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Encyclopedia > Athlon
Athlon
Central processing unit

An AMD AthlonXP 1700 (Thoroughbred)
Produced: From mid 1999 to 2005
Manufacturer: AMD
CPU Speeds: 500 Mhz to 2.33 Ghz
FSB Speeds: 100 Mhz to 200 Mhz
Process:
(MOSFET channel length)
0.25 µm to 0.13 µm
Architecture: x86
Sockets:
Cores:
  • K7 (Argon)
  • K75 (Pluto/Orion)
  • Thunderbird
  • Palomino
  • Thoroughbred A/B
  • Barton
  • Thorton

Athlon is the brand name applied to a series of different x86 processors designed and manufactured by AMD. The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intel's competing processors for a significant period of time. AMD has continued the Athlon name with the Athlon 64, an eighth-generation processor featuring x86-64 (later renamed AMD64) technology. CPU redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1212x1146, 289 KB) An AMD Athlon XP 1700+ processor. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... CPU redirects here. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... A gigahertz is a billion hertz or a thousand megahertz, a measure of frequency. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... A megahertz (MHz) is one million (106) hertz, a measure of frequency. ... The metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET, MOS-FET, or MOS FET), is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... Slot A refers to the physical and electrical specification for the edge-connector used by early versions of AMDs Athlon processor. ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... Image File history File links AMD_Athlon_Processor_Logo. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... CPU redirects here. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003[1]. It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP[2]. The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement AMD64 architecture and the... The AMD64 or x86-64 is a 64-bit processor architecture invented by AMD. It is a superset of the x86 architecture, which it natively supports. ...

Contents

Athlon Classic

The Athlon made its debut on June 23, 1999. The name "Athlon" was chosen by AMD as short for "decathlon". The original Athlon core revision, code-named "K7" (in homage to its predecessor, the K6), was available in speeds of 500 to 700 MHz at its introduction and was later sold at speeds up to 1000 MHz (K75). The processor was compatible with the industry-standard x86 instruction set and plugged into a motherboard slot (Slot A) mechanically similar to (but not pin-compatible with) the Pentium II's Slot 1. June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... // The Decathlon Day 1: 100 m long jump shot put High Jump 400 m Day 2: 110m hurdles discus throw pole vault javelin throw 1500 m Decathlon sprouted from the ancient game pentathlon. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... A motherboard, also known as a mainboard, system board, or logic boards on Apple Computers, and sometimes abbreviated as mobo (generally credited to the magazine Maximum PC) is the central or primary circuit board making up a complex electronic system, such as a modern computer. ... Slot A refers to the physical and electrical specification for the edge-connector used by early versions of AMDs Athlon processor. ... In electronics, a pin-compatible device, such as a logic chip or microprocessor, is one that has the same functions assigned to the same particular pins. ... Pentium II – front view The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ... Slot 1 refers to the physical and electrical specification for the connector used by some of Intels microprocessors, including the Celeron, Pentium II and the Pentium III. Slot 1 was a departure from the square ZIF PGA/SPGA sockets used for the Pentium and earlier processors. ...


Internally, the Athlon was a fully seventh generation x86 processor, the first of its kind. The CPU was designed by a combination of AMD engineers and newly-hired ex-DEC engineers, and the result was a merging of technologies from AMD's earlier CPUs and the DEC Alpha 21264. Like the AMD K5 and K6, the Athlon is a RISC microprocessor which decodes x86 instructions into its own internal instructions at runtime. The CPU is again an out-of-order design, like previous post-486 AMD CPUs. The Athlon utilizes the DEC Alpha EV7 bus architecture with double data rate technology. Although it was clocked at 100 MHz initially, the DDR aspect to the bus allowed it to provide significantly higher bandwidth than the Intel GTL+ bus used by the Pentium III and its derivatives. Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering company in the American computer industry. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp (DEC). ... AMD 5K86-P90 (SSA/5) Microprocessor The K5 was developed by AMD to compete with Intels Pentium microprocessor range. ... History 1997 saw the arrival of AMDs K6 microprocessor. ... The reduced instruction set computer, or RISC, is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... In computer science, out-of-order execution is a paradigm used in most high-speed microprocessors in order to make use of cycles that would otherwise be wasted by a certain type of costly delay. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... In computing, a computer bus operating with double data rate transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, effectively nearly doubling the data transmission rate without having to deal with the additional problems of timing skew that increasing the number of data lines would introduce. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ...


