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Encyclopedia > Athlon 64
The K8 architecture.

The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003.[1] It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP.[2] The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement AMD64 architecture and the first 64-bit processor targeted at the average consumer,[3] it is AMD's primary consumer microprocessor, and competes primarily with Intel's Pentium 4, especially the "Prescott" and "Cedar Mill" core revisions. It is AMD's first K8, eighth-generation processor core for desktop and mobile computers.[4] Despite being natively 64-bit, the AMD64 architecture is backward-compatible with 32-bit x86 instructions.[5] Athlon 64s have been produced for Socket 754, Socket 939, Socket 940, and Socket AM2. AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intels competing processors for a significant... The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels single-core mainstream desktop and laptop CPUs introduced on November 20, 2000[2] (August 8, 2008 is the date of last shipments of Pentium 4s[3]). They had the 7th-generation architecture - called NetBurst - which was the companys first all... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Socket 754 is a CPU socket originally developed by AMD to succeed its powerful Athlon XP platform (Socket 462, also referred to as Socket A). ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... Socket 940 is a 940-pin socket for 64-bit AMD server processors. ... The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ...

Athlon 64 3400+ "Newcastle" in Socket 754

All of the 64-bit processors sold by AMD so far have their genesis in the K8 or Hammer project. Image File history File links Athlon-64-Lenara-CG.jpg Description: Athlon 64 3400+ Newcastle in Socket 754 Date: 8 Sep 2004 Picture by: Alwin echoray Meschede License: GNU FDL Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License... Image File history File links Athlon-64-Lenara-CG.jpg Description: Athlon 64 3400+ Newcastle in Socket 754 Date: 8 Sep 2004 Picture by: Alwin echoray Meschede License: GNU FDL Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License...

The Athlon 64 was originally codenamed ClawHammer by AMD,[3] and was referred to as such internally and in press releases. The first Athlon 64 FX was based on the first Opteron core, SledgeHammer. Both cores, produced on a 130 nanometer process, were first introduced on September 23, 2003. The models first available were the FX-51, fitting Socket 940, and the 3200+, fitting Socket 754.[6] Like the Opteron, on which it was based, the Athlon FX-51 required buffered RAM, increasing the final cost of an upgrade.[7] The week of the Athlon 64's launch, Intel released the Pentium 4 Extreme Edition, a CPU designed to compete with the Athlon 64 FX.[8] The Extreme Edition was widely considered a marketing ploy to draw publicity away from AMD, and was quickly nicknamed among some circles the "Emergency Edition".[9] Despite a very strong demand for the chip, AMD was plagued by early manufacturing difficulties that made it difficult to deliver Athlon 64s in quantity. In the early months of the Athlon 64 lifespan, AMD could only produce one hundred thousand chips per month.[10] However, it was very competitive in terms of performance to the Pentium 4, with magazine PC World calling it the "fastest yet".[11] "Newcastle" was released soon after ClawHammer, with half the Level 2 cache.[12] The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... RAM redirects here. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels single-core mainstream desktop and laptop CPUs introduced on November 20, 2000[2] (August 8, 2008 is the date of last shipments of Pentium 4s[3]). They had the 7th-generation architecture - called NetBurst - which was the companys first all... PC World is a global computer magazine published monthly by IDG. It offers advice on various aspects of PCs and related items, the Internet, and other personal-technology products and services. ... For other uses, see cache (disambiguation). ...

On June 1, 2004, AMD released new versions of both the ClawHammer and Newcastle core revisions for the newly-introduced Socket 939, an altered Socket 940 without the need for buffered memory.[13] Socket 939 offered two main improvements over Socket 754: the memory controller was altered with dual-channel architecture,[14] doubling peak memory bandwidth, and the HyperTransport bus was increased in speed from 800 MHz to 1000 MHz.[15] Socket 939 also was introduced in the FX series in the form of the FX-55.[16] At the same time, AMD also began to ship the "Winchester" core, based on a 90 nanometer process. is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... Socket 940 is a 940-pin socket for 64-bit AMD server processors. ... The memory controller is a chip on a computers motherboard or CPU die which manages the flow of data going to and from the memory. ... Dual-channel architecture describes a technology that doubles data throughput from RAM to the memory controller. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ...

