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Encyclopedia > Athabaskan
Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken
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Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken

Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western North America, and of their language family. The Athabaskan family is the largest family in North America in terms of number of languages and the number of speakers (the Uto-Aztecan family which extends in Mexico has many more speakers). In terms of territory, only the Algic language family covers a larger area. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (675x657, 126 KB) Verbreitung der Na-Dene-Sprachen distribution of Na-Dene languages langues na-déné Na-Denétalen Języki na-dene info created by w:User:Ish_ishwar in 2005 released under CC-by-2. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (675x657, 126 KB) Verbreitung der Na-Dene-Sprachen distribution of Na-Dene languages langues na-déné Na-Denétalen Języki na-dene info created by w:User:Ish_ishwar in 2005 released under CC-by-2. ... Native Americans (also Indians, Aboriginal Peoples, American Indians, First Nations, Alaskan Natives, Amerindians, or Indigenous Peoples of America) are the indigenous inhabitants of The Americas prior to the European colonization, and their modern descendants. ... The Uto-Aztecan languages are a Native American language family. ... The Algic languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ...


The 24 Northern Athabaskan languages are spoken throughout the interior of Alaska and the interior of northwestern Canada in the Yukon and Northwest Territories as well as in the provinces of British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Several Athabaskan languages are official languages in the Northwest Territories, including Chipewyan, Dogrib or Tlicho, Gwich'in, and Slavey. State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th) Land 474,391 km² Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Motto: None Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Commissioner Tony Whitford Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government - no party affiliations) Area 1,346,106 km² (3rd) Land 1,183,085 km² Water 163,021 km² (12. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th) Land 925,186 km² Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th) Land 642,317 km² Water 19,531 km² (2. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (From many peoples, strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Area 651,036 km² (7th) Land 591,670 km² Water 59,366 km² (9. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Glorious and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Area 647,797 km² (8th) Land 553,556 km² Water 64,241 km² (14. ... An official language is a language that is given a unique legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... The Chipewyan are a aboriginal people of Canada. ... The Tli Cho (Tłįchǫ) First Nation, formerly known as the Dogrib, are an Aboriginal Canadian people living in the Northwest Territories (NWT). ... The Gwichin (sometimes rendered as Kutchin or Gwitchin), literally one who dwells, are a First Nation people who live in the northern part of North America. ... The Slavey (comprised of two groups, North and South Slavey) are a native American group indigenous to the Great Slave Lake region, in Canadas Northwest Territories. ...


The seven Pacific Coastal Athabaskan languages are spoken in southern Oregon and northern California. Isolated from the northern and coastal languages, the six Southern Athabaskan languages, including the different Apache peoples and Navajo, are spoken in the American Southwest and the northwestern part of Mexico. State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Official languages None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... Group of Apaches Apache is the collective name given to several culturally related tribes of Native Americans, aboriginal inhabitants of North America, who speak an Southern Athabaskan language. ... Navajo (Diné bizaad) (occasionally spelled Navaho) is a Southern Athabaskan or Apachean language of the Athabaskan language family, belonging to the Na-Dené phylum. ...


Eyak and Athabaskan form a language group called Athabaskan-Eyak. Tlingit is said to be related to this group to form the Na-Dené stock. Eyak is a Na-Dené language that was historically spoken in southern Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River. ... The Tlingit (Lingít) language is the language of the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada. ... Na-Dené (also Na-Dene, Nadene) is a Native American language family which includes the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit. ...


The word Athabaskan is an anglicized version of the Cree name for Lake Athabasca in Canada. The term Anglo can be used as a prefix to indicate a relation to England, as in the phrases Anglo-American or Anglo-America. It is also used, somewhat loosely, to refer to a person or people of English or British ethnicity in North America. ... Cree camp near Vermilion, Alberta The Cree are an indigenous people of North America whose people range from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean in both Canada and the United States. ... Lake Athabasca, Canada Lake Athabasca is located in the Northwest corner of Saskatchewan and the Northeast corner of Alberta between the 58° and 60° latitudes. ...

