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Encyclopedia > Athena

This is the Greek name of the capital of the Hellenic Republic (Greece). For the city, see Athens. Athena is a name that has stood for figures in mythology and fiction. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ...

This marble Greek copy signed ANTIOCHOS is a first century BC copy of Phidias' fifth-century original that stood on the Acropolis
This marble Greek copy signed ANTIOCHOS is a first century BC copy of Phidias' fifth-century original that stood on the Acropolis

Contents

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x2680, 1976 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Athena Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x2680, 1976 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Athena Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... Acropolis (Gr. ...

Overview

Seems to have existed from very early times as the patron of Athens and was so persistent that myths about her were rewritten often to adapt to cultural changes over the multiple eras of Ancient Greek traditions. The Greek philosopher, Plato (429–347 B.C.E.), identified her with the Libyan deity, Neith, who was the war-goddess and huntress deity of the Egyptians since the ancient predynastic period. She also would come to be known as the goddess of wisdom as philosophy became applied to cult in the later fifth century.[1] She was the patroness of weaving especially, and other crafts (Athena Ergane), and the more disciplined side of war, where she led the battle (Athena Promachos)[2]. The metalwork associated with the creation of weapons fell under her patronage. Athena's wisdom also includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such figures as Odysseus. For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ...

Image:Douris cup Jason Vatican.16545-2fix-p1AthenePythonAegisIdenticalWgorgon.JPG
Athena, holding an owl, wears the ancient form of the Gorgon head on her aegis, as the huge serpent who guards the golden fleece regurgitates Jason; cup by Douris, Classical Greece, early fifth century BC - Musei Vaticani

She is attended by an owl, and is often accompanied by the goddess of victory, Nike, whom in established icons she offers upon her extended hand. Wearing a goatskin breastplate called the Aegis in late myths said to have been given to her by her father, Zeus[3] although she was associated with this long before in other cultural contexts. She often is shown helmeted and with a shield bearing the Gorgon head, the hallmark of the early goddess cult in Greece that was given the highest position in the apex of the front facade of the Parthenon. Her shield was later said to be a votive gift of Perseus. A serpent often accompanies this goddess and frequently is depicted at the base of the staff of her lance. The sea and ships as well as horses and chariots are associated with her, but with less frequency. This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... Serpent can be any of the following: The reptile commonly called snake. ... You may be looking for information on: Look up staff on Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ...


Athena is an armed warrior goddess, and appears in Greek mythology as a helper of many heroes, including Odysseus, Jason, and Heracles. In Classical Greek myths she never had a consort or lover, and thus, often was known as Athena Parthenos ("Athena the virgin"), hence the name of her most famous temple, the Parthenon, on the Acropolis in Athens. In a remnant of archaic myth, she was the mother of Erichthonius by the attempted rape by Hephaestus, which failed.[4] Other variants relate that the serpent who accompanied Athena, also called Erichthonius, was born to Gaia, Earth, when the rape failed and the semen landed on Gaia, impregnating her, and that after the birth he was given to Athena by Gaia. For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... Alcides redirects here. ... The History of Greece extends back to the arrival of the Greeks in Europe some time before 1500 BC, even though there has only been an independent state called Greece since Turkey, Italy and Libya. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... King Erichthonius (also called Erechtheus I) was, according to some legends, autochthonous (born of the soil), and in other accounts he was the son of Hephaestus and Gaia or Athena or Atthis. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek Hēphaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... Look up Gaia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In her role as a protector of the city, Athena was worshiped throughout the Greek world as Athena Polias ("Athena of the city"). She had a special relationship with Athens, as is shown by the etymological connection of the names of the goddess and the city.[5] This article is about the capital of Greece. ...


Mythology

Birth

Image from the temple of Athena at Mycenae - circa 625 B.C., Museo Arqueológico Nacial de Atenas
Image from the temple of Athena at Mycenae - circa 625 B.C., Museo Arqueológico Nacial de Atenas

In The Greek Myths by Robert Graves (8.a, ff.) he notes early myths about the birth of Athena, in which she is described as a goddess from Libya whose worship came to the Greeks from Crete after arriving there as early as 4,000 BC. Graves also states that Hesiod (c. 700 BC) relates that Athena was a parthenogenous daughter of Metis, wisdom or knowledge, a Titan who ruled the fourth day and the planet Mercury. Other variants relate that although Metis was of an earlier generation of the Titans, Zeus became her consort when his cult gained dominance. In order to avoid a prophecy made when that change occurred, that any offspring of his union with Metis would be greater than he—Zeus is said to have swallowed Metis to prevent her from having offspring, but she already was pregnant with Athena. Metis gave birth to her and nurtured her inside Zeus until Athena burst forth from his forehead. A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


In the late Classical Greek myths, Athena is most commonly described as the daughter of Zeus, born from his head after he swallowed her pregnant mother. The weapons for which she is most famous are the thunderbolt and the Aegis, which she and Zeus were said to share exclusively. For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ...


The Olympian version

After he swallowed her pregnant mother, Metis, Athena is "born" from Zeus' forehead as he grasps the clothing of Eileithyia on the right—black-figured amphora, 550–525 BC, Louvre.
After he swallowed her pregnant mother, Metis, Athena is "born" from Zeus' forehead as he grasps the clothing of Eileithyia on the right—black-figured amphora, 550–525 BC, Louvre.

Although at Mycenaean Knossos Athena appears before Zeus does—in Linear B, as a-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja, "Mistress Athena"—[6] in the Olympian pantheon, Athena was remade as the favorite daughter of Zeus, born fully armed from his forehead after he swallowed her mother, Metis.[7] The story of her birth comes in several versions. In the one most commonly cited, Zeus lay with Metis, the goddess of crafty thought and wisdom, but he immediately feared the consequences. It had been prophesied that Metis would bear children more powerful than the sire,[8] even Zeus himself. In order to forestall these dire consequences, after lying with Metis, Zeus "put her away inside his own belly;" he "swallowed her down all of a sudden,"[9] He was too late: Metis had already conceived a child. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 668 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1866 × 1675 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 668 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1866 × 1675 pixel, file size: 1. ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... Ilithyia was the Greek goddess of childbirth and midwives, daughter of Zeus and Hera. ... The black-figure pottery technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears as black silhouettes on a red background. ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... The Twelve Olympians, in Greek mythology, were the principal gods of the Greek pantheon, residing atop Mount Olympus. ... In Greek mythology, Metis (wisdom or wise counsel) was a Titaness who was the first great spouse of Zeus, indeed his equal (Hesiod, Theogony 896) and the mother of Athena. ...