Core revisions "Venice" and "San Diego" succeeded all previous revisions on April 15, 2005. Venice, the lower-end part, was produced for both Sockets 754 and 939, and included 512 KiB of L2 cache.[17] San Diego, the higher-end chip, was produced only for Socket 939 and doubled Venice's L2 cache to one MiB.[18] Both were produced on the 90 nm fabrication process.[19] Both also included support for the SSE3 instruction set,[20] a new feature that had been included in the rival Pentium 4 since the release of the Prescott core in February 2004.[21] In addition, AMD overhauled the memory controller for this revision, resulting in performance improvements as well as support for newer DDR RAM.[22] is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... MiB redirects here. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... The Pentium 4[1] brand refers to Intels single-core mainstream desktop and laptop CPUs introduced on November 20, 2000[2] (August 8, 2008 is the date of last shipments of Pentium 4s[3]). They had the 7th-generation architecture - called NetBurst - which was the companys first all...

### Dual-core Athlon 64

Main article: Athlon 64 X2

On April 21, 2005, less than a week after the release of Venice and San Diego, AMD announced its next addition to the Athlon 64 line, the Athlon 64 X2.[23] Released on May 31, 2005,[24] it also initially had two different core revisions available to the public, Manchester and Toledo, the only appreciable difference between them being the amount of L2 cache.[25] Both were released only for Socket 939.[26] A response to Intel's dual core Pentium D, the Athlon 64 X2 was received very well by reviewers and the general public, with a general consensus emerging that AMD's implementation of multi-core was superior to that of the Pentium D.[27][28] Some felt initially that the X2 would cause market confusion with regard to price points since the new processor was targeted at the same "enthusiast," US\$350 and above market[29] already occupied by AMD's existing socket 939 Athlon 64s.[30] AMD's official breakdown of the chips placed the Athlon X2 aimed at a segment they called the "prosumer", along with digital media fans.[24] The Athlon 64 was targeted at the mainstream consumer, and the Athlon FX at gamers. The Sempron budget processor was targeted at value-conscious consumers.[31] Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pentium D logo as of 2006. ... Diagram of an Intel Core 2 dual core processor, with CPU-local Level 1 caches, and a shared, on-die Level 2 cache. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ...

### DDR2

The Athlon 64 had been maligned by some critics for some time because of its lack of support for DDR2 SDRAM, an emerging technology that had been adopted much earlier by Intel.[32] AMD's official position was that the CAS latency on DDR2 had not progressed to a point where it would be advantageous for the consumer to adopt it.[33] AMD finally remedied this gap with the "Orleans" core revision, the first Athlon 64 to fit Socket AM2, released on May 23, 2006.[34] "Windsor", an Athlon 64 X2 revision for Socket AM2, was released concurrently. Both Orleans and Windsor have either 512KiB or 1MiB of L2 cache per core.[35] The Athlon 64 FX-62 was also released concurrently on the Socket AM2 platform.[36] Socket AM2 also consumes less power than previous platforms, and supports AMD's virtualization technology.[37] Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... DDR2 redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which x86-based guest operating systems are run under another host x86 operating system, with little or no modification of the guest OS. The x86 processor architecture did not originally meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements. ...

The memory controller used in all DDR2 SDRAM capable processors (Socket AM2), has extended column address range of 11 columns instead of conventional 10 columns, and the support of 16 kb page size, with at most 2048 individual entries supported. An OCZ unbuffered DDR2 kit, optimized for 64-bit operating systems, was released to exploit the functionality provided by the memory controller in socket AM2 processors, allowing the memory controller to stay longer on the same page, thus benefitting graphics intensive applications.[38] A kibibit (a contraction of kilo binary digit) is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated Kibit, or sometimes Kib. ... OCZ Technology is a manufacturer of random access memory and Flash Memory based in Sunnyvale, California. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... In computing, an operating system (OS) is the system software responsible for the direct control and management of hardware and basic system operations. ...