Contents


Languages

Family division

Overview

The Athabaskan language family is often considered to have three main branches: Northern, Pacific Coast, and Southern. However, there is some discussion of whether the Pacific Coast languages and the Northern languages actually each form valid autonomous groupings. The Northern branch is particularly problematic. Due to the failure of the usual criteria of shared innovation and systematic phonetic correspondences to provide well-defined subgroupings, the Athabaskan family (especially the Northern branch) has been called a "cohesive complex" by Michael Krauss (1973, 1982). Therefore, the Stammbaumtheorie model (family tree) of genetic classification may be inappropriate. The languages of the Southern branch are much more homogeneous and are mostly probably a valid genetic subgrouping. Michael E. Krauss is a linguist who has worked extensively on the Na-Dené language family, especially on proto-Athabaskan, pre-proto-Athabaskan, and the Eyak language. ...


Below is a small outline of the Athabaskan family, excluding languages, dialects/sub-languages, and subdialects. This outline follows mostly the classification of Keren Rice as seen in Mithun (1999). The various branches are areal, but not necessarily genetic. At this time, the details of the Athabaskan family tree should be regarded as tentative.


I. Northern

A. Central Alaskan – Yukon
B. Southern Alaskan
C. Central British Columbia
D. Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai
E. Northwestern Canada
F. Sarci
G. Tsetsaut

II. Pacific Coast

A. California
B. Oregon

III. Southern

A. Plains Apache
B. Western Apachean
C. Eastern Apachean

Expanded outline

Below is the full expanded outline of the Athabaskan family, including languages, dialects, and subdialects.


