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Encyclopedia > Athletic competition

Competition is the act of striving against others for the purpose of achieving dominance. It is a term that is commonly used in numerous fields, including business, ecology, economics, music, politics, and sports. Competition may be between two or more forces, systems, individuals, or groups, depending on the context in which the term is used. Wall Street, Manhattan is the location of the New York Stock Exchange and is often used as a symbol for the world of business. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Music competitions are public events designed to identify and award outstanding musical performers. ... Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ...


Competition may yield various results, including both intrinsic and extrinsic rewards. Some results, such as resources or territory, may be biologically motivated because they provide survival advantages. Others, such as competition in business and politics, are learned aspects of human culture. Additionally, extrinsic symbols such as trophies, plaques, ribbons, prizes, or laudations may be given to the winner. Such symbolic rewards are commonly used in human sporting and academic competitions.


The Latin root for the verb "to compete" is "competere" which means "to seek together" or "to strive together." [1]

Contents

Sizes and levels of competition

Competition may also exist at different sizes; some competitions may be between two members of a species, while other competitions can involve entire species. In an example in economics, a competition between two local stores would be considered small compared to competition between several mega-giants. As a result, the consequences of the competition would also vary- the larger the competition, the larger the effect. Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ...


In addition, the level of competition can also vary. At some levels, competition can be informal and be more for pride or fun. However, other competitions can be extreme and bitter; for example, some human wars have erupted because of the intense competition between two nations or nationalities. Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... Look up war in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ...


Consequences of competition

Competition can have both beneficial and detrimental effects. Many evolutionary biologists view inter-species and intra-species competition as the driving force of adaptation and ultimately, evolution. However, some biologists, most famously Richard Dawkins, prefer to think of evolution in terms of competition between single genes, which have the welfare of the organism 'in mind' only insofar as that welfare furthers their own selfish drives for replication. Some social Darwinists claim (controversially) that competition also serves as a mechanism for determining the best-suited group, politically, economically, and ecologically. A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Social Darwinism is a descriptive term given to a kind of social theory that draws an association between Darwins theory of evolution by natural selection, and the sociological relations of humanity. ...


On the negative side, competition can cause injury to the organisms involved, and drain valuable resources and energy. Human competition can be expensive, as is the case with political elections, international sports competitions, and advertising wars. It can lead to the compromising of ethical standards in order to gain an advantage; for example, several athletes have been caught using banned steroids in professional sports in order to boost their own chances of success or victory. And it can be harmful for the participants, such as athletes who injure themselves exceeding the physical tolerances of their bodies, or companies that pursue unprofitable paths while engaging in competitive rivalries.


Competition in different fields

Economics and business competition

Merriam-Webster defines competition in business as "the effort of two or more parties acting independently to secure the business of a third party by offering the most favorable terms." [2] Seen as the pillar of capitalism in that it may stimulate innovation, encourage efficiency, or drive down prices, competition is touted as the foundation upon which capitalism is justified. According to microeconomic theory, no system of resource allocation is more efficient than pure competition. Competition, according to the theory, causes commercial firms to develop new products, services, and technologies. This gives consumers greater selection and better products. The greater selection typically causes lower prices for the products compared to what the price would be if there was no competition (monopoly) or little competition (oligopoly). Capitalism generally refers to an economic system in which the means of production are mostly privately[1] owned and operated for profit, and in which distribution, production and pricing of goods and services are determined in a largely free market. ... In economics, x-efficiency is the effectiveness with which a given set of inputs are used to produce outputs. ... In economics and business, the price is the assigned numerical monetary value of a good, service or asset. ... Microeconomics (literally, very small economics) is a social science which involves study of the economic distribution of production and income among individual consumers, firms, and industries. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...


However, competition may also lead to wasted (duplicated) effort and to increased costs (and prices) in some circumstances. For example, the intense competition for the small number of top jobs in music and movie acting leads many aspiring musicians and actors to make substantial investments in training that are not recouped, because only a fraction become successful. Similarly, the psychological effects of competition may result in harm to those involved. The law of costs is typical of common law jurisdictions. ... Superstar is a term used to refer to a celebrity who has great popular appeal and is widely-known, prominent or successful in some field. ... Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ...