AMD designed the CPU with more robust x86 instruction decoding capabilities, to enhance its ability to keep more data in-flight at once. Athlon's CISC to RISC decoder triplet could potentially decode 6 x86 operations per clock, although this was somewhat unlikely in real-world use.[1] The critical branch predictor unit was enhanced compared to what was onboard the K6 because Athlon's longer pipeline necessitated highly accurate prediction to prevent performance-costly pipeline stalls. The deeper pipelining with more stages allowed higher clock speeds to be attained.[2] Whereas the AMD K6-III+ topped out at 570 MHz due to its short pipeline, even when built on the 180 nm process, the Athlon was designed to go much higher. A complex instruction set computer (CISC) is a microprocessor instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can execute several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... K6-III+/450 The image above is proposed for deletion. ...


AMD ended its long-time issue with floating point performance by designing an impressive super-pipelined, out-of-order, triple-issue floating point unit.[1] Each of its 3 units were tailored to be able to calculate an optimal type of instructions with some redundancy to provide for more popular code usage. By having separate units it was possible to operate on more than one floating point instruction at once.[1] This FPU was a huge step forward for AMD. While the K6 FPU had looked positively anemic compared to the Intel P6 FPU, the new Athlon put even the Pentium III to shame.[3] Athlon gained a revised version of 3DNow! too, called "Enhanced 3DNow!", with added DSP instructions and an implementation of the extended-MMX subset of Intel SSE.[4] A floating-point number is a digital representation for a number in a certain subset of the rational numbers, and is often used to approximate an arbitrary real number on a computer. ... A floating point unit (FPU) is a part of a CPU specially designed to carry out operations on floating point numbers. ... The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth generation x86 microprocessor architecture of Intel, released in 1995. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation and the processing methods of these signals. ... MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ...

Slot-A Athlon, shown with packaging removed
Enlarge
Slot-A Athlon, shown with packaging removed

Caching onboard Athlon consisted of the typical two levels of cache. First off came the largest level 1 cache in x86 history, a split 2-way associative cache of 128 KiB, half for data and half for instructions (Harvard architecture).[1] This cache was double the size of K6's already large cache, and quadruple the size of Pentium II and III's L1 cache. Like Intel's Pentium II and "Katmai" Pentium III, there was also a 512 KiB secondary cache, mounted outside the CPU itself and running at a lower speed than the core. The cache was placed on its own 64-bit bus, called a "backside bus", similar to AMD's own K6-III and Intel's Pentium Pro and later CPUs.[5] A backside bus allows concurrent cache and main RAM accesses, dramatically improving efficiency and bandwidth. This alone was a major improvement over the L2 cache architecture of the AMD K6-2 on down where L2 and RAM shared the front side bus. Initially this L2 cache was set for half of the CPU clock speed, on up to 700 MHz Athlon CPUs, but later Slot-A processors ran the cache at 2/5 (up to 850 MHz) or 1/3 (up to 1 GHz) of the core speed.[6] A 1.0 GHz Slot-A Athlon with external cache would require the chips to run at 500 MHz considering a 1/2 multiplier. The SRAM available at the time was simply incapable of reaching this speed, due both to cache chip technology limitations and the electrical/cache latency complications of running an external cache at such a high speed. Later Athlon processors would, like Intel's Pentium III Coppermine, move to an on-die L2 cache to allow higher cache clock speeds. Athlon cores before "Thunderbird" used an inclusive caching scheme that duplicated L1 cache data in the L2 cache.[7] This was the same as Intel's processors but unlike later AMD processors which utilized exclusive designs. Download high resolution version (1294x627, 174 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1294x627, 174 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Pentium II – front view The Pentium II is an x86 architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on May 7, 1997. ... The back side bus is a computer bus used to connect the CPU with the L2 cache. ... K6-III+/450 The image above is proposed for deletion. ... Pentium Pro 256 KB Pentium Pro 512 KB Pentium Pro 1 MB Pentium Pro underside (256/512) Pentium II Overdrive The Pentium Pro is a sixth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor (P6 core) by Intel originally intended to replace the original Pentium in a full range of applications, but later reduced... AMD K6-2 Microprocessor The AMD K6-2 architecture. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... A six-transistor CMOS SRAM cell. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...