Northern Athabaskan
  • Central Alaska – Yukon subgroup
1. Deg Hit'an (a.k.a. Deg Xinag, Ingalik, Ingalit, Inkaliten, Inkality, Kaiyuhkhotana)
dialects:
  • Lower Yukon River (a.k.a. Yukon Ingalik)
  • Middle Kuskokwin (a.k.a. Kuskokwim Ingalik)
2. Gwich’in (a.k.a. Gwitch’in, Kutchin, Kootchin, Loucheux, Loucheaux, Takudh, Tukudh, Quarrelers)
dialects:
  • Alaskan Gwich’in (a.k.a. Western Gwich’in)
  • Canadian Gwich’in (a.k.a. Eastern Gwich’in)
3. Hän (a.k.a. Han, Moosehide, Dawson, Gens du Fou, Han Gwich-in, Han-Kootchin, Hankutchin)
4. Holikachuk (a.k.a. Innoko, Innoka-khotana, Tlegon-khotana)
5. Koyukon (a.k.a. Ten’a, Co-Youkon, Co-yukon)
dialects:
  • Lower Koyukon (a.k.a. Lower Yukon Koyukon)
  • Central Koyukon (a.k.a. Dinaakkanaaga Ts’inh Huyoza, Koyukuk River Koyukon)
  • Upper Koyukon (a.k.a. Upper Yukon Koyukon)
6. Tanacross (a.k.a. Tanana, Dandey in, Dineh su, Tananatana)
7. Lower Tanana (a.k.a. Tanana, Minto, Dandey in, Dineh su, Tananatana)
dialects:
  • Minto-Tolovana-Toklat-Nenana-Wood River
- Minto-Tolovana
- Toklat
- Nenana
- Wood River
  • Chena
  • Salcha-Goodpastor
8. Upper Tanana (a.k.a. Tanana, Dandey in, Dineh su, Tananatana)
dialects:
  • Nabesna
  • Tetlin
  • Northway
  • Scottie Creek
  • Canadian Upper Tanana
9. Tutchone (a.k.a. Gens de Bois, Gunana, Nahane, Nahani, Tutchonekutchin)
dialects:
  • Southern Tutchone
  • Northern Tutchone (a.k.a. Mayo)
10. Upper Kushokwin (a.k.a. Kolchan, McGrath Ingalik, Goltsan)
  • Southern Alaskan subgroup
1. Ahtna (a.k.a. Atna, Ahtena, Copper River)
dialects:
  • Central Copper River Ahtna
  • Lower Copper River Ahtna
  • Mentasta (a.k.a. Upper Ahtna)
  • Western Ahtna
2. Dena’ina (a.k.a. Tanaina)
dialects:
  • Lower Inlet Dena’ina
- Outer Inlet
- Iliamna
- Inland
  • Upper Inlet Dena’ina
  • Central British Columbia subgroup
1. Babine (a.k.a. North Carrier, Babine Carrier, Northern Carrier, Babine-Witsuwit’en, Bulkley Valley, Lakes District, Western Carrier)
dialects:
  • Babine (a.k.a. Nadot’en, Nedut’en, Nat’oot’en)
  • Takla
  • Witsuwit’en (a.k.a. Wetsuwet’en, Wets’uwet’en, Wet’suwet’en)
  • Moricetown
  • Francois Lake
2. Dakelh (a.k.a. Carrier, Dakelhne, Takelne, Takulli, Taculli, Takulie, Porteur, Nagailer)
dialects:
  • Central Carrier (a.k.a. Upper Carrier)
  • Southern Carrier (a.k.a. Lower Carrier)
3. Chilcotin (a.k.a. Chilcotin-Nicola, Tinneh, Tsilhqot’in)
dialects:
  • Chilcotin (a.k.a. Chilkhodins, Tsilhqot’in, Tsilkotin)
  • Nicola-Similkameen
  • Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanai subgroup
1. Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie (a.k.a. Kwalhioqua-Tlatskanie)
dialects:
  • Willapa (a.k.a. Willoopah)
  • Suwal-Clatskanie
- Suwal
- Clatskanie (a.k.a. Tlatskanie)
  • Northwestern Canada subgroup
1. Beaver (a.k.a. Tasttine, Dunneza, Dunne-za, Deneza, Gens de Castor)
2. Chipewyan (a.k.a. Dene, Yellowknife, Montagnais, "Northern Indians", Copper Indians, Coppermine Indians, Mithcocoman, Red Knife, T’atsan ottine, Tatsotine, Yellow Knife)
3. Dogrib (a.k.a. Tli Cho, Tłįchǫ or Thlingchadine)
4. Sekani
5. Slavey (a.k.a. Slave, Slavey-Hare-Bearlake-Mountain, Slave-Hare-Bearlake-Mountain, Dine, or Dene)
dialects:
  • South Slavey (a.k.a. Slavey)
- Slavey (a.k.a. Slavey proper, South Slavey, Southern Slavey, Dene Tha, Esclave, Nahane, Nahani, Slave)
- Mountain (a.k.a. Montagnards, Nahane, Nahani, Sih gotine, Sihta gotine)
  • Bearlake-Hare (a.k.a. North Slavey)
- Bearlake (a.k.a. Satudine, Sahtu gotine, Bear Lake)
- Hare (a.k.a. Kawchottine, Ka so gotine, Kancho, Kawchodinneh, Rabbitskins, Ta-na-tin-ne)
6. Tahltan (a.k.a. Nahanni or Tahltan-Tagish-Kaska)
dialects:
  • Tahltan (a.k.a. Nahanni, Keyehotine, Nahane, Nahani, Tahl-tan, Tatltan, Ticaxhanoten, Toltan)
  • Kaska (a.k.a. Nahanni, Nahane, Nahani, Cassiar)
  • Tagish (a.k.a. Gunana, Nahane, Nahani, Si-him-E-na, Stick Indians, Tagisch, Tahgish, Tahkeesh, Tahk-heesh)
  • Sarsi subgroup
1. Sarsi (a.k.a. Sarcee, Tsuu T’ina, or Tsuut’ina)
  • Tsetsaut subgroup
1. Tsetsaut (a.k.a. Ts’ets’aut, Nahane, Nahani, Portland Canal, Wetalth)