Three levels of economic competition have been classified. The most narrow form is direct competition (also called category competition or brand competition), where products that perform the same function compete against each other. For example, a brand of pick-up trucks competes with several different brands of pick-up trucks. Sometimes two companies are rivals and one adds new products to their line so that each company distributes the same thing and they compete. The next form is substitute competition, where products that are close substitutes for one another compete. For example, butter competes with margarine, mayonnaise, and other various sauces and spreads. The broadest form of competition is typically called budget competition. Included in this category is anything that the consumer might want to spend their available money on. For example, a family that has $20,000 available may choose to spend it on many different items, which can all be seen as competing with each other for the family's available money. Consumers refers to individuals or households that purchase and use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ...


Competition does not necessarily have to be between companies. For example, business writers sometimes refer to "internal competition". This is competition within companies. The idea was first introduced by Alfred Sloan at General Motors in the 1920s. Sloan deliberately created areas of overlap between divisions of the company so that each division would be competing with the other divisions. For example, the Chevy division would compete with the Pontiac division for some market segments. Also, in 1931, Procter & Gamble initiated a deliberate system of internal brand versus brand rivalry. The company was organized around different brands, with each brand allocated resources, including a dedicated group of employees willing to champion the brand. Each brand manager was given responsibility for the success or failure of the brand and was compensated accordingly. This form of competition thus pitted a brand against another brand. Finally, most businesses also encourage competition between individual employees. An example of this is a contest between sales representatives. The sales representative with the highest sales (or the best improvement in sales) over a period of time would gain benefits from the employer. Alfred Pritchard Sloan, Jr. ... General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Chevrolet, or Chevy, is a brand of automobile that is now part of the General Motors group. ... This article concerns the automobile; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the disambiguation page. ... Market segmentation is the process in marketing of dividing a market into distinct subsets (segments) that behave in the same way or have similar needs. ... 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... Procter & Gamble Co. ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Marketing A brand is a collection of images and ideas representing an economic producer; more specifically, it refers to the concrete symbols such as a name, logo, slogan, and design scheme. ...


It should also be noted that business and economical competition in most countries is often limited or restricted. Competition often is subject to legal restrictions. For example, competition may be legally prohibited as in the case with a government monopoly or a government-granted monopoly. Tariffs, subsidies or other protectionist measures may also be instituted by government in order to prevent or reduce competition. Depending on the respective economic policy, the pure competition is to a greater or lesser extent regulated by competition policy and competition law. Competition between countries is quite subtle to detect, but is quite evident in the World economy, where countries like the US, Japan, the European Union and the East Asian Tigers each try to outdo the other in the quest for economic supremacy in the global market, harkening to the concept of Kiasuism.Such competition is evident by the policies undertaken by these countries to educate the future workforce. For example, East Asian economies like Singapore, Japan and South Korea tend to emphasize education by allocating a large portion of the budget to this sector, and by implementing programmes such as gifted education, which some detractors criticise as indicative of academic elitism. In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... scheiiiißßßßßee!!!!!!!!!!!!!regional, local; for levels below the national, it is a local monopoly. ... In economics, a government-granted monopoly (also called a de jure monopoly) is a form of coercive monopoly in a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or firm to be the sole provider of a good or service; potential competitors are excluded from the market by law, regulation... A tariff is a tax placed on imported and/or exported goods, sometimes called a customs duty. ... A subsidy is generally a monetary grant given by government in support of an activity regarded as being in the public interest. ... Protectionism is the economic policy of promoting favored domestic industries through the use of high tariffs and other regulations to discourage imports. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with antitrust. ... The world economy can be evaluated in various ways, depending on the model used, and this valuation can then be represented in various ways (for example, in 2006 US dollars). ... Map of East Asian Tigers  Hong Kong  Singapore South Korea  Taiwan, Republic of China Skyline of Hong Kong Island, taken from Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong The skyline of Singapores Central Business District (CBD) seen here at dusk Taipei is Taiwans largest city and financial center. ... Kiasu is a Hokkien (a Chinese spoken variant) word for extreme fear of losing (怕输). This word is so widely used by Malaysians and Singaporeans that it is incorporated into their English vocabulary (in the form of Manglish or Singlish). ... Gifted education is a broad term for special practices, procedures and theories used in the education of children who have been identified as gifted or talented. ... Academic institutions often face the charge of academic elitism, sometimes called the Ivory Tower. ...


See separate sub-markets principle. In topology and related branches of mathematics, separated sets are pairs of subsets of a given topological space that are related to each other in a certain way. ...