Eventually it came to be that Zeus was in great pain; Prometheus, Hephaestus, Hermes, or Palaemon (depending on the sources examined) cleaved Zeus's head with the double-headed Minoan axe, the labrys. Athena leaped from Zeus's head, fully grown and armed—with a shout, "and pealed to the broad sky her clarion cry of war. And Ouranos trembled to hear, and Mother Gaia..." (Pindar, Seventh Olympian Ode). As noted above the Minonan culture of Crete was thought by Plato to have been a source from which the cult of Athena was introduced from Lybia during the dawn of Greek culture. Minoan Labrys 2nd millennium BC (Iraklion museum?) http://ccwf. ... Minoan Labrys 2nd millennium BC (Iraklion museum?) http://ccwf. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus πέλεκυς or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hÄ“mipelekus half-pelekus, e. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... Prometheus Brings Fire to Mankind, by Heinrich Füger, (1817). ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... Palaemon 1 This was the birth name given to the Greek hero Herakles and the name he used until the Pythoness at Delphi first addressed him as Herakles when he sought a cure for his madness. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... Axe For other uses, see Axe (disambiguation). ... Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus πέλεκυς or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hÄ“mipelekus half-pelekus, e. ... For the PINDAR military bunker in London, please see the PINDAR section of Military citadels under London Pindar (or Pindarus, Greek: ) (probably born 522 BC in Cynoscephalae, a village in Boeotia; died 443 BC in Argos), was a Greek lyric poet. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ...


Classical myths thereafter noted that Hera was so annoyed at Zeus producing a child—apparently on his own—that she caused herself to conceive and bear Hephaestus by herself. After the appearance of this variant it becomes stated that Metis therafter never bore any more children and that Zeus persisted as supreme ruler of Mount Olympus. The Greek myths became static at this point, not changing[citation needed]before the ancient culture declined and its religion faded from practice. For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ...


Other origin tales

Fragments attributed by the Christian Eusebius of Caesarea to the semi-legendary Phoenician historian Sanchuniathon, which Eusebius thought had been written before the Trojan war, make Athena instead, the daughter of Cronus, a king of Byblos who is said to have visited 'the inhabitable world' and bequeathed Attica to Athena. Sanchuniathon's account would make Athena, as was Hera, the sister of Zeus, not his daughter. Eusebius of Caesarea Eusebius of Caesarea (c. ... Phoenicia (or Phenicia ,[1] from Biblical Phenice [1]) was an ancient civilization centered in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coast of modern day Lebanon and Syria. ... Sanchuniathon or Sanchoniathon or Sanchoniatho is the purported Phoenician author of three works in Phoenician, surviving only in partial paraphrase and summary of a Greek translation by Philo of Byblos. ... The fall of Troy, by Johann Georg Trautmann (1713–1769). ... Not to be confused with Chronos, the personification of time. ... The ruins of the Crusader castle in Byblos. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ...


Pallas Athena

The major competing tradition regarding Athena's parentage involves some of her more mysterious epithets: Pallas, as in Ancient Greek Παλλάς Άθήνη (also Pallantias) and Tritogeneia (also Trito, Tritonis, Tritoneia, Tritogenes). A separate entity named Pallas is invoked – whether Athena's father, sister, foster-sister, companion, or opponent in battle. In every case, Athena kills Pallas, accidentally, and thereby gains the name for herself. In Greek mythology, Pallas may refer to: Pallas, a Titan and son of Crius and Eurybia Pallas (Giant), a Giant and the son of Uranus and Gaia Pallas (son of Pandion), the son of Pandion II, king of Athens, and father of the fifty Pallantids Pallas (son of Evander), the...


When Pallas is Athena's father the events, including her birth, are located near a body of water named Triton or Tritonis, the result of an etymology of Tritogeneia from Tritonis. When Pallas is Athena's sister or foster-sister, Athena's father or foster-father is himself Triton, the son and herald of Poseidon. But Athena may be called the daughter of Poseidon and a nymph named Tritonis, without involving Pallas. Likewise, Pallas may be Athena's father or opponent, without involving Triton.[10] On this topic, Walter Burkert says "she is the Pallas of Athens, Pallas Athenaie, just as Hera of Argos is Here Argeie.[11] For the Athenians, Burkert notes, Athena was simply "the Goddess", he thea, certainly an ancient title. // Lake Tritonis is a Classical-era lake possibly found in southern Tunisia. ... Triton is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the deep. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ...


Athena Parthenos: Virgin Athena

Athena never had a consort or lover, and thus also was known as Athena Parthenos, "Virgin Athena." Her most famous temple, the Parthenon, on the Acropolis in Athens takes its name from this title. It was not merely an observation of her virginity, but a recognition of her role as enforcer of rules of sexual modesty and ritual mystery. This role is expressed in a number of stories about Athena. Marinus reports that when Christians removed the statue of the Goddess from the Parthenon, a beautiful woman appeared in a dream to Proclus, a devotee of Athena, and announced that the "Athenian Lady" wished to dwell with him.[12] Athena Parthenos is the title of a massive chryselephantine sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena by Phidias, which was housed in the Parthenon in Athens. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Marinus may refer to: People with the given name Marinus: Marinus (given name) People with the name Marinus: Julius Marinus Tiberius Claudius Marinus Pacatianus Marinus (general), a general of Emperor Anastasius I Marinus, a son of Emperor Heraclius Pope Marinus I (died 884) Pope Marinus II (died c. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... This article is about Proclus Diadochus, the Neoplatonist philosopher. ...


Erichthonius

Hephaestus attempted to rape Athena but she eluded him. His semen fell on the ground, and Erichthonius was born from the Earth, Gaia. Athena then raised the baby as a foster mother.[13] Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... Horse semen being collected for breeding purposes. ... King Erichthonius (also called Erechtheus I) was, according to some legends, autochthonous (born of the soil), and in other accounts he was the son of Hephaestus and Gaia or Athena or Atthis. ... For other uses, see Gaia. ...


Athena put the infant Erichthonius in a small box (cista) which she entrusted to the care of three sisters, Herse, Pandrosus, and Aglaulus of Athens. The goddess didn't tell them what the box contained, but warned them not to open it until she returned. One or two sisters opened the cista to reveal Erichthonius, in the form (or embrace) of a serpent. The serpent, or insanity induced by the sight, drove Herse and Pandrosus to throw themselves off the Acropolis.[14] Jane Harrison (Prolegomena) finds this to be a simple cautionary tale directed at young girls carrying the cista in the Thesmophoria rituals, to discourage them from opening it outside the proper context. This is an article about the Greek mythological figure; for an article on the French bicycle manufacturer, see Herse. ... Pandrosus (the all-dewy one), also spelled Pandrosos, is a figure in Greek mythology, and a daughter of Cecrops. ... Aglaulus is a figure in Greek mythology, daughter of Cecrops. ... For other uses, see Serpent (disambiguation). ... The Acropolis of Athens, seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... Thesmophoria was a festival held in Greek cities in honour of the twin goddesses Demeter and her daughter Persephone. ...