Deg Xinag Also known as Deg Xinag, an Alaska Athabascan language. ... The Gwichin (sometimes rendered as Kutchin or Gwitchin), literally one who dwells, are a First Nation people who live in the northern part of North America. ... The Hän language is an Native American endangered language spoken in only two places: Eagle, Alaska and Dawson City, Yukon. ... The Koyukon are a group of Athabaskan people living in northern Alaska. ... Tanacross is an endangered Athabaskan language spoken near Tanana Crossing in Alaska. ... Tanana may refer to: Tanana, Alaska Tanana River This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Minto may refer to: Places Minto, Alaska Minto, North Dakota Minto, a provincial electoral division in the Canadian province of Manitoba People Any Earl of Minto, including Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 1st Earl of Minto (1751-1814) Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 2nd Earl of Minto (1782-1859) Gilbert John Elliot... Tutchone, an Athabaskan language spoken in Yukon. ... Ahtna or Ahtena is the Na-Dene language of the Ahtna ethnic group of the Copper River area of Alaska. ... Dena’ina (also Tanaina) is the Athabaskan language of the Cook Inlet area of Alaska, with four dialects located: Kenai Peninsula southcentral Alaska Upper Cook Inlet north of Anchorage, Alaska Coastal west side of the Cook Inlet Inland areas of the west side of the Cook Inlet Dena’ina can... Babine. ... The Carrier language is a Northern Athabaskan language. ... Chilcotin (also Tsilhqot’in, Tzilkotin) is a Northern Athabaskan language spoken in British Columbia and Washington. ... The Dunneza (also Dunne-za, Beaver, Tasttine) are Athapaskan Aboriginal peoples whose traditional territory is around the Peace River of Alberta, Canada. ... The Chipewyan language is the language spoken by the Chipewyan people of central Canada (parts of Alberta, Manitoba, Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Saskatchewan) and is also called Dene. ... Dogrib is a language spoken by the First Nations Dogrib people of the Canadian territory Northwest Territories. ... Sekani is the name of an Athabaskan people and language in northern central interior of British Columbia. ... The Slavey language is a spoken language used among the Slavey Native American people of Canada. ... Mount Cook, a mountain in New Zealand A mountain is a landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. ... Species Many, see text Hares and jackrabbits belong to family Leporidae, and mostly in genus Lepus. ... Tahltan (also Nahanni) refers to a Northern Athabaskan people that live in northern British Columbia around Telegraph Creek, Dease Lake, and Iskut. ... Kaska is an Athabaskan language spoken by the Kaska people in the southeastern Yukon territory and northern British Columbia in Canada. ... Tagish is an endangered Northern Athabaskan language spoken by the Tagish people in the Yukon Territory in Canada. ... The Tsuu T’ina (also Sarsi or Sarcee) are a nation of the First Nations of Canada. ...

Pacific Coast Athabaskan
  • California Athabaskan subgroup
1. Hupa (a.k.a. Hoopa-Chilula)
dialects:
  • Hupa
  • Chilula-Whilkut
- Chilula
- Whilkut
2. Mattole-Bear River
dialects:
3. Eel River
dialects:
  • Sinkyone-Wailaki-Nongatl-Lassik-Cahto
- Sinkyone
- Wailaki
- Nongatl
- Lassik
- Cahto (a.k.a. Kato)
  • Oregon Athabaskan subgroup
1. Upper Umpqua
2. Rogue River (a.k.a. Tututni or Lower Rogue River)
dialects:
  • Upper Coquille
- Coquille
- Flores Creek
  • Tututni
- Tututunne
- Mikwunutunne
- Joshua (a.k.a. Chemetunne)
- Sixes
- Pistol River (a.k.a. Chetleshin)
- Wishtenatin (a.k.a. Khwaishtunnetunnne)
  • Euchre Creek
  • Chasta Costa (a.k.a. Illinois River, Chastacosta, Chasta Kosta)
3. Galice-Applegate
dialects:
4. Tolowa
dialects:
  • Chetco
  • Smith River

The Hupa are a Native American tribe which inhabit northwestern California. ... The Bear River tribe is a Native American group in United States: Bear River is the name of a river in Michigan Bear River is the name of a river in California, a tributary of the Mokelumne River. ... Eel River may refer to: The Eel River in California in the United States The Eel River (northern) in Indiana in the United States The Eel River (southern) in Indiana in the United States The Eel River in Massachusetts in the United States. ... Katō (加藤, characters for add/increase and wisteria) is the eleventh most common Japanese surname. ... Rogue River is the name of an Native American group originally located in southern Oregon in the United States. ... See: Applegate, Michigan, a small village in Sanilac County, Michigan Christina Applegate (born 1971), an American actress Rex Applegate, an American military close combat instructor in World War II K.A. Applegate Writer for young adults, author of the Everworld, Remnants, and Animorphs books. ...

Southern Athabaskan (a.k.a. Apachean)
  • Plains Apache subgroup
1. Plains Apache (a.k.a. Kiowa-Apache, Nai’sha)
  • Western Apachean subgroup
1. Chiricahua-Mescalero
(sub-)languages:
3. Navajo (a.k.a. Navaho, Diné)
4. Western Apache (a.k.a. Coyotero Apache)
dialects:
  • Eastern Apachean subgroup
1. Jicarilla
2. Lipan