## Features

There are four variants: Athlon 64, Athlon 64 FX, Mobile Athlon 64 (later renamed "Turion 64") and the dual-core Athlon 64 X2.[39] Common among the Athlon 64 line are a variety of instruction sets including MMX, 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2, and SSE3.[40] All Athlon 64s also support the NX bit, a security feature named "Enhanced Virus Protection" by AMD.[41] And as implementations of the AMD64 architecture, all Athlon 64 variants are able to run 16 bit, 32 bit x86, and AMD64 code, through two different modes the processor can run in: "Legacy mode" and "long mode". Legacy mode runs 16-bit and 32-bit programs natively, and long mode runs 64-bit programs natively, but also allows for 32-bit programs running inside a 64-bit operating system.[42] All Athlon 64 processors feature 128 kibibytes of level 1 cache, and at least 512 kibibytes of level 2 cache.[40] For other uses, see Turion. ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... In computer architecture, 16-bit is an adjective used to describe integers, memory addresses or other data units that are at most 16 bits (2 octets) wide, or to describe CPU and ALU architectures based on registers, address buses, or data buses of that size. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... Assembly language or simply assembly is a human_readable notation for the machine language that a specific computer architecture uses. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

The Athlon 64 features an on-die memory controller,[5] a feature not previously seen on x86 CPUs. Not only does this mean the controller runs at the same clock rate as the CPU itself, it also means the electrical signals have a shorter physical distance to travel compared to the old northbridge interfaces.[43] The result is a significant reduction in latency (response time) for access requests to main memory.[44] The lower latency is often cited as one of the advantages of the Athlon 64's architecture over those of its competitors.[45] This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

Translation Lookaside Buffers (TLBs) have also been enlarged (40 4k/2M/4M entries in L1 cache, 512 4k entries),[46] with reduced latencies and improved branch prediction, with four times the number of bimodal counters in the global history counter.[42] This and other architectural enhancements, especially as regards SSE implementation, improve instruction per cycle (IPC) performance over the previous Athlon XP generation.[42] To make this easier for consumers to understand, AMD has chosen to market the Athlon 64 using a PR (Performance Rating) system, where the numbers roughly map to Pentium 4 performance equivalents, rather than actual clock speed.[47] A Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) is a cache in a CPU that is used to improve the speed of virtual address translation. ... Instructions Per Clock is a technical term from computing that is used to describe one aspect of a processors performance: the average number of individual assembler instructions executed for each clock cycle. ... The PR rating system was developed by AMD in the mid-1990s as a method of comparing their x86 processors to those of rival Intel. ...

Athlon 64 also features CPU speed throttling technology branded Cool'n'Quiet, a feature similar to Intel's SpeedStep that can throttle the processor's clock speed back to facilitate lower power consumption and heat production.[48] When the user is running undemanding applications and the load on the processor is light, the processor's clock speed and voltage are reduced. This in turn reduces its peak power consumption (max TDP set at 89 W by AMD) to as low as 32 W (stepping C0, clock speed reduced to 800 MHz) or 22W (stepping CG, clock speed reduced to 1 GHz). The Athlon 64 also has an Integrated Heat Spreader (IHS) which prevents the CPU core from accidentally being damaged when mounting and unmounting cooling solutions. With prior AMD CPUs a CPU shim could be used by people worried about damaging the core. CPU redirects here. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... SpeedStep has lowered this Pentium 4s Clock Speed from 3Ghz to 2. ... Stepping is a designation used by Intel and AMD to identify how much the design of a microprocessor has advanced from the original design. ... Illustrative image of a shim. ...

The No Execute bit (NX bit) supported by Windows Vista, Windows XP Service Pack 2,[49] Windows XP Professional x64 Edition, Windows Server 2003 x64 Edition, and Linux 2.6.8 and higher is also included, for improved protection from malicious buffer overflow security threats. Hardware-set permission levels make it much more difficult for malicious code to take control of the system. It is intended to make 64-bit computing a more secure environment. The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...