Another version of the myth of the Athenian maidens is told in Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid (43 BC – 17 AD); in this late variant Hermes falls in love with Herse. Herse, Aglaulus, and Pandrosus go to the temple to offer sacrifices to Athena. Hermes demands help from Aglaulus to seduce Herse. Aglaulus demands money in exchange. Hermes gives her the money the sisters had already offered to Athena. As punishment for Aglaulus's greed, Athena asks the goddess Envy to make Aglaulus jealous of Herse. When Hermes arrives to seduce Herse, Aglaulus stands in his way instead of helping him as she had agreed. He turns her to stone.[15] // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


With this mythic origin, Erichthonius became the founder-king of Athens, where many beneficial changes to Athenian culture were ascribed to him. During this time, Athena frequently protected him. Before the Athenian democracy, the tyrants, and the archons, Athens was ruled by kings. ...


Medusa and Tiresias

In a late myth, Medusa, unlike her two sister-Gorgons, came to be thought of by the Classical Greeks during the fifth century as, mortal and extremely beautiful, but she had sex with — or was raped by — Poseidon in a temple of Athena. Upon discovering the desecration of her temple, Athena changed Medusa's form to match that of her sister Gorgons as punishment. Medusa's hair turned into snakes, her lower body was transformed also, and meeting her gaze would turn any living creature to stone. For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ...


In one version of the Tiresias myth, Tiresias stumbled upon Athena bathing, and was blinded by her nakedness.[16] To compensate him for his loss, she sent serpents to lick his ears, which gave him the gift of prophecy. Everes redirects here. ...


Lady of Athens

Athena competed with Poseidon to be the patron deity of Athens, which was yet unnamed, in a version of one founding myth. They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and that the Athenians would choose the gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a spring sprang up; this gave them a means of trade and water—Athens at its height was a significant sea power, defeating the Persian fleet at the Battle of Salamis—but the water was salty and not very good for drinking. (In an alternate version, Poseidon offered the first horse to the citizens.) Athena, however, offered them the first domesticated olive tree. The Athenians (or their king, Cecrops) accepted the olive tree and with it the patronage of Athena, for the olive tree brought wood, oil, and food. Robert Graves was of the opinion that "Poseidon's attempts to take possession of certain cities are political myths" which reflect the conflict between matriarchical and patriarchical religions. [17] Athena also was the patron goddess of several other Greek cities, notably, Sparta. Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... A founding myth is a story or myth surrounding the foundation of a nation-state. ... For other uses, see Trident (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ... For other uses, see Battle of Salamis (disambiguation). ... For the Italian political alliance see Olive Tree, and the color, olive (color). ... The name Cecrops means face with a tail and it is said that this mythical Greek king, born from the earth itself, had his top half shaped like a man and the bottom half in serpent or fish-tail form. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ...

Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type; a Roman copy (first century) of a Greek original by Kresilas, c. 430 BC
Helmeted Athena, of the Velletri type; a Roman copy (first century) of a Greek original by Kresilas, c. 430 BC
Athena and Herakles on an Attic red-figure kylix, 480–470 BCE
Athena and Herakles on an Attic red-figure kylix, 480–470 BCE

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1067, 124 KB) Description: Helmeted Athena, Velletri-type. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1067, 124 KB) Description: Helmeted Athena, Velletri-type. ... The Athena of Velletri (Louvre) Head of a statue of this type (Glyptothek) Line drawing of the Louvre statue The Athena of Velletri or Velletri Pallas is a type of classical marble statue of Athena, wearing a helmet. ... The art of ancient Greece has exercised an enormous influence on the culture of many countries from ancient times until the present, particularly in the areas of sculpture and architecture. ... Kresilas was a Greek sculptor from Kydonia. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,905 × 1,845 pixels, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 619 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,905 × 1,845 pixels, file size: 2. ... Attica (in Greek: Αττική, Attike; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a periphery (subdivision) in Greece, containing Athens, the capital of Greece. ... Kylix may mean: Kylix (drinking cup), a type of drinking cup used in ancient Greece Kylix programming tool This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Counselor

Myths of the Classical Greeks relate that Athena guided Perseus in his quest to behead Medusa. She instructed Heracles to skin the Nemean Lion by using its own claws to cut through its thick hide. She also helped Heracles to defeat the Stymphalian Birds, and to navigate the underworld so as to capture Cerberos. For the constellation, see Perseus (constellation); for the Macedonian king, see Perseus of Macedon Perseus with the Head of Medusa Perseus was the son of Danae, the only child of Acrisius king of Argos. ... A relatively modern image of Medusa painted by Arnold Böcklin In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μεδουσα Queen), was a monstrous female character whose gaze could turn people to stone. ... Alcides redirects here. ... The Nemean Lion (Latin: Leo Nemaeus) was a vicious monster in Greek mythology that lived in Nemea. ... In Greek mythology, the Stymphalian Birds were birds with claws of brass and sharp metallic feathers they could launch at their victims, and also they were Ares pets. ... For the snake genus Cerberus, see Cerberus (snake). ...


In another late story it is said that Odysseus' cunning and shrewd nature quickly won Athena's favor, though in the realistic epic mode she is largely confined to aiding him only from afar, as by implanting thoughts in his head, during his journey home from Troy. It is not until he washes up on the shore of an island where Nausicaa is washing her clothes that Athena herself can arrive to provide more tangible assistance. She appears in Nausicaa's dreams to ensure that the princess rescues Odysseus and eventually sends him to Ithaca. Athena, herself, appears in disguise to Odysseus upon his arrival. She initially lies and tells him Penelope, his wife, has remarried and that Odysseus is believed to be dead, however, Odysseus lies to her, seeing through her disguise. Pleased with his resolve and shrewdness, she reveals herself to him and tells him everything he needs to know in order to win back his kingdom. She disguises him as an elderly man so that he will not be noticed by the suitors or Penelope and she helps Odysseus defeat the suitors and end the resulting feud against their relatives. For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ...


Roman fable of Arachne

The fable of Arachne is a late Roman addition to Classical Greek mythology,[18] that, of course, does not appear in the myth repertory of the Attic vase-painters. Arachne's name simply means spider (αράχνη). Arachne was the daughter of a famous dyer in Tyrian purple in Hypaipa of Lydia. She became so conceited of her skill as a weaver that she began claiming that her skill was greater than that of Athena herself. For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Arachne (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... Murex brandaris, also known as the Spiny dye-murex The chemical structure of 6,6′-dibromoindigo, the main component of Tyrian Purple A space-filling model of 6,6′-dibromoindigo Tyrian purple (Greek: , porphura), also known as royal purple or imperial purple, is a purple-red dye made by the... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of Ä°zmir and Manisa. ...


Athena gave Arachne a chance to redeem herself by assuming the form of an old woman and warning Arachne not to offend the deities. Arachne scoffed and wished for a weaving contest, so she could prove her skill.