The Slot-A Athlons were the first multiplier-locked CPUs from AMD. This was partly done to fight off CPU remarking being done by questionable resellers around the globe. AMD's older CPUs could simply be set to run at whatever speed the user chose on the motherboard, making it trivial to relabel a CPU and sell it as a faster grade than it was originally. These relabeled CPUs were not always stable, being overclocked and not tested properly, and this was damaging to AMD's reputation. Although the Athlon was multiplier locked, crafty enthusiasts eventually discovered that a connector on the PCB of the cartridge could control the multiplier. Eventually a device called the "Goldfingers device" was created that could unlock the CPU, named after the gold connector pads it attached to. It was basically a module that attached to the CPU board connector and had a set of switches that opened or shorted the circuits the board connector controlled.[8]


Upon release, the Athlon was the fastest x86 CPU in the world, and various versions of the CPU held this distinction continuously from August 1999 until January 2002. Athlon outclassed Intel's Pentium III processors in nearly every way and compared quite favorably years later to the best the Pentium 4's Netburst-architecture could offer. New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... The Intel NetBurst Microarchitecture, called P68 inside Intel, is the successor to the P6 microarchitecture in the x86 family of CPUs made by Intel. ...


In commercial terms, the Athlon Classic was an enormous success — not just because of its own merits, but also because the normally dependable Intel endured a series of major production, design, and quality control issues at this time. In particular, Intel's transition to a 0.18 μm production process, starting in late 1999 and running through to mid-2000, was chaotic, and there was a severe shortage of Pentium III parts. In contrast, AMD enjoyed a remarkably smooth process transition, had ample supplies available, and Athlon sales became quite strong. Many long-time Intel-only PC dealers found the combination of the Athlon's excellent performance and reasonable pricing tempting, and the prospect of being able to get stock in commercial volumes impossible to resist. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the size of a droplet of mist or fog. ...


Athlon Thunderbird (T-Bird)

Athlon "Thunderbird" 850 MHz
Athlon "Thunderbird" 850 MHz

The second-generation Athlon, the Thunderbird, debuted on June 5, 2000. This version of the Athlon shipped in a more traditional pin-grid array (PGA) format that plugged into a socket ("Socket A") on the motherboard. It was sold at speeds ranging from 700 to 1400 MHz. The major difference, however, was cache design. Just as Intel had done when they replaced the old Katmai Pentium III with the much faster Coppermine P-III, AMD replaced the 512 KiB external reduced-speed cache of the Athlon Classic with 256 KiB of on-chip, full-speed cache. As a general rule, more cache improves performance, but faster cache improves it further still. Image File history File linksMetadata Tbird850. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tbird850. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Package Diagram for 168-Pin PGA Embedded IntelDX2™ Processor The pin grid array or PGA is a type of packaging used for integrated circuits, particularly microprocessors. ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ...


AMD changed cache design significantly with Thunderbird. With the older Athlons the CPU caching was of an inclusive design where data from the L1 is duplicated in the L2 cache. Thunderbird moved to an exclusive design where the L1 cache's contents are not duplicated in the L2. This increases total cache size of the processor and effectively makes caching behave as if there is a very large L1 cache with a slower region (the L2) and a very fast region (the L1).[9] Because of Athlon's very large L1 cache and the exclusive design which turns the L2 cache into basically a "victim cache", the need for high L2 performance was lessened. AMD kept the 64-bit L2 cache data bus from the older Athlons as a result, and allowed it to have a higher latency than Intel was using in their inclusively cached processors. A simpler L2 cache reduced the possibility of the L2 cache causing clock scaling and yield issues. Still, instead of the 2-way associative scheme used in older Athlons, Thunderbird did move to a much more efficient 16-way associative layout.[7] Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ... Diagram of a CPU memory cache A CPU cache is a cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average time to access memory. ...


The Thunderbird was AMD's most successful product since the Am386DX-40 ten years earlier. Mainboard designs had improved considerably by this time, and the initial trickle of Athlon mainboard makers had swollen to include every major manufacturer. Their new fab in Dresden came on-line, allowing further production increases, and the process technology was improved by a switch to copper interconnects. In October 2000 the Athlon "C" was introduced, raising the mainboard front side bus speed to 266 MT/s (133 MHz double-pumped) and providing roughly 10% extra performance over the "B" model Thunderbird. AMD Am386DX-40 CPU The Am386 central processing unit microprocessor was released by AMD in 1991. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fabrication plant. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony and situated in a valley on the River Elbe. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... Megatransfer is a term used in computer technology, referring to a number of data transfers (or operations). ... In computing, a double pumped computer bus transfers data on both the rising and falling edges of the clock signal, effectively doubling the data transmission rate without having to deal with the additional problems of timing skew that increasing the number of data lines would introduce. ...


Athlon XP/MP

In performance terms, the Thunderbird had easily eclipsed the rival Pentium III, and the early Pentium 4 were a long way off the pace, but gradually clawed their way closer. The 1.7 GHz P4 (April 2001) served notice that the Thunderbird could not count on retaining performance leadership forever, and thermal and electricity-consumption issues with the Thunderbird design meant that it was not practical to take it past 1400 MHz (even at that speed it was excessively hot). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3500x1290, 67 KB) Summary Athlon XP logo Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ...