The Plains Apache (also Kiowa-Apache) are a Southern Athabaskan group that lived primarily on the plains of North America. ... Bands According to Opler (1941) the Chiricahuas consisted of three bands: Chíhéne Red Paint People (a. ... Categories: Stub | Na-Dené languages | Native American tribes | Native American languages | Apachean languages | Apache tribe | Languages of North America | Athabaskan languages ... Navajo (Diné bizaad) (occasionally spelled Navaho) is a Southern Athabaskan or Apachean language of the Athabaskan language family, belonging to the Na-Dené phylum. ... Links Western Apache-English Dictionary (White Mountain) White Mountain Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) San Carlos Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Tonto Apache Tribe (Arizona Intertribal Council) Yavapai-Apache Nation Official Website Yavapai-Apache Nation (Arizona Intertribal Council) White Mountain Apache Tribe White Mountain Apache photographs map of Fort Apache... The Tonto Apache (Apache Dilzhę́’é) (also Dilzhee, Dilzhe’eh Apache) is a one of the groups of Western Apaches and also refers to one of the three dialects of the Western Apache language (a Southern Athabaskan language). ... White Mountain has several meanings: White Mountain Apache, a group of Western Apache Native Americans living in Arizona. ... San Carlos means Saint Charles in the Spanish language. ... Jicarilla Apache refers to an Apache people currently living in New Mexico and to the Apachean language they speak. ... Lipan Apache are also known as Nde buffalo hunters, called by anthropologists and historians for many years as Eastern Apache, Apache de los Llanos, Lipan, Ipande, and other names. ...

Areal list

Below is a list of all of the Athabaskan languages and their geographic locations.

  • Alaska: Ahtna, Deg Hit’an, Dena’ina, Gwich’in, Hän, Holikachuk, Koyukon, Lower Tanana, Tanacross, Tsetsaut, Upper Kushokwin, Upper Tanana
  • Yukon Territory: Gwich'in, Hän, Kaska, Mountain (Slavey), Tagish, Tutchone, Upper Tanana
  • Northwest Territories: Bearlake, Chipewyan, Dogrib, Gwich’in, Hare, Mountain, Slavey
  • Nunavut: Chipewyan
  • British Columbia: Babine, Beaver, Carrier, Chilcotin, Kaska, Nicola, Sekani, Slavey, Tagish, Tahltan, Tsetsaut
  • Alberta: Beaver, Chipewyan, Sarsi, Slavey
  • Saskatchewan: Chipewyan
  • Washington: Chilcotin, Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie (Willapa, Suwal), Nicola
  • Oregon: Galice-Applegate (Galice, Applegate), Kwalhioqua-Clatskanie (Clatskanie), Rogue River (Chasta Costa, Euchre Creek, Tututni, Upper Coquille), Tolowa, Upper Umpqua
  • Northern California: Eel River, Hupa, Mattole-Bear River, Tolowa
  • Utah: Navajo
  • Colorado: Jicarilla, Navajo
  • Arizona: Chiricahua, Navajo, Western Apache
  • New Mexico: Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, Navajo
  • Texas: Mescalero, Lipan
  • Oklahoma: Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Plains Apache
  • Northwestern Mexico: Chiricahua

State nickname: The Last Frontier, The Land of the Midnight Sun Other U.S. States Capital Juneau Largest city Anchorage Governor Frank Murkowski (R) Official languages English Area 1,717,854 km² (1st)  - Land 1,481,347 km²  - Water 236,507 km² (13. ... Motto: none Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Whitehorse Largest city Whitehorse Commissioner Jack Cable Premier Dennis Fentie (Yukon Party) Area 482,443 km² (9th)  - Land 474,391 km²  - Water 8,052 km² (1. ... Motto: None Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Yellowknife Largest city Yellowknife Commissioner Tony Whitford Premier Joe Handley (Consensus government - no party affiliations) Area 1,346,106 km² (3rd) Land 1,183,085 km² Water 163,021 km² (12. ... Motto: Nunavut Sannginivut (Inuktitut, Nunavut our strength / Our land our strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Iqaluit Largest city Iqaluit Commissioner Ann Meekitjuk Hanson Premier Paul Okalik (independent) Area 2,093,190 km² (1st)  - Land 1,936,113 km²  - Water 157,077 km² (7. ... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Splendour without diminishment) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Area 944,735 km² (5th) Land 925,186 km² Water 19,549 km² (2. ... Motto: Fortis et Liber (Strong and free) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ralph Klein (PC) Area 661,848 km² (6th) Land 642,317 km² Water 19,