The Athlon 64 CPUs have been produced with 130 nm and 90 nm SOI process technologies.[50] All of the latest chips (Winchester, Venice and San Diego models) are on 90 nm. The Venice and San Diego models also incorporate dual stress liner technology[51] (an amalgam of strained silicon and 'squeezed silicon', the latter of which is not actually a technology) co-developed with IBM.[52] Silicon on insulator technology (SOI) refers to the use of a layered silicon-insulator-silicon substrate in place of conventional silicon substrates in semiconductor manufacturing, especially microelectronics, to reduce parasitic device capacitance and thereby improve performance. ... Strained silicon is a layer of silicon in which the silicon atoms are stretched beyond their normal interatomic distance. ...

As the memory controller is integrated onto the CPU die, there is no FSB for the system memory to base its speed upon.[53] Instead, system memory speed is obtained by using the following formula (using the ceiling function):[54] The floor and fractional part functions In mathematics, the floor function of a real number x, denoted or floor(x), is the largest integer less than or equal to x (formally, ). For example, floor(2. ...

$frac{mathrm{CPU~speed}}{leftlceilfrac{mathrm{CPU~multiplier}}{mathrm{DRAM~divider}}rightrceil}=mathrm{DRAM~speed}$

In simpler terms, the memory is always running at a set fraction of the CPU speed, with the divisor being a whole number. A 'FSB' figure is still used to determine the CPU speed, but the RAM speed is no longer directly related to this 'FSB' figure (known otherwise as the LDT).

To summarize, the Athlon 64 architecture features two buses from the CPU. One is the HT bus to the northbridge connecting the CPU to the chipset and device attachment bus (PCIe, AGP, PCI) and the other is the memory bus which connects the on-board memory controller to the bank of either DDR or DDR2 DRAM.

### Athlon 64 FX

The Athlon 64 FX is positioned as a hardware enthusiast product, marketed by AMD especially toward gamers.[55] Unlike the standard Athlon 64, all of the Athlon 64 FX processors have their multipliers completely unlocked.[56] The FX line is now dual-core, starting with the FX-60.[57] The FX always has the highest clock speed of all Athlons at its release.[58] From FX-70 onwards, the line of processors will also support dual-processor setup with NUMA, named AMD Quad FX platform. This article is about gamers - people who play games. ... Non-Uniform Memory Access or Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. ... The AMD Quad FX platform is an AMD platform targeted at enthusiasts which allows users to plug two Socket F Athlon 64 FX or 2-way Opteron processors (CPUs) into a single motherboard for a total of four physical cores [1]. This is a type of dual processor setup, where...

### Athlon 64 X2

Main article: Athlon 64 X2

The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. In 2007, AMD released two final Athlon 64 X2 versions: the AMD Athlon 64 X2 6400+ and 5000+ Black Editions. Both processors feature an unlocked multiplier, which allows for a large range of overclocked settings. The 6400+ is based on a 90nm Windsor core (3.2GHz, 2x1MB L2, 125W TDP) while the 5000+ is based on a 65nm Brisbane core (2.6GHz, 2x512KB L2, 65W TDP). These Black Edition processors are available at retail, but AMD does not include heatsinks in the retail package. Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic. ... Diagram of an Intel Core 2 dual core processor, with CPU-local Level 1 caches, and a shared, on-die Level 2 cache. ... Bold text Desktop computer with several common peripherals (Monitor, keyboard, mouse, speakers, microphone and a printer) A desktop computer is a gay electronic machine computer which convert raw data into meaningful information, made for use on a desk in an office or home and is distinguished from portable computers such... CPU redirects here. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ...

### Mobile Athlon 64

A line for mobile computing.