Palomino

Athlon XP "Palomino" 1600+
Athlon XP "Palomino" 1600+

AMD released the third major Athlon version on October 9, 2001, code-named "Palomino". This version, the first to include the full SSE instruction set from the Intel Pentium III as well as AMD's 3DNow! Professional, was introduced at speeds between 1333 and 1533 MHz, with ratings from 1500+ to 1800+. The major changes were optimizations to the core design to increase efficiency by roughly 10% over a Thunderbird at the same clock speed, through enhancement of the TLB architecture and the addition of a hardware data prefetch mechanism to better take advantage of available memory bandwidth.[10] The new Athlon core was also more frugal with its electrical demands, consuming approximately 20% less power than its predecessor, and as such, reducing heat output comparatively as well.[11] The core was also modified to improve clock speed scalability. At launch, Athlon XP allowed AMD to clearly take the x86 performance lead with the 1800+, and enhance the lead with the release of the 1600 MHz 1900+ less than a month later.[12] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (648x649, 76 KB) AMD Athlon XP 1600+ with Palomino core Source: my own CPU collection File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Athlon ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (648x649, 76 KB) AMD Athlon XP 1600+ with Palomino core Source: my own CPU collection File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Athlon ... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... Pentium III logo The Pentium III is an x86 (more precisely, an i686) architecture microprocessor by Intel, introduced on February 26, 1999. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... Link prefetching is a standards compliant mechanism used by web browsers, which utilizes browser idle time to download or prefetch documents that the user might visit in the near future. ...


The "Palomino" was first released as a mobile version, called the Mobile Athlon 4 (codenamed "Corvette"), after the fact that it was AMD's fourth core to be called Athlon (after the original K7, the 0.18 μm K75, and the Thunderbird), but many people noted that the name was most likely a jab at the then-brand-new Intel Pentium 4. The desktop Athlon XP followed a few months later, in October.[13] The "XP" name is interpreted to mean eXtreme Performance and also as an allusion to the recent release of Windows XP.[14] New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft Corporation for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ...


"Palomino" core processors are most distinguishable from "Thoroughbred" and "Barton" model Athlon XPs in that the CPU die is square, whereas earlier (and later) cores are rectangular. The normally top-mounted capacitors were relocated to the underside as well, contrasting "Thunderbird". The "Palomino" Athlon XP CPUs also had their stepping information engraved on the core, similar to the "Thunderbird", as opposed to the label to the side of the core as in the "Thoroughbred" picture.


The Athlon XP was marketed using a PR rating system, which compared its performance to an Athlon Thunderbird. Because the Athlon XP had much higher IPC (instructions per clock) than the Pentium 4 (and about 10% higher than a Thunderbird), it was more efficient; it delivered the same level of performance at a significantly lower clock-speed. Also, unlike the earlier Athlons, this chip was available in a form that officially supported dual processing, known as Athlon MP.[15] The PR rating system was developed by AMD in the mid-1990s as a method of comparing their x86 processors to those of rival Intel. ... Instructions Per Clock is a technical term from computing that is used to describe one aspect of a processors performance: the average number of individual assembler instructions executed for each clock cycle. ...


Thoroughbred (T-Bred)

Athlon XP "Thoroughbred A" 1700+
Enlarge
Athlon XP "Thoroughbred A" 1700+

The fourth-generation Athlon, the Thoroughbred, was released 10 June 2002 at 1.8 GHz, or 2200+ on the PR rating system. There were actually two versions of this core, commonly called A and B. The A version was the one introduced at 1800 MHz, which had some heat issues, so it was only sold in versions from 1333 to 1800 MHz, replacing the Palomino. The B version, which had an additional metal layer, was released at higher clock speeds, up to the 2800+ model, which ran at 2250 MHz. Later, it replaced the entire Athlon XP line until the launch of the Barton core. Two new models, the 2400+ and 2600+, were announced on 21 August 2002. The 2400+ ran at 2000 MHz, and the 2600+ ran at 2083 or 2133 MHz, depending on the front side bus speed (2083 MHz for 333 MT/s FSB, 2133 MHz for 266 MT/s FSB). 2700+ and 2800+ Thoroughbred parts were also announced, but were only available in very small quantities. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1212x1146, 289 KB) An AMD Athlon XP 1700+ processor. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1212x1146, 289 KB) An AMD Athlon XP 1700+ processor. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards...