Athena wove the scene of her victory over Poseidon that had inspired her patronage of Athens. According to the Latin narrative, Arachne's tapestry featured twenty-one episodes of the infidelity of the deities: Zeus being unfaithful with Leda, with Europa, with Danaë. Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... Leda and the Swan, 16th-century copy after the lost painting by Michelangelo Leda with the Swan, by Correggio In Greek mythology, Leda (Λήδα) was daughter of the Aetolian king Thestius, and wife of the king Tyndareus, of Sparta. ... This article is not about the daughter of Tityus and mother of Euphemus (by Poseidon), who was also named Europa. ... Titians Danaë, inspired by Ovids Metamorphoses, represents the girl at the moment of her impregnation by a golden rain. ...


Even Athena admitted that Arachne's work was flawless, but was outraged at Arachne's disrespectful choice of subjects that displayed the failings and transgressions of the deities.[19] Finally losing her temper, Athena destroyed Arachne's tapestry and loom, striking it with her shuttle, Arachne realized her folly and hanged herself. In Ovid's telling, Athena took pity on Arachne who was changed into a spider.


The fable suggests that the origin of weaving lay in imitation of spiders and that it was considered to have been perfected first in Asia Minor. This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...


Cult and attributes

Helmeted Athena with the cista and Erichthonius in his serpent form. Roman, first century (Louvre Museum)
Helmeted Athena with the cista and Erichthonius in his serpent form. Roman, first century (Louvre Museum)

Athena's epithets include Άτρυτώνη, Atrytone (= the unwearying), Παρθένος, Parthénos (= virgin), and Ή Πρόμαχος, Promachos (the pre-fighter/-tress, i. e. she who fights in front). Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1242x1491, 171 KB) Description fr: « Athéna à la ciste Â» — Athéna casquée tenant une ciste (corbeille) avec le serpent Érichthonios. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1242x1491, 171 KB) Description fr: « Athéna à la ciste Â» — Athéna casquée tenant une ciste (corbeille) avec le serpent Érichthonios. ... The main courtyard of the Louvre. ... Look up epithet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In poetry from Homer, an oral tradition of the eighth or seventh century BC, onward, Athena's most common epithet is glaukopis (γλαυκώπις), which usually is translated as, bright-eyed or with gleaming eyes.[20] The word is a combination of glaukos (γλαύκος, meaning gleaming, silvery, and later, bluish-green or gray) and ops (ώψ, eye, or sometimes, face). It is interesting to note that glaux (γλαύξ, "owl") is from the same root, presumably because of the bird's own distinctive eyes. The bird which sees well in the night is closely associated with the goddess of wisdom: in archaic images, Athena is frequently depicted with an owl perched on her head. The olive tree is likewise sacred to her. In earlier times, Athena may well have been a bird goddess, similar to the unknown goddess depicted with owls, wings, and bird talons on the Burney relief, a Mesopotamian terracotta relief of the early second millennium BC.[citation needed] A characteristic of Homers style is the use of recurring epithets, such as rosy-fingered dawn or swift-footed Achilles. ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Bird goddesses the Neolithic Vinca culture had a bird goddess, according to Marija Gimbutas; see also Vinca script. ... The Burney Relief, ca. ...


Other epithets include: Aethyta under which she was worshiped in Megara.[21]. The word aithyia (αίθυια) signifies a diver, and figuratively, a ship, so the name must reference Athena teaching the art of shipbuilding or navigation.[22][23] Bold text For other uses, see Megara (disambiguation). ...


Epithets

In the Iliad (4.514), the Homeric Hymns, and in Hesiod's Theogony, Athena is given the curious epithet Tritogeneia. The meaning of this term is unclear. It seems to mean "Triton-born," perhaps indicating that the sea-deity was her parent according to some early myths,[24] or, less likely, that she was born near Lake Triton in Africa. This is the same location noted in The Greek Myths (8.a ff.), by Robert Graves as the possible location from which the worship of Neith was imported into Crete and then into Greece as the warrior goddess Athena at a very early date, perhaps as early as 3,500 BC. title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... Triton is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the deep. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Domestication of the chicken Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ...


Another possible meanings may be triple-born or third-born, which may refer to a triad or to her status as the third daughter of Zeus or the fact she was born from Metis, Zeus, and herself; various legends list her as being the first child after Artemis and Apollo, though other legends[citation needed] identify her as Zeus' first child. The later would have to be drawn from Classical myths, however that rather than earlier ones.


In her role as judge at Orestes' trial on the murder of his mother, Clytemnestra (which he won), Athena won the epithet Athena Areia. The Remorse of Orestes by William-Adolphe Bouguereau For other uses, see Orestes (disambiguation). ... Clytemnestra trying to awake the Erinyes while her son is being purified by Apollo, Apulian red-figure krater, 480–470 BC, Louvre (Cp 710) After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ...

A new peplos was woven for Athena and ceremonially brought to dress her cult image (British Museum)
A new peplos was woven for Athena and ceremonially brought to dress her cult image (British Museum)

Athena later was associated with the application of philosophy to cult in the fifth century during the Classical period. She remained the patroness of weaving, crafts, and the more disciplined side of war[25]. Athena's wisdom encompasses the technical knowledge employed in weaving and metal-working, but also includes the cunning intelligence (metis) of such figures as Odysseus. Terracotta of a Greek woman 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... London museum | name = British Museum | image = British Museum from NE 2. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ... Arts and crafts comprise a whole host of activities and hobbies that are related to making things with ones own hands and skill. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Metis can refer to a number of things: Metis was a Titaness and the first wife of Zeus. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ...


Other epithets were Ageleia and Itonia.


The owl and the olive tree are sacred to her. She is attended by an owl, and is often accompanied by the goddess of victory, Nike. Wearing a goatskin breastplate called the Aegis that suggests a Lydian origin, is later interpreted to have been given to her by her father, Zeus[26], she often is shown helmeted and with a shield bearing the Gorgon Medusa's head, again a symbol of earlier themes, later as a votive gift of Perseus. Athena is an armed warrior goddess, and appears in later Greek mythology as the counselor of many heroes, including Heracles, Jason, and Odysseus. For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ... An icon of Aghia Paraskevi with votive offerings hung beside it. ... Perseus with the head of Medusa, by Antonio Canova, completed 1801 (Vatican Museums) Perseus, Perseos, or Perseas (Greek: Περσεύς, Περσέως, Περσέας), the legendary founder of Mycenae and of the Perseid dynasty there, was the first of the mythic heroes of Greek mythology whose exploits in defeating various archaic monsters provided the founding myths... Alcides redirects here. ... This article is about the hero from Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ...