## Sockets

At the introduction of Athlon 64 in September 2003, only Socket 754 and Socket 940 (Opteron) were ready and available. The onboard memory controller was not capable of running unbuffered (non-registered) memory in dual-channel mode at the time of release; as a stopgap measure, they introduced the Athlon 64 on Socket 754, and brought out a non-multiprocessor version of the Opteron called the Athlon 64 FX, as a multiplier unlocked enthusiast part for Socket 940, comparable to Intel's Pentium 4 Extreme Edition for the high end market. Socket 754 is a CPU socket originally developed by AMD to succeed its powerful Athlon XP platform (Socket 462, also referred to as Socket A). ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... Athlon 64 X2 Logo Athlon 64 X2 E6 3800+ The Athlon 64 X2 is the first dual-core desktop CPU manufactured by AMD. It is essentially a processor consisting of two Athlon 64 cores joined together on one die with additional control logic. ... The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ... Dual-channel architecture DDR SDRAM describes a motherboard technology that effectively doubles data throughput in the frontside bus from RAM to the memory controller. ... Socket 940 is a 940-pin socket for 64-bit AMD server processors. ... The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ... The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... DDR2 redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The AMD Quad FX platform is an AMD platform targeted at enthusiasts which allows users to plug two Socket F Athlon 64 FX or 2-way Opteron processors (CPUs) into a single motherboard for a total of four physical cores [1]. This is a type of dual processor setup, where... The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ...

In June 2004, AMD released Socket 939 as the mainstream Athlon 64 with dual-channel memory interface, leaving Socket 940 solely for the server market (Opterons), and relegating Socket 754 as a value/budget line, for Semprons and slower versions of the Athlon 64. Eventually Socket 754 replaced Socket A for Semprons. Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ...

In May 2006, AMD released Socket AM2, which provided support for the DDR2 memory interface. Also, this marked the release of AMD's Virtualization technology.

In August 2006, AMD released Socket F for Opteron server CPU which uses the LGA chip form factor. The Opteron is AMDs x86 server processor line, and was the first processor to implement the AMD64 instruction set architecture (known generically as x86-64). ... The land grid array (LGA) is a physical interface for microprocessors of the Intel Pentium 4 family. ...

In November 2006, AMD released a specialized version of Socket F, called 1207 FX, for dual-socket, dual-core Athlon FX processors on the Quad FX platform. While Socket F Opterons already allowed for four processor cores, Quad FX allowed unbuffered RAM and expanded CPU/chipset configuration in the BIOS. Consequentially, Socket F and F 1207 FX are incompatible and require different processors, chipsets, and motherboards.

## Athlon 64 FX models

### Sledgehammer (130 nm SOI)

• CPU-Stepping: C0, CG
• L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
• L2-Cache: 1024 KiB, fullspeed
• MMX, Extended 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2, AMD64
• Socket 940, 800 MHz HyperTransport (HT800)
• Registered DDR-SDRAM required
• VCore: 1.50/1.55 V
• Power Consumption (TDP): 89 Watt max
• First Release: September 23, 2003
• Clockrate: 2200 MHz (FX-51, C0), 2400 MHz (FX-53, C0 and CG)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... Socket 940 is a 940-pin socket for 64-bit AMD server processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Clawhammer (130 nm SOI)

• CPU-Stepping: CG
• L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
• L2-Cache: 1024 KiB, fullspeed
• MMX, Extended 3DNow!, SSE, SSE2, AMD64
• Socket 939, 1000 MHz HyperTransport (HT1000)
• VCore: 1.50 V
• Power Consumption (TDP): 89 Watt (FX-55:104 Watt)
• First Release: June 1, 2004
• Clockrate: 2400 MHz (FX-53), 2600 MHz (FX-55)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### San Diego (90 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Toledo (90 nm SOI)

Dual-core CPU

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Windsor (90 nm SOI)

Dual-core CPU

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which the x86 processor architecture is virtualized. ... The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Windsor (90 nm SOI) - Quad FX platform

Main article: AMD Quad FX platform

Dual-core, dual CPUs (four cores total) The AMD Quad FX platform is an AMD platform targeted at enthusiasts which allows users to plug two Socket F Athlon 64 FX or 2-way Opteron processors (CPUs) into a single motherboard for a total of four physical cores [1]. This is a type of dual processor setup, where...