The "Thoroughbred" core was on a 0.13 micrometre (130 nm) process, updated from the 0.18 micrometre (180 nm) process of its "Palomino" predecessor. Other than the new process, the Thoroughbred design was not different from the "Palomino" in any way. AMD did have initial troubles with the "Thoroughbred A" revision having substantial heat issues, which were solved in the "B" revision. The rev. A may have been on the 130 nm process, but it offered no real improvements over the old Palomino. Overclockers still liked to use the Palomino; even with it being made on the 180 nm process, it still was able to hit higher clock speeds. The Thoroughbred "B" fixed this problem by adding an extra metal layer to the manufacturing process, allowing enhanced speeds that would allow them become competitive again. At first, 2600+ was released. Later, AMD raised the FSB from 266 MT/s (133 MHz double-pumped) to 333 MT/s (166 MHz double-pumped). This allowed the company to raise the performance rating numbers of the CPUs without actually upping the clock speed much. However, AMD failed to manufacture and ship acceptable amounts of the highest-end 2700+ and 2800+ Thoroughbreds, and as a result they were hard to obtain.


Barton and Thorton

The AMD Athlon architecture.
The AMD Athlon architecture.

Fifth-generation Athlon Barton-core processors released in early 2003 featured PR ratings of 2500+, 2600+, 2800+, 3000+, and 3200+. While not faster than Thoroughbred-core processors in clock speed, they earned their higher PR-rating-per-clock by featuring an additional 256 KiB of full-speed on-chip level 2 cache, for a total of 512 KiB, and a faster FSB. The Thorton core was a variant of the Barton with half of the L2 cache disabled and thus functionally identical to the Thoroughbred B core. The disabled L2 cache on some Thortons was partially defective, but on others it could be re-enabled through bridge modifications.[16] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1348x963, 89 KB) The AMD Athlon architecture. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1348x963, 89 KB) The AMD Athlon architecture. ...


As with most Athlons, the Barton core was popular with overclockers. For example, the 2500+ was rated to run an a 333 MT/s (166 MHz double-pumped) bus. By increasing this to 400 MT/s (200 MHz double-pumped), it became equivalent to the much more expensive 3200+. Some suspect this was the reason for the relatively short retail lifespan of the lower-rated Bartons, which were the first to be replaced by the cut-down Semprons.


Some AMD proponents claim that these new parts regained performance leadership for the Athlon, but this remained in doubt. Much controversy surrounds the benchmarks which are used to measure performance leadership. In particular, industry insiders point out that some tests have been deliberately skewed in Intel's favour—notably the BAPCo tests, which were written by Intel's own engineers. Other insiders accused AMD's model numbers of no longer being internally consistent, and also accused them of basing their processor ratings on applications which were no longer widely used. In computing, a benchmark is the result of running a computer program, or a set of programs, in order to assess the relative performance of an object, by running a number of standard tests and trials against it. ... BAPCo, the Business Application Performance Corporation, is an industry consortium including Microsoft, Intel, AMD, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, NVIDIA, ATI, and Apple Computer, and is a group dedicated to developing benchmarks for Windows personal computers. ...


Most observers considered the Athlon no longer the fastest x86 processor in the world, believing that Intel's Pentium 4 overtook the Athlon XP early in 2002 and held its lead until February 2003, with the 3.06 GHz P4 benchmarking slightly faster than the Athlon 2700+. At the time, the question was moot: AMD had yet to deliver the 2700+ and 2800+ in commercial quantities; they did not begin to ship in volume until well into the first quarter of 2003. However, as the initially troublesome transition to the 0.13 micrometre process neared completion, AMD began producing large numbers of 0.13 micrometre parts in the 1700+ to 2400+ speed grades (usually a sign that faster grades are not far away). In mid February 2003, they announced the Athlon XP 3000+ to ship in volume in early March of 2003. Pending an Intel reply, the 3000+ had according to AMD reclaimed the "fastest x86 in the world" title for the Athlon once again. However, reviewers' opinions on this were split, and most still believed the top Intel part to be faster. A month later, Intel introduced a new series of Pentium 4s which had a faster 800 MT/s, or 200 MHz quad-pumped bus (previously it was 533 MT/s, or 133 MHz quad-pumped. The new bus was indicated by the "C" appendage at the end of the model number) and support for Hyper-Threading. In response, AMD released the Athlon XP 3000+ and 3200+ featuring a 400 MT/s bus. Unfortunately, the bus speed increase did not offer a large performance gain. The 3200+ failed to convincingly outperform the new 3.0 GHz Pentium 4 "C", much less the subsequent 3.2 GHz version. Many reviewers concluded that the C-series Pentium 4 was a bridge too far for the Athlon XP, and that Intel had gained a decisive performance lead which the Athlon XP could not overcome. However, AMD did not try to do so; their focus was now on the soon-to-be released K8, the Athlon 64. Hyper-Threading (HTT = Hyper Threading Technology) is Intels trademark for their implementation of the simultaneous multithreading technology on the Pentium 4 microarchitecture. ... The Athlon 64 is an eighth-generation, AMD64 architecture microprocessor produced by AMD, released on September 23, 2003[1]. It is the third processor to bear the name Athlon, and the immediate successor to the Athlon XP[2]. The second processor (after the Opteron) to implement AMD64 architecture and the...


