Map of Central America and the Caribbean The Caribbean Sea (pronounced or ) is a tropical sea in the Western Hemisphere, part of the Atlantic Ocean, southeast of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... A map showing the location of Lake Maracaibo. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


In 2005, there was some concern that the currents warming northern Europe were slowing down, but no scientific consensus was formed based on the reported evidence.[3]


On June 7, 2006, Florida's wildlife commission voted to take the manatee off of the state's endangered species list. Some environmentalists worry that this could erode safeguards for the popular sea creature. is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Marine pollution

Main article: Marine pollution

Marine pollution is a generic term for the harmful entry into the ocean of chemicals or particles. The biggest culprit are rivers that empty into the Ocean, and with it the many chemicals used as fertilizers in agriculture as well as waste from livestock and humans. The excess of oxygen depleting chemicals in the water leads to hypoxia and the creation of a dead zone.[4] Pumping of highly toxic (dark black) sludge, much seeps back into the ocean in the form of particles. ... Fertilizers are chemicals given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil or by foliar spraying. ... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... It has been suggested that Anoxic sea water, Oxygen minimum zone, and Hypoxic zone be merged into this article or section. ... Sediment from the Mississippi River carries fertilizer to the Gulf of Mexico Dead zones are hypoxic (low-oxygen) areas in the worlds oceans, the observed incidences of which have been increasing since oceanographers began noting them in the 1970s. ...

See also: Ship pollution

Ship pollution is the pollution of water by shipping! It is a problem that has been accelerating as trade has become increasingly globalized. ...

Major ports and harbours

This is a list of ports and harbours of the Atlantic Ocean, in alphabetic order by continent and then country. ...

See also

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... For other uses, see Transatlantic (disambiguation). ... Transatlantic flight is any flight of an aircraft, whether fixed-wing aircraft, balloon or other device, which involves crossing the Atlantic Ocean -- with a starting point in North America or South America and ending in Europe or Africa, or vice versa. ... This is a list of islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... Ocean Highway was a designation established early in the 20th century for a combination of roadways and water-crossings for motor vehicles which would generally traverse as close as possible to the Atlantic Ocean along the East Coast of the United States from Jacksonville, Florida to New York City. ... See also: Age of Sail and Afro-Asiatic age of discovery For the computer wargame, Age of Discovery, see Global Diplomacy. ... Shutdown or slowdown of the thermohaline circulation is a possible effect of global warming. ...

References

  1. ^ Limits of Oceans and Seas. International Hydrographic Organization Special Publication No. 23, 1953.
  2. ^ animallaw.info: Problems and Prospects for the Pelagic Driftnet [1]
  3. ^ Atlantic Ocean's 'Heat Engine' Chills Down by Christopher Joyce. All Things Considered, National Public Radio, 30 Nov, 2005.
  4. ^ Gerlach: Marine Pollution, Springer, Berlin (1975)

Much of this article comes from the public domain site http://oceanographer.navy.mil/atlantic.html (dead link). It is now accessible from the Internet Archive at http://web.archive.org/web/20020221215514/http%3a//oceanographer.navy.mil/atlantic.html. A dead link or broken link is a link on the world wide web that points to a webpage or server that is permanently unavailable. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

  • Disclaimers for this website, including its status as a public domain resource, are recorded on the Internet Archive at http://web.archive.org/web/20020212021049/http%3a//oceanographer.navy.mil/warning.html.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 0° N 30° W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Atlantic Ocean. The World Factbook. 2003 (380 words)
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's five oceans (after the Pacific Ocean, but larger than the Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean).
The Atlantic Ocean provides some of the world's most heavily trafficked sea routes, between and within the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.
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Atlantic Ocean - MSN Encarta (0 words)
The Atlantic Ocean is essentially an S-shaped north-south channel, extending from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Antarctic continent in the south and situated between the eastern coast of the American continents and the western coasts of Europe and Africa.
The South Atlantic is arbitrarily separated from the Indian Ocean on the east by the 20° east meridian and from the Pacific on the west along the line of shallowest depth between Cape Horn and the Antarctic Peninsula.
In the eastern Atlantic, the Madeiras, Canaries, Cape Verde, and the São Tomé-Príncipe group are the peaks of submarine ridges.
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