Competition in politics

Competition is also found in politics. In democracies, an election is a competition for an elected office. In other words, two or more candidates strive and compete against one another to attain a position of power. The winner gains the seat of the elected office for a set amount of time, when another election is usually held to determine the next holder of the office. Politics is the process by which groups make decisions. ... An election is a decision making process where people choose people to hold official offices. ...


In addition, there is inevitable competition inside a government. Because several offices are appointed, potential candidates compete against the others in order to gain the particular office. Departments may also compete for a limited amount of resources, such as for funding. Finally, where there are party systems, elected leaders of different parties will ultimately compete against the other party for laws, funding, and power. Budget generally refers to a list of all planned expenses and revenues. ... A party system is a concept in political science concerning the system of government in a state where political parties exist. ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... Funding or financing is to provide capital (funds), which means money for a project, a person, a business or any other private or public institutions. ... Political power (imperium in Latin) is a type of power held by a person or group in a society. ...


Finally, competition is also imminent between governments. Each country or nationality struggles for world dominance, power, or military strength. For example, the United States competed against the Soviet Union in the Cold War for world power, and the two also struggled over the different types of government (in this case, representative democracy and communism). The result of this type of competition often leads to worldwide tensions and may sometimes erupt into warfare. In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... In English usage, nationality is the legal relationship between a person and a country. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Representative democracy is a form of democracy founded on the exercise of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ...


Sports competition

While some sports, such as fishing, have been viewed as primarily recreational, most sports are considered competitive. The majority involve competition between two or more persons, (or animals and/or mechanical devices typically controlled by humans as in horse racing or auto racing). For example, in a game of basketball, two teams compete against one another to determine who can score the most points. While there is no set reward for the winning team, many players gain an internal sense of pride. In addition, extrinsic rewards may also be given. Athletes, besides competing against other humans, also compete against nature in sports such as whitewater kayaking or mountain climbing, where the goal is to reach a destination, with only natural barriers impeding the process. A regularly scheduled (such as annual) competition meant to determine the "best" competitor of that cycle is called a championship. Fishing is the activity of hunting for fish by hooking, trapping, or gathering animals not classifiable as insects which breathe in water or pass their lives in water. ... Horse-racing is an equestrian sporting activity which has been practiced over the centuries; the chariot races of Roman times were an early example, as was the contest of the steeds of the god Odin and the giant Hrungnir in Norse mythology. ... Racing cars redirects here. ... Sara Giauro shoots a three-point shot, FIBA Europe Cup for Women Finals 2005. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ... Whitewater kayaking is the sport of paddling a kayak on a moving body of water, typically a river. ... Mountaineering is an umbrella term that can variously be used to describe the actions of climbing, hillwalking and scrambling. ... Championship is a term used to refer to various forms of sports competitions in which the aim is to decide which individual or team is the champion; that is, the best competitor. ...


While professional sports have been usually viewed as intense and extremely competitive, recreational sports, which are often less intense, are considered a healthy option for the competitive urges in humans. Sport provides a relatively safe venue for converting unbridled competition into harmless competition, because sports competition is restrained. Competitive sports are governed by codified rules agreed upon by the participants. Violating these rules is considered to be unfair competition. Thus sports provide artificial not natural competition; for example, competing for control of a ball or defending territory on a playing field is not an innate biological factor in humans. Athletes in sports like gymnastics and competitive diving "compete" against a conceptual ideal of a perfect performance, which incorporates measurable criteria and standards that are translated into numerical ratings and scores. Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, forward rolls, aerials and tucks. ... Diving refers to the sport of acrobatically jumping or falling into water. ...


Sports competition is generally broken down into three categories: individual sports, such as archery, dual sports, such as doubles tennis, or team sports competition, such as football. While most sports competitions are recreation, there exists several major and minor professional sports leagues throughout the world. The Olympic Games, held every four years, is regarded as the international pinnacle of sports competition. In Target Archery, the object is to hit targets such as this to score points. ... A tennis net Tennis is a game played between either two players (singles) or two teams of two players (doubles). Players use a stringed racquet to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponents court. ... Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... Look up minor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ...