AMD officially taped out the Barton core at 3200+, but through deals with certain OEMs such as HP, AMD added unofficially an additional chip to its lineup. The AMD Athlon XP 3300+ was offered in HP Pavilion a810n Desktop PCs, but were quickly overshadowed initially by the Athlon 64 from the ClawHammer core and then from the Newcastle core and later by the Sempron from the Palermo core. Because the Athlon XP 3300+ based itself on the Barton core, its specifications are similar to that of the other Barton-based chips. It ran at frequency of 2.331 GHz, contained 128 KiB of L1 Cache and 512 KiB of L2 Cache, used 3 integer pipelines and 3 floating point pipelines, utilized 1.65 V, employed 3DNow, MMX, and SSE Multimedia instructions, was manufactured on the 130 nm process, and fit into 462 pin microPGA, Socket A. Its differentiating factor was that it ran on the 333 MHz FSB like the Athlon XP 2500+, 2600+, 2800+, and certain 3000+; rather than on the 400 MHz FSB of certain 3000+ and the 3200+. The ability of the ClawHammer core to process more IPS more efficiently, the consequent transition of the foundries to the newer cores, and a subsequent die shrink led to the elimination of the Barton core from sale to consumers and OEMs. Only a select number of chips from each yield could be run at the higher frequency as the Barton core was at its limit; the AMD Athlon XP 3300+ was the last and highest frequency chip that the Barton core could support.


Mobile Athlon XP

Athlon XP Mobile "Barton" 2400+
Athlon XP Mobile "Barton" 2400+

Mobile Athlon XPs (Athlon XP-M) are identical to normal Athlon XPs, apart from running at lower voltages and not being multiplier-locked. The lower vcore ratings allow the CPU to run with less power consumption (ideal for battery-powered laptops) and produce less heat. They are also capable of having their multipliers dynamically adjusted by software to supply faster speeds at higher frequencies when demanded, but throttle back to lower speeds and voltages when CPU demand is lower. Download high resolution version (890x801, 107 KB)Picture taken by me, using Canon PowerShot S45 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (890x801, 107 KB)Picture taken by me, using Canon PowerShot S45 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


The Athlon XP-M replaced the older Mobile Athlon 4. The Mobile Athlon 4 used the older Palomino core, while the Athlon XP-M uses the newer Thoroughbred and Barton cores.


It also features Power Now! where the CPU's clock speed is automatically decreased when the computer is under a low load, to save battery power and reduce heat. Similar to Intel's SpeedStep technology. SpeedStepâ„¢ is a series of technologies (including SpeedStep, SpeedStep II, and SpeedStep III) built into some Intel processors. ...


Some specialized low-power Athlon XP-Ms utilise the microPGA socket 563 rather than the standard Socket A. Socket 563 is a µPGA Socket used exclusively for Low-Power (16W and 25W TDP) Mobile Athlon XP-M processors (Models 8 & 10). ...


Athlon XP-Ms on desktop computers became very popular with overclockers, as well as underclockers, by early 2004, in part because their multipliers are unlocked. Athlon XP-Ms are structurally identical to Desktop Athlon cousins but are singled out for their ability to operate at voltages well below normal. Since they are so efficient with voltage, they respond extremely well to increased voltages and overclock extremely well. Athlon XP-Ms overclock demonstrably better than multiplier unlocked Desktop Athlon XPs with the same "Barton" core. Some Barton core Athlon XP-Ms have been successfully overclocked to as high as 3.1 GHz. AMD Athlon XP Overclocking BIOS Setup on ABIT NF7-S. FSB frequency has increased from 133MHz to 148MHz, and clock multiplier factor has changed from x13. ... Underclocking is the practice of modifying a microprocessors speed settings to run at a lower clock speed than the manufacturers specification. ...


Mobile Athlon XPs are also used in home theater PC systems due to their high performance and ability to underclock and undervolt for quiet operation needed in the living room[citation needed]. A Home Theater PC (or HTPC) is a computer that is used to replace components in a home theater system. ...