The Parthenon, Temple of Athena Parthenos
The Parthenon, Temple of Athena Parthenos

Athena was given many other cult titles. She had the epithet Athena Ergane as the patron of craftsmen and artisans. With the epithet Athena Parthenos ("virgin"), Athena was worshiped on the Classical period Acropolis, especially in the festival of the Panathenaea. With the epithet Athena Promachos she led in battle. With the epithet Athena Polias ("of the city"), Athena was the protector of Athens and its Acropolis, but also of many other cities, including Argos, Sparta, Gortyn, Lindos, and Larisa. She was given the epithet Athena Hippeia or Athena Hippia, horse as the inventor of the chariot, and was worshipped under this title at Athens, Tegea and Olympia. As Athena Hippeia she was given an alternative parentage: Poseidon and Polyphe, daughter of Oceanus. [27][28]. In each of these cities her temple frequently was the major temple on the acropolis.[29] Athena often was equated with Aphaea, a local goddess of the island of Aegina, located near Athens, once Aegina was under Athenian's power. The Greek historian Plutarch (46 AD–120 AD) also refers to an instance during the Parthenon's construction of her being called Athena Hygieia ("healer"): Image File history File links Ac. ... Image File history File links Ac. ... Athena Parthenos is the title of a massive chryselephantine sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena by Phidias, which was housed in the Parthenon in Athens. ... Acropolis (Gr. ... The Panathenaic Games were a set of games held every four years in Athens in Ancient Greece. ... This article is about the city in Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Inheritance regulations, fragment of the 11th column of the Law Code of Gortyn, Louvre This article is about the ancient city in Crete; another place with the same name is Gortyna, Arcadia. ... Acropolis of Lindos: the restored stoa Lindos (Greek Λινδος;) is a town and an archaeological site on the east coast of the island of Rhodes (Rhodhos) in the Dodecanese Islands in south-eastern Greece. ... Alternative meanings: Larissa in mythology was a daughter of Pelasgus; Larrissa is a moon of Neptune; 1162 Larissa is an asteroid; Larissa is also a first name. ... Hippeia or Hippea is the name of two characters in Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Chariot (disambiguation). ... There is also an ancient Tegea near Kissamos in the island of Crete, see Tegea, Crete Tegea was an important religious center of ancient Greek containing the Temple of Athena Alea. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... Oceanus, with his wife, Tethys, ruled the seas before Poseidon. ... Temple of Aphaia on the island of Aegina. ... Aegina (Greek: Αίγινα (Egina)) is one of the Saronic Islands of Greece in the Saronic Gulf, 31 miles (50 km) from Athens. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Mestrius Plutarchus (Greek: Πλούταρχος; 46 - 127), better known in English as Plutarch, was a Greek historian, biographer, essayist, and Middle Platonist. ... In Greek mythology, Hygieia (Roman equivalent: Salus) was a daughter of Asclepius. ...

A strange accident happened in the course of building, which showed that the goddess was not averse to the work, but was aiding and co-operating to bring it to perfection. One of the artificers, the quickest and the handiest workman among them all, with a slip of his foot fell down from a great height, and lay in a miserable condition, the physicians having no hope of his recovery. When Pericles was in distress about this, the goddess [Athena] appeared to him at night in a dream, and ordered a course of treatment, which he applied, and in a short time and with great ease cured the man. And upon this occasion it was that he set up a brass statue of Athena Hygeia, in the citadel near the altar, which they say was there before. But it was Phidias who wrought the goddess's image in gold, and he has his name inscribed on the pedestal as the workman of it.[30]

For the Shakespeare play, see Pericles, Prince of Tyre. ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ...

In classical art

The Athena Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena with her serpent, Erichthonius
The Athena Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena with her serpent, Erichthonius
Athena depicted on a coin of Attalus I, ruler of Pergamon—c. 200 BC.
Athena depicted on a coin of Attalus I, ruler of Pergamon—c. 200 BC.


Classically, Athena is portrayed wearing full armor, with her helmet raised high on the forehead to reveal the image of Nike. Her shield bears at its centre the gorgoneion, the head of the gorgon Medusa, as does her agis. It is in this standing posture that she was depicted in Phidias's famous lost gold and ivory statue of her, 36 m tall, the Athena Parthenos in the Parthenon. Athena also often is depicted with an owl sitting on one of her shoulders.[31] The Mourning Athena is a relief sculpture that dates around 460 BC and portrays a weary Athena resting on a staff. In earlier, archaic portraits of Athena in Black-figure pottery, the goddess retains some of her Minoan-Mycenaean character, such as great bird wings although this is not true of archaic sculpture such as those of Aphaean Athena, where Athena has subsumed an earlier, invisibly numinous—Aphaea— goddess with Cretan connections in her mythos.
Download high resolution version (374x649, 77 KB)Classical Statue of Pallas, photo-engraving from 1899 book Original caption: PALLAS. Photo-engraving from the original marble statue in the Vatican at Rome. ... Download high resolution version (374x649, 77 KB)Classical Statue of Pallas, photo-engraving from 1899 book Original caption: PALLAS. Photo-engraving from the original marble statue in the Vatican at Rome. ... The Athena Giustiniani, a Roman copy of a Greek statue of Pallas Athena (Vatican Museums) The Parian marble Athena Giustiniani or Giustiniani Minerva is an Antonine Roman marble copy of a Greek sculpture of Pallas Athena, of the late fifth-early fourth century BCE.[1] It was discovered in the... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Bust of Attalus I, circa 200 BCE (Pergamon Museum, Berlin) Attalus I Soter (Greek: Savior; 269 BC – 197 BC)[1] ruled Pergamon, a Greek polis in what is now Turkey, from 241 BC to 197 BC. He was the second cousin and the adoptive son of Eumenes I,[2] whom... View of the reconstructed Temple of Trajan at Pergamon Sketched reconstruction of ancient Pergamon Pergamon or Pergamum (Greek: Πέργαμος, modern day Bergama in Turkey, ) was an ancient Greek city, in Mysia, north-western Anatolia, 16 miles from the Aegean Sea, located on a promontory on the north side of the river... This article discusses the Greek Goddess. ... Apotropaic magic is a ritual observance that is intended to turn away evil. ... This article is about the Greek mythological monster. ... A relatively modern image of Medusa painted by Arnold Böcklin In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μεδουσα Queen), was a monstrous female character whose gaze could turn people to stone. ... Phidias Showing the Frieze of the Parthenon to his Friends by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema Phidias (or Pheidias) (in ancient Greek, ) (c. ... Chryselephantine (from Greek χρυσος (chrysos), “gold,” and ελεφαντινος (elephantinos), “ivory”), the architectural term given to statues which were built up on a wooden core, with ivory representing the flesh and gold the drapery. ... Athena Parthenos is the title of a massive chryselephantine sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena by Phidias, which was housed in the Parthenon in Athens. ... The Parthenon west façade For other uses, see Parthenon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... The Mourning Athena is a Greek relief sculpture dating around c. ... The black-figure pottery technique is a style of ancient Greek pottery painting in which the decoration appears as black silhouettes on a red background. ... The Temple of Aphaia (or Aphaea) is located within a sanctuary complex dedicated to the goddess Aphaia on the Greek island of Aigina, which lies in the Saronic Gulf. ... Temple of Aphaia on the island of Aegina. ...