Competition in education

Competition is a factor in education. On a global scale, national education systems, intending to bring out the best in the next generation, encourage competitiveness among students by scholarships. Countries like Singapore and England have a special education program which caters to special students, prompting charges of academic elitism. Upon receipt of their academic results, students tend to compare their grades to see who is better. For severe cases, the pressure to perform in some countries is so high that it results in stigmatization of intellectually deficient students or even suicide as consequence of failing the exams, Japan being a prime example (see Education in Japan). This has resulted in critical revaluation of examinations as a whole by educationists[citation needed]. Critics of competition as opposed to excellence as a motivating factor in education systems, such as Alfie Kohn, assert that competition actually has a net negative influence on the achievement levels of students and that it "turns all of us into losers." (Kohn 1986) Note: The term scholarship can mean either the methods employed by scholars (see scholarly method) or an award of access to an institution and/or money for an individual for the purposes of furthering their education. ... Special education consists of educational programs designed to support students whose singular needs or disabilities require special teaching approaches, equipment, or care within a regular classroom or in other appropriate settings. ... Look up special in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Academic institutions often face the charge of academic elitism, sometimes called the Ivory Tower. ... A typical Japanese classroom Education is an important issue in Japanese society. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Alfie Kohn Alfie Kohn is an American lecturer and author in the fields of education, psychology and parenting, residing in Belmont, Massachusetts. ...


Competitions also make up a large proponent of extracurricular activities that students partake in. Such competitions include TVO's broadcast Reach for the Top competition, FIRST Robotics, Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition (DARC) and the University of Toronto Space Design Contest. Extracurricular activities are activities performed by students that fall outside the realm of the normal curriculum of school or university education. ... TVO is an acronym with several different significations: Televisora de Oriente (Venezuelan TV station) TVOntario (Canadian TV station) Óptima Televisión (Chilean TV station) TV Osaka (Japanese TV station) Total Value of Oranges Tractor vaporising oil (an engine fuel for British tractors) Total Viable Organism (a microbiology term for determining... Reach for the Top is a Canadian game show in which teams of high school students participate in national and provincial trivia tournaments. ... FIRST Logo FIRST, or For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology, is an organization founded by inventor Dean Kamen in 1989 in order to develop ways to inspire students in engineering and technology fields. ... Hosted by Duke University, the Duke Annual Robo-Climb Competition (DARC) challenges students to create innovative wall-climbing robots that can autonomously ascend vertical surfaces. ... The University of Toronto Space Design Contest, or UTSDC is an annual contest for high school students, founded in 2003 by Norman Goh. ...


Competition in biology and ecology

Main article Competition (biology).

Competition within and between species is an important topic in biology, specifically in the field of ecology. Competition between members of a species ("intraspecific") is the driving force behind evolution and natural selection; the competition for resources such as food, water, territory, and sunlight results in the ultimate survival and dominance of the variation of the species best suited for survival. Competition is also present between species ("interspecific"). A limited amount of resources are available and several species may depend on these resources. Thus, each of the species competes with the others to gain the resources. As a result, several species less suited to compete for the resources may either adapt or die out. According to evolutionary theory, this competition within and between species for resources plays a critical role in natural selection. Competition within and between species is an important topic in biology, specifically, in the field of ecology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ernst Haeckel coined the term oekologie in 1866. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Impact of a drop of water Water is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life[1]. It covers 71% of Earths surface. ... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ... Prism splitting light High Resolution Solar Spectrum Sunlight in the broad sense is the total spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun. ... ADAPT - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Dodo, shown here in illustration, is an often-cited[1] example of modern extinction. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ...


The study of competition

Competition has been studied in several fields, including psychology, sociology, and anthropology. Social psychologists, for instance, study the nature of competition. They investigate the natural urge of competition and its circumstances. They also study group dynamics to detect how competition emerges and what its effects are. Sociologists, meanwhile, study the effects of competition on society as a whole. In addition, anthropologists study the history and prehistory of competition in various cultures. They also investigate how competition manifested itself in various cultural settings in the past, and how competition has developed over time. Psychology is an academic or applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, behavior, and interpersonal relationships. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... Sociology is the study of the social lives of humans, groups and societies. ... See Anthropology. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ...