Models

Athlon

Athlon Classic

  • -> K7 "Argon" (250 nm)
  • -> K75 "Pluto/Orion" (180 nm)
  • L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
  • L2-Cache: 512 KiB, external chips on CPU module with 50, 40 or 33% of CPU-speed
  • MMX, 3DNow!
  • Slot A (EV6)
  • Front side bus: 200 MT/s (100 MHz double-pumped)
  • VCore: 1.6 V (K7), 1.6 - 1.8 V (K75)
  • First release: June 23, 1999 (K7), November 29 1999 (K75)
  • Clockrate: 500 - 700 MHz (K7), 550 - 1000 MHz (K75)

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... Slot A refers to the physical and electrical specification for the edge-connector used by early versions of AMDs Athlon processor. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Old Farts by the Sometimes-United Nations. ...

Thunderbird (180 nm)

  • L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
  • L2-Cache: 256 KiB, fullspeed
  • MMX, 3DNow!
  • Slot A & Socket A (EV6)
  • Front side bus: 200 MT/s (Slot-A, B-models), 266 MT/s (C-models) (100, 133 MHz double-pumped)
  • VCore: 1.7 V - 1.75 V
  • First release: June 5, 2000
  • Clockrate:
    • Slot A: 650 - 1000 MHz
    • Socket A, 200 MT/s FSB (B-models): 650 - 1400 MHz
    • Socket A, 266 MT/s FSB (C-models): 1000 - 1400 MHz

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... Slot A refers to the physical and electrical specification for the edge-connector used by early versions of AMDs Athlon processor. ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... Slot A refers to the physical and electrical specification for the edge-connector used by early versions of AMDs Athlon processor. ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ...

Athlon XP

Palomino (180 nm)

  • L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
  • L2-Cache: 256 KiB, fullspeed
  • MMX, 3DNow!, SSE
  • Socket A (EV6)
  • Front side bus: 266 MT/s (133 MHz double-pumped)
  • VCore: 1.75 V
  • First release: October 9, 2001
  • Clockrate: 1333 - 1733 MHz (1500+ to 2100+)

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... October 9 is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ...

Thoroughbred A/B (130 nm)

  • L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
  • L2-Cache: 256 KiB, fullspeed
  • MMX, 3DNow!, SSE
  • Socket A (EV6)
  • Front side bus: 266/333 MT/s (133/166 MHz double-pumped)
  • VCore: 1.5 V - 1.65 V
  • First release: June 10, 2002 (A), August 21, 2002 (B)
  • Clockrate:
    • T-Bred "A": 1400 - 1800 MHz (1600+ to 2200+)
    • T-Bred "B": 1400 - 2250 MHz (1600+ to 2800+)
    • 266 MT/s FSB: 1400 - 2133 MHz (1600+ to 2600+)
    • 333 MT/s FSB: 2083 - 2250 MHz (2600+ to 2800+)

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...

Thorton (130 nm)

  • L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
  • L2-Cache: 256 KiB, fullspeed
  • MMX, 3DNow!, SSE
  • Socket A (EV6)
  • Front side bus: 266/333/400 MT/s (133/166/200 MHz double-pumped)
  • VCore: 1.6 V - 1.65 V
  • First release: September 2003
  • Clockrate: 1667 - 2200 MHz (2000+ to 3100+)

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards...

Barton (130 nm)

  • L1-Cache: 64 + 64 KiB (Data + Instructions)
  • L2-Cache: 512 KiB, fullspeed
  • MMX, 3DNow!, SSE
  • Socket A (EV6)
  • Front side bus: 333/400 MT/s (166/200 MHz double-pumped)
  • VCore: 1.65 V
  • First release: February 10, 2003
  • Clockrate: 1833 - 2333 MHz (2500+ to 3300+)
    • 333 MT/s FSB: 1833 - 2333 MHz (2500+ to 3300+)
    • 400 MT/s FSB: 2100, 2200 MHz (3000+, 3200+)

MMX is a SIMD instruction set designed by Intel, introduced in 1997 in their Pentium MMX microprocessors. ... The first 3DNow! CPU 3DNow! is the name of a multimedia extension created by AMD for its processors, starting with the K6-2 in 1998. ... SSE (Streaming SIMD Extensions) is a SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) instruction set designed by Intel, and introduced in 1999 in their Pentium III series processors as a reply to AMDs 3DNow! (which had debuted a year earlier). ... Socket A (also known as Socket 462) is the CPU socket used for AMD flagship processors ranging from the Athlon K7 to the Athlon XP 3200+, and AMD budget processors including the Duron and Sempron. ... In computers, the front side bus (FSB) is a term for the physical bi-directional data bus that carries all electronic signal information between the central processing unit (CPU) and other devices within the system such as random access memory (RAM), the system BIOS, AGP video cards, PCI expansion cards... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

7th generation x86 competitors

New Intel Pentium 4 with Hyper Threading logo The Pentium 4 is a seventh-generation x86 architecture microprocessor produced by Intel and is their first all-new CPU design, called the NetBurst architecture, since the Pentium Pro of 1995. ... The VIA C3 is an x86 central processing unit for personal computers. ... The Transmeta Efficeon processor is their second-generation 256-bit VLIW design which employs a software engine to convert code written for x86 processors to the native instruction set of the chip. ...