Other commonly received and repeated types of Athena in sculpture may be found in this list.


Apart from her attributes, there seems to be a relative consensus in sculpture from the Classical period, the fifth century onward, as to what Athena looked like. Most noticeable in the face is perhaps the full round strong chin with a high nose that has a high bridge as a natural extension of the forehead. The eyes typically are somewhat deeply set. The unsmiling lips are usually full, but the mouth is fairly narrow, usually just slightly wider than the nose. The neck is somewhat long. The net result is a serene, serious, somewhat aloof beauty.


Name, etymology, and origin

Athena had a special relationship with Athens, as is shown by the etymological connection of the names of the goddess and the city. Athena was said to have won a contest between her and Poseidon, god of the Sea, over the city of Athens. Zeus had decided that in order to settle the feud, whoever gave the city the most useful gift will win ownership and patronship of the city. Poseidon gave the city a fountain of flowing water, but it was salty and was not much help to the people. Athena planted the first olive tree, which provided the people with food, firewood, and shade. She showed how to crush olives to make oil, that could then be used in a variety of ways. Athena's gift was the most useful, and she won patronship of the city. Athens was then named in her honor. [32] Athens had built a statue of Athena as a temple to the goddess, which had piercing eyes, a helmet on her head, attired with a cuirass and an extremely long spear. It also had a crystal shield with the figure of the head of Medusa on it. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... This article is devoted to the type of armour known as a cuirass. ... For other uses, see Medusa (disambiguation). ...


Athena is associated with Athens, a plural name because it was the place where she presided over her sisterhood, the Athenai, in earliest times: "[Mycenae] was the city where the Goddess was called Mykene, and Mycenae is named in the plural for the sisterhood of females who tended her there. At Thebes she was called Thebe, and the city again a plural, Thebae (or Thebes, where the 's' is the plural formation). Similarly, at Athens she was called Athena, and the city Athenae (or Athens, again a plural)." [33] Whether her name is attested in Eteocretan or not will have to wait for decipherment of Linear A. This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For the ancient capital of Upper Egypt, see Thebes, Egypt. ... The Eteocretan (i. ... Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini. ...


Günther Neumann has suggested that Athena's name is possibly of Lydian origin;[34] it may be a compound word derived in part from Tyrrhenian "ati", meaning mother and the name of the Hurrian goddess "Hannahannah" shortened in various places to "Ana". In Mycenaean Greek, at Knossos a single inscription A-ta-na po-ti-ni-ja /Athana potniya/ appears in the Linear B tablets from the Late Minoan II-era "Room of the Chariot Tablets"; these comprise the earliest Linear B archive anywhere.[35] Although Athana potniya often is translated Mistress Athena, it literally means "the potnia of At(h)ana", which perhaps, means the Lady of Athens;[36] Any connection to the city of Athens in the Knossos inscription is uncertain.[37] We also find A-ta-no-dju-wa-ja /Athana diwya/, the final part being the Linear B spelling of what we know from ancient Greek as Diwia (Mycenaean di-u-ja or di-wi-ja): divine Athena also was a weaver and the deity of crafts. (see dyeus).[38] Lydian was an Indo-European language, one of the Anatolian languages, that was spoken in the city-state of Lydia in Anatolia, present day Turkey. ... A close relationship of the Etruscan language and the Rhaetic language has been established by Rix (1998), who together with the Lemnian language classifies them as Tyrsenian (Tyrsenisch, also Tyrrhenian), after the Tyrrhenoi. ... The word Hurrian may refer to: An ancient people of the Near East, the Hurrians. ... Hurrian Mother Goddess Hannahannah (from Hurrian Hannah = mother). Hannahannah also appears to have been the pre-Sumerian Goddess Inanna, and to be the origin of the Biblical Hannah, mother of Samuel; the Canaanite Anath, and the Christian St Anne. ... Map of Bronze Age Greece as described in Homers Iliad Mycenaean is the most ancient known form of the Greek language, spoken on the Greek mainland and on Crete in the 16th to 11th centuries BC, before the Dorian invasion. ... A portion of Arthur Evans reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... *DyÄ“us is the reconstructed chief god of the Proto-Indo-European pantheon. ...

Bust of Athena in the Munich Glyptothek
Bust of Athena in the Munich Glyptothek

In his dialogue Cratylus, the Greek philosopher Plato, 428/427 BC – 348/347 BC, gives the etymology of Athena's name, based on the view of the ancient Athenians: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 554 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1821 × 1971 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 554 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1821 × 1971 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The Glyptothek is a museum in Munich, Germany, which was commissioned by the Bavarian King Ludwig I to house his collection of Greek and Roman sculptures (hence Glypto-, from the Greek root glyphein, to carve). ... Cratylus (Κρατυλος) is the name of a dialogue by Plato, written in approximately 360 BC. In the dialogue, Socrates is asked by two men, Cratylus and Hermogenes, to advise them whether names are conventional or natural, that is, whether language is a system of arbitrary signs or whether words have an... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...

"That is a graver matter, and there, my friend, the modern interpreters of Homer may, I think, assist in explaining the view of the ancients. For most of these in their explanations of the poet, assert that he meant by Athena "mind" [nous] and "intelligence" [dianoia], and the maker of names appears to have had a singular notion about her; and indeed calls her by a still higher title, "divine intelligence" [Thou noesis], as though he would say: This is she who has the mind better than others. Nor shall we be far wrong in supposing that the author of it wished to identify this Goddess with moral intelligence [en ethei noesin], and therefore gave her the name ethonoe; which, however, either he or his successors have altered into what they thought a nicer form, and called her Athena".
Plato, Cratylus, 407b

Thus for Plato her name was to be derived from Greek Ἀθεονόα, Atheonóa— which the Greeks rationalised as from the deity's (theos) mind (nous).


The Greek historian, Herodotus (c. 484-425 BC), noted that the Egyptian citizens of Sais in Egypt worshipped a goddess whose Egyptian name was Neith;[39] and they identified her with Athena. (Timaeus 21e), (Histories 2:170–175). Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: HÄ“ródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ... Look up sais in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ... The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus is considered the first work of history in Western literature. ...


Some authors[citation needed] believe that in early times, Athena was an owl herself, or a bird goddess in general: in Book 3 of the Odyssey, she takes the form of a sea-eagle. These authors argue that she dropped her prophylactic owl-mask before she lost her wings. "Athena, by the time she appears in art," Jane Ellen Harrison remarked, "has completely shed her animal form, has reduced the shapes she once wore of snake and bird to attributes, but occasionally in black-figure vase-paintings she still appears with wings."[40] Some authors[who?] claim her tasselled aegis may be the remnants of wings. For other uses, see Owl (disambiguation). ... Bird goddesses the Neolithic Vinca culture had a bird goddess, according to Marija Gimbutas; see also Vinca script. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... Species Haliaeetus albicilla Haliaeetus leucocephalus Haliaeetus pelagicus Haliaeetus vocifer Haliaeetus leucogaster Haliaeetus sanfordi Haliaeetus vociferoides Haliaeetus leucoryphus The sea-eagles are a group of birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus[1] of the bird of prey family (Accipitridae). ... Athena wearing the aegis, Attic black-figured hydria by the potter Panphaios (signed) and the Euphiletos Painter, c. ... For other uses, see Aegis (disambiguation). ...