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which the x86 processor architecture is virtualized. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

## Athlon 64 models

### Clawhammer (130 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 754 is a CPU socket originally developed by AMD to succeed its powerful Athlon XP platform (Socket 462, also referred to as Socket A). ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Newcastle (130 nm SOI)

Also possible: ClawHammer-512 (Clawhammer with partially disabled L2-Cache)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 754 is a CPU socket originally developed by AMD to succeed its powerful Athlon XP platform (Socket 462, also referred to as Socket A). ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Winchester (90 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Venice (90 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 754 is a CPU socket originally developed by AMD to succeed its powerful Athlon XP platform (Socket 462, also referred to as Socket A). ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### San Diego (90 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... Socket 939 was introduced by AMD in June 2004 to supersede the previous Socket 754 for Athlon 64 processors. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Orleans (90 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which the x86 processor architecture is virtualized. ... The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

### Lima (65 nm SOI)

The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions, originally called ISSE, Internet Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... SSE2, Streaming SIMD Extensions 2, is one of the IA-32 SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction sets. ... SSE3, also known by its Intel code name Prescott New Instructions (PNI), is the third iteration of the SSE instruction set for the IA-32 architecture. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... CoolnQuiet is a CPU speed throttling and power saving technology introduced by AMD with their Athlon 64 processor line. ... The NX bit, which stands for No eXecute, is a technology used in CPUs to segregate areas of memory for use by either storage of processor instructions (or code) or for storage of data, a feature normally only found in Harvard architecture processors. ... x86 virtualization is the method by which the x86 processor architecture is virtualized. ... The Socket AM2, renamed from Socket M2 (to prevent using the same name as Cyrix MII processors), is a CPU socket designed by AMD for desktop processors, including the performance, mainstream and value segments. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ... The Thermal Design Power (TDP) represents the maximum amount of power the thermal solution in a computer system is required to dissipate. ... February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ...

## Future products

Main article: AMD K10

The Athlon 64 line is expected to continue to evolve. In particular, new models scheduled to be launched in the third quarter of 2007 are to be based on the "K10" microarchitecture. The initial offerings are expected to be based on the Agena (quad-core, 2 MiB L3 cache), Agena FX and Kuma (dual-core, 2 MiB L3 cache) cores. These processors will be packaged in the Socket F+ (Agena FX) and Socket AM2+ form factors, but are expected to function in Socket AM2 motherboards as well, with the loss of HyperTransport 3.0 enhancements, which will only be available with Socket AM2+ motherboards. Processor model information has been reported as follows:[60] The AMD K10 is AMDs next generation of processors. ... The AMD K10 is AMDs next generation of processors. ... MiB redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... Socket F+ is a CPU Socket for AMD server processors from the K10 series (HyperTransport 3 supporting models only). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... HyperTransport logo HyperTransport (HT), formerly known as Lightning Data Transport (LDT), is a bidirectional serial/parallel high-bandwidth, low-latency point to point link that was introduced on April 2, 2001. ...

According to the most recent report, the range of K10 desktop microprocessors will no longer use the trademark "Athlon", but will don the new name "Phenom". Subsequent models will use the name "Phenom X2" for dual core variants, "Phenom X4" for quad core variants and "Phenom FX" to replace the current Athlon 64 FX.

. ... The Sempron is AMDs newest low-end CPU, replacing the Duron processor. ... . ...

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Results from FactBites:

 X-bit labs - Print version (4388 words) Therefore, it is not at all surprising that the first Athlon 64 processors to use the new Winchester core appeared CPUs for Socket939 platform. In fact, the transition of the Athlon 64 processor family to the new 90nm Winchester core doesnt lead to any features changes or working frequency increase for this CPU family. The new Athlon 64 3000+ yields to a similar Socket 754 processor because of lower clock frequency.
 AMD unveils details of its 64-bit chip - CNET News.com (1494 words) As expected, the chipmaker launched several varieties of the new chip, including an Athlon 64 FX processor for desktops and three Athlon 64 models for desktops and notebooks. AMD said the Athlon 64 and its server sibling, the Opteron, will be moved from 130 nanometers to a 90-nanometer manufacturing process in the first half of 2004. Although AMD briefly had the fastest clock speed with the original Athlon chip, Meyer said the company has learned that it must continue to advance its chips during their lifetime, or they will be quickly surpassed by Intel.
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