Competitiveness

Main article: Competitiveness

Many philosophers and psychologists have identified a trait in most living organisms that drive the particular organism to compete. This trait, called competitiveness, is viewed as an innate biological trait that coexists along with the urge for survival. Competitiveness, or the inclination to compete, though, has become synonymous with aggressiveness and ambitiousness in the English language. More advanced civilizations integrate aggressiveness and competitiveness into their interactions in order to adapt and ethically share resources. Most plants compete for higher spots on trees to receive more sunlight. Competitiveness is a comparative concept of the ability and performance of a firm, sub-sector or country to sell and supply goods and/or services in a given market. ... A philosopher is a person who thinks deeply regarding people, society, the world, and/or the universe. ... A psychologist is a scientist and/or clinician who studies psychology, the systematic investigation of the human mind, including behavior and cognition. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In biology, a trait or character is a genetically inherited feature of an organism. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and make it easier to understand, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Generally, an interaction is a kind of action which occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. ... A biological adaptation is an anatomical structure, physiological process or behavioral trait of an organism that has evolved over a period of time by the process of natural selection such that it increases the expected long-term reproductive success of the organism. ... Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Ä“thikos, the adjective of Ä“thos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ...


The term also applies to econometrics. Here it is a comparative measure of the ability and performance of a firm or sub-sector to sell and produce/supply goods and/or services in a given market. The two academic bodies of thought on the assessment of competitiveness are the Structure Conduct Performance Paradigm and the more contemporary New Empirical Industrial Organisation model. Predicting changes in the competitiveness of business sectors is becoming an integral and explicit step in public policy making. Within capitalist economic systems, the drive of enterprises is to maintain and improve their own competitiveness. Econometrics literally means economic measurement. It is a combination of mathematical economics and statistics. ...


Hypercompetitiveness

The tendency toward extreme, unhealthy competition has been termed hypercompetitive. This concept originated in Karen Horney's theories on neurosis, specifically the highly aggressive personality type that is characterized as "moving against people." In her view, some people have a need to compete and win at any cost as a means of maintaining their self-worth. These individuals are likely to turn any activity into a competition, and they will feel threatened if they find themselves losing. Researchers have found that men and women who score high on the trait of hypercompetitiveness are more narcissistic and less psychologically healthy than those who score low on the trait (Ryckman et al. 1994). Hypercompetitive individuals generally believe that "winning isn't everything; it's the only thing." Karen Horney Karen Horney [horn-eye], born Danielsen (September 16, 1885, – December 4, 1952) was a German Freudian psychoanalyst of Norwegian and Dutch descent. ... In modern psychology, the term neurosis, also known as psychoneurosis or neurotic disorder, is a general term that refers to any mental imbalance that causes distress, but (unlike a psychosis or personality disorder) does not prevent rational thought or an individuals ability to function in daily life. ... In psychology, self-esteem or self-worth is a persons self-image at an emotional level; circumventing reason and logic. ... This article is about narcissism as a word in common use. ... Arguably the most famous quote in sport, Winning isn’t everything; it’s the only thing came to exemplify a form of unfettered competitiveness that has permeated American sport and carried over into the general culture. ...


See also

Look up competition, competitor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that French Wiktionary be merged into this article or section. ... A competition regulator is a government agency, typically a statutory authority, which regulates competition laws, and may sometimes also regulate consumer protection laws. ... Biological interactions result from the fact that organisms in an ecosystem interact with each other, in the natural world, no organism is an autonomous entity isolated from its surroundings. ... only joking Competitor analysis in marketing and strategic management is an assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential competitors. ... For cooperative as used in biochemistry, see cooperative binding. ... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... The ecological model of competition is a reassessment of the nature of competition in the economy. ... Microeconomics is a branch of economics that studies how individuals, households, and firms make decisions to allocate limited resources [1] , typically in markets where goods or services are being bought and sold. ... Perfect competition is an economic model that describes a hypothetical market form in which no producer or consumer has the market power to influence prices. ... This box:      A planned economy is an economic system in which a single agency makes all decisions about the production and allocation of goods and services. ... Monopolistic competition is a common market form. ... In economic theory, imperfect competition, is the competitive situation in any market where the conditions necessary for perfect competition are not satisfied. ... Arguably the most famous quote in sport, Winning isn’t everything; it’s the only thing came to exemplify a form of unfettered competitiveness that has permeated American sport and carried over into the general culture. ...

External links

  • OECD Competition Home Page
  • EU Competition Homepage.

References

  • Kohn, Alfie (1986). No Contest – The Case Against Competition. Boston New York London: Houghton Mifflin Co.. ISBN 0-395-63125-4. 
  • Ryckman, R. M., Thornton, B., Butler, J. C. (1994). Personality correlates of the hypercompetitive attitude scale: Validity tests of Horney's theory of neurosis. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 84-94. [3]

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