In post-classical culture

A neoclassical statue of Athena stands in front of the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna.
A neoclassical statue of Athena stands in front of the Austrian Parliament Building in Vienna.
The statue of Renan in Tréguier.
The statue of Renan in Tréguier.

Athena (Minerva) is the subject of the $50 1915-S Panama-Pacific commemorative coin. At 2.5 troy oz (78 g) gold, this is the largest (by weight) coin ever produced by the U.S. Mint. This was the first $50 coin issued by the U.S. Mint and no higher was produced until the production of the $100 platinum coins in 1997. Of course, in terms of face-value in adjusted dollars, the 1915 is the highest denomination ever issued by the U.S. Mint. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2046x3567, 532 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Athena Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2046x3567, 532 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Athena Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Parliament at the Ringstraße The Austrian Parliament Building, (German: Parlament or Hohes Haus, formerly the Reichsratsgebäude), is where the two Houses of the Parliament of Austria conduct their sittings. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 356 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (989 × 1665 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of statue of Ernest Renan in the town square of Treguier, Brittany I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 356 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (989 × 1665 pixel, file size: 412 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photograph of statue of Ernest Renan in the town square of Treguier, Brittany I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the... Commemorative coins are coins that were issued to commemorate some particular event or issue. ... For other uses, see Weight (disambiguation). ... Seal of the U.S. Mint Denver United States mint building The United States Mint primarily produces circulating coinage for the United States to conduct its trade and commerce. ...


For over a century a full-scale replica of the Parthenon has stood in Nashville, Tennessee, which is known as the Athens of the South. In 1990, a gilded 41 feet (12.5 m) tall replica of Phidias' statue of Athena Parthenos was added. The state seal of California features an image of Athena (or Minerva) kneeling next to a brown grizzly bear.[41] The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee is a full-scale replica of the original Parthenon in Athens. ... Nashville redirects here. ... Athena Parthenos is the title of a massive chryselephantine sculpture of the Greek goddess Athena by Phidias, which was housed in the Parthenon in Athens. ... The Great Seal of the U.S. state of California. ...


Athena is the symbol of the Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany. Old main building in the city centre. ...


She is the symbol of the United States Women's Navy and was depicted on their Unit Crest. A medal awarded to women who served in the Women Army Auxiliary Corps from 10 July 1942 to 31 August 1943, and to the Women Army Corps from 1 September 1943 to 2 September 1945 featured Athena on the front. is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Athena's Helmet is the central feature on the United States Military Academy crest. USMA redirects here. ...


Athena is reported as a source of influence for feminist theologians such as Carol P. Christ. Carol P. Christ Teacher and author, Carol P. Christholds a Ph. ...


The goddess also holds a special place in the traditions at Bryn Mawr College in Pennsylvania. A statue of Athena (a replica of the original bronze one in the archaeology library) resides in the Great Hall. It is traditional at exam time for students to leave offerings to the goddess with a note asking for good luck, or to repent for accidentally breaking any of the college's numerous other traditions. Athena's owl also serves as the mascot of the college. Bryn Mawr College (pronounced ) is a highly selective womens liberal arts college located in Bryn Mawr, a community in Lower Merion Township, Pennsylvania, ten miles northwest of Philadelphia. ...


A statue of the skeptical thinker Ernest Renan caused great controversy when it was installed in Tréguier, Brittany. Renan's 1862 biography of Jesus had denied his divinity, and he had written the Prayer on the Acropolis addressed to the goddess Athena. The statue was placed next to the cathedral. Renan's head was turned away from the building, while Athena was depicted beside him, raising her arm as if in challenge to the church. The installation was accompanied by a mass protest from local Roman Catholics and a religious service against the growth of skepticism and secularism.[42] Ernest Renan (February 28, 1823–October 12, 1892) was a French philosopher and writer. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Walter Burkert, Greek Religion 1985:VII "Philosophical Religion" treats these transformations.
  2. ^ Violence and bloodlust were Ares' domain.
  3. ^ Zeus is also "Aegis-bearing Zeus".
  4. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 3.14.6.
  5. ^ "Whether the goddess was named after the city or the city after the goddess is an ancient dispute" (Burkert 1985:139).
  6. ^ Athana Potnia does not appear at Mycenaean Pylos, where the mistress goddess is ma-te-re te-i-ja, Mater Theia, literally "Mother Goddess".
  7. ^ Jane Ellen Harrison's famous characterisation of this myth-element as, "a desperate theological expedient to rid an earth-born Kore of her matriarchal conditions" has never been refuted (Harrison 1922:302).
  8. ^ Compare the prophecy concerning Thetis.
  9. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 890ff and 924ff.
  10. ^ Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths I, "The Birth of Athena," 8.a., p. 51. The story comes from Libyan (modern Berbers) where the Greek Athena and the Egyptian Neith blend in to one deity. The story is not so often referenced because some facts contradict other better-documented facts. Frazer, vol. 2 p.41
  11. ^ Burkert, p. 139.
  12. ^ Marinus of Samaria, "The Life of Proclus or Concerning Happiness", Translated by Kenneth S. Guthrie (1925), pp.15-55:30, retrieved 21 May 2007.Marinus, Life of Proclus
  13. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 3.14.6.
  14. ^ Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths I, "The Nature and Deeds of Athena" 25.d.
  15. ^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, X. Aglaura, Book II, 708-751; XI. The Envy, Book II, 752-832.
  16. ^ Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths I,"The Nature and Deeds of Athena" 25.g. The myth of Actaeon is a doublet of this element.
  17. ^ Graves 1960:16.3p 62.
  18. ^ The tale is recorded in Ovid's Metamorphoses ( (vi.5-54 and 129-145) and mentioned in Virgil's Georgics, iv, 246.
  19. ^ This takes for granted a late, moralizing view of Greek myth.
  20. ^ Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, 1940, A Greek-English Lexicon, ISBN 0-19-864226-1, online version at the Perseus Project
  21. ^ Pausanias, i. 5. § 3; 41. § 6
  22. ^ John Tzetzes, ad Lycophr., l.c.
  23. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867), "Aethyta", in Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, vol. 1, Boston, MA, pp. 51 
  24. ^ Karl Kerenyi suggests that "Tritogeneia did not mean that she came into the world on any particular river or lake, but that she was born of the water itself; for the name Triton seems to be associated with water generally." (Kerenyi, p. 128).
  25. ^ Violence and bloodlust were Ares' domain.
  26. ^ Zeus is also "Aegis-bearing Zeus".
  27. ^ POLYPHE : Oceanid nymph of Rhodes in the Aegean ; Greek mythology
  28. ^ TITLES OF ATHENA : Ancient Greek religion
  29. ^ Burkert, p. 140.
  30. ^ Plutarch, Life of Pericles, 13.8
  31. ^ The owl's role as a symbol of wisdom originates in this association with Athena.
  32. ^ "Whether the goddess was named after the city or the city after the goddess is an ancient dispute" (Burkert, p. 139).
  33. ^ Ruck and Staples 1994:24.
  34. ^ Günther Neumann, "Der lydische Name der Athena. Neulesung der lydischen Inschrift Nr. 40" Kadmos 6 (1967).
  35. ^ Kn V 52 (text 208 in Ventris and Chadwick).
  36. ^ Palaima, p. 444.
  37. ^ Burkert, p. 44.
  38. ^ Ventris and Chadwick [page missing]
  39. ^ "The citizens have a deity for their foundress; she is called in the Egyptian tongue Neith, and is asserted by them to be the same whom the Hellenes call Athena; they are great lovers of the Athenians, and say that they are in some way related to them". ( Timaeus 21e)
  40. ^ Harrison 1922:306. (Harrison 1922:307 fig. 84: detail of a cup in the Faina collection).
  41. ^ LearnCalifornia.org - Symbols of the Seal of California
  42. ^ Musee Virtuel Jean Boucher