Supercomputers

The fastest supercomputers based on AthlonMP:

  • Rutgers University, Department of Physics & Astronomy. Machine: NOW Cluster - AMD Athlon. CPU: 512 AthlonMP (1.65 GHz). Rmax: 794 Gigaflops.

See also

Athlon is the name of a family of CPUs designed by AMD, targeted mostly at the desktop market. ... The Athlon XP microprocessor from AMD is a seventh-generation CPU targeted at the consumer market. ... . ...

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d Hsieh, Paul. 7th Generation CPU Comparisons.
  2. ^ De Gelas, Johan. The Secrets of High Performance CPUs, Part 1, Ace's Hardware, September 29, 1999.
  3. ^ Pabst, Thomas. Performance-Showdown between Athlon and Pentium III, Tom's Hardware, August 23, 1999.
  4. ^ Womack, Tom. Extensions to the x86 architecture.
  5. ^ De Gelas, Johan. Clash of Silicon, The Athlon 650, Ace's Hardware, September 29, 1999.
  6. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand. AMD Athlon 1GHz, 950MHz, 900MHz, Anandtech, March 6, 2000, p.2.
  7. ^ a b K7 microarchitecture information, Sandpile.org, accessed September 26, 2006.
  8. ^ Noonan, Jim and Rolfe, James. Athlon Gold-Finger Devices, Overclockers.com.au, accessed August 24, 2006.
  9. ^ Stokes, John. Inside AMD's Hammer: the 64-bit architecture behind the Opteron and Athlon 64, Ars Technica, February 1, 2005:p.9.
  10. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand. AMD Athlon 4 - The Palomino is Here, Anandtech, May 14, 2001, p:4-5.
  11. ^ Wasson, Scott. AMD's Athlon XP 1800+ processor: 1533 > 1800, The Tech Report, October 9, 2001.
  12. ^ Wasson, Scott. AMD's Athlon XP 1900+ processor: Pouring it on, The Tech Report, November 5, 2001.
  13. ^ De Gelas, Johan.Upgrading to eXtreme Performance, Ace's Hardware, October 16, 2001.
  14. ^ Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. Introducing the AMD Athlon XP Processor.
  15. ^ Lal Shimpi, Anand. AMD 760MP & Athlon MP - Dual Processor Heaven, Anandtech, June 5, 2001.
  16. ^ Shilov, Anton. How to Enable Additional 256KB of L2 Cache on AMD Athlon XP Processors Model 10. Thorton Modified!, X-bit labs, September 30, 2003.

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (FOLDOC) is an online, searchable encyclopedic dictionary of computing subjects. ... GNU logo (similar in appearance to a gnu) The GNU Free Documentation License (GNU FDL or simply GFDL) is a copyleft license for free content, designed by the Free Software Foundation (FSF) for the GNU project. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Athlon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2690 words)
The original Athlon, or Athlon Classic, was the first seventh-generation x86 processor and, in a first, retained the initial performance lead it had over Intel's competing processors for a significant period of time.
Internally, the Athlon was essentially a major reworking of the K6 processor core designed for compatibility with the EV6 bus protocol (first used on DEC's Alpha 21264 RISC processor).
Athlon XP/MP In performance terms, the Thunderbird had easily eclipsed the rival Pentium III, and the early Pentium 4 were a long way off the pace, but gradually clawed their way closer.
Athlon 64 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (986 words)
Although its clock rates are usually higher, all Athlon 64 FX processors are a single-core design with the exception of the Athlon 64 FX-60, which was released on January 10th of 2006.
This release is analogous to that of the Athlon 64 FX-53, which was initially available at a time when Socket 939 had not yet been introduced; as such it was only made for the higher end Socket 940 platform, but saw a Socket 939 model at a later date.
All of the Athlon 64 FX processors have their multipliers unlocked, and normal Athlon 64s have their multipliers unlocked downward (meaning that users can select any multipliers up to and including the factory-set default one).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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