Roman Catholics Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ... This article is about the Greek geographical feature and town. ... In Greek mythology, Theia (also written Thea or Thia), also called Euryphaessa (wide-shining), was a Titan. ... This article is about the Greek sea nymph. ... Theogony (Greek: Θεογονία, theogonia = the birth of God(s)) is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins and genealogies of the gods of the ancient Greeks, composed circa 700 BC. The title of the work comes from the Greek words for god and seed. // Hesiods Theogony is a large-scale... The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt on the east, Sudan on the southeast, Chad and Niger on the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west. ... The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Neith In Egyptian mythology, Neith (also known as Nit, Net and Neit) was a psychopomp, a goddess of war and the hunt and the patron deity of Sais, in the Western Delta. ... The Bibliotheke was renowned as the chief work of Greek historian and scholar. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... Actaeon, sculpture group in the cascade at Caserta In Greek mythology, Actaeon (or Aktaion), son of Aristaeus and Autonoe in Boeotia, was a famous Theban hero, trained by the centaur Cheiron, who suffered the fatal wrath of Artemis (or her Roman counterpart Diana). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... For other uses, see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Georgics Book III, Shepherd with Flocks, Vatican The Georgics, published in 29 BC, is the second major work by the Latin poet Virgil. ... The Perseus Project is a digital library project of Tufts University that assembles digital collections of humanities resources. ... Pausanias is the name of several ancient people: Pausanias was a Spartan general of the 5th century BC. Pausanias of Sparta was King of Sparta from 409 BC-395 BC. Pausanias was the servant/lover who assassinated Philip II of Macedon in 336 BC Pausanias, Greek traveller and geographer of... John Tzetzes, was a Byzantine poet and grammarian, known to have lived at Constantinople during the 12th century. ... The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology (1849, originally published 1844 under a slightly different title) is an encyclopedia/biographical dictionary. ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... Timaeus (Greek: Τίμαιος, Timaios) is a theoretical treatise of Plato in the form of a Socratic dialogue, written circa 360 BC. The work puts forward speculation on the nature of the physical world. ...


References

Ancient sources

  • Lucan, Bellum civile ix.350
  • Livy, Ad urbe condita libri vii.3.7
  • Augustine, De civitate dei xviii.8–9
  • Eusebius, Chronicon 30.21–26, 42.11–14
  • Cicero, De natura deorum iii.21.53, 23.59
  • Lactantius, Divinae institutions i.17.12–13, 18.22–23

Modern sources

  • Burkert, Walter, 1985. Greek Religion (Harvard).
  • Telenius, Seppo Sakari, 2005 and 2006. Athena-Artemis.
  • Graves, Robert, (1955) 1960. The Greek Myths revised edition.
  • Kerenyi, Karl, 1951. The Gods of the Greeks (Thames and Hudson).
  • Harrison, Jane Ellen, 1903. Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion.
  • Ventris, Michael and John Chadwick, 1973. Documents in Mycenaean Greek (Cambridge).
  • Ruck, Carl A.P. and Danny Staples, 1994. The World of Classical Myth: Gods and Goddesses, Heroines and Heroes (Durham, NC).
  • Palaima, Thomas, 2004. "Appendix One: Linear B Sources." In Trzaskoma, Stephen, et al., eds., Anthology of Classical Myth: Primary Sources in Translation (Hackett).

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ... Seppo Sakari Telenius was born on February 16th, 1954, in Porvoo, Finland. ... Robert von Ranke Graves (24 July 1895 – 7 December 1985) was an English poet, scholar, and novelist. ... One of the founders of modern studies in Greek mythology, Karl (Carl, Károly) Kerényi (January 19, 1897 - April 14, 1973) was born in Hungary but became a citizen of Switzerland in 1943. ... Jane Ellen Harrison (September 9, 1850–April 5, 1928) was a ground-breaking English classical scholar and feminist. ... [[1]] Michael George Francis Ventris (July 12, 1922–September 6, 1956) was an English architect and classical scholar, who along with John Chadwick was responsible for the decipherment of Linear B. Michael Ventris was educated in Switzerland and at Stowe School, housed in a magnificent 18th century country house. ... John Chadwick (21 May 1920 – 24 November 1998) was an English linguist and classical scholar most famous for his role in deciphering Linear B, along with Michael Ventris. ...

See also

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Palladion. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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Greek deities series
Primordial deities | Titans | Aquatic deities | Chthonic deities
Twelve Olympians
Zeus | Hera | Poseidon | Hestia | Demeter | Aphrodite
Athena | Apollo | Artemis | Ares | Hephaestus | Hermes

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ... The ancient Greeks proposed many different ideas about the primordial gods in their mythology. ... This article is about the race of Titans in Greek mythology. ... The ancient Greeks had a very small number of see gods. ... For other uses, see Chthon (disambiguation). ... The Twelve Olympians by Monsiau, circa late 18th century. ... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hera (disambiguation). ... Neptune reigns in the city of Bristol. ... In Greek mythology, virginal Hestia,(Roman name, Vesta) daughter of Cronus and Rhea, (ancient Greek ) is the goddess of the hearth, of the right ordering of domesticity and the family, who received the first offering at every sacrifice in the household. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter. ... The Birth of Venus, (detail) by Sandro Botticelli, 1485 For other uses, see Aphrodite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ancient Greek god. ... Hephaestus (pronounced or ; Greek HÄ“phaistos) was a Greek god whose Roman equivalent was Vulcan; he was the god of technology, blacksmiths, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metals and metallurgy, and fire. ... For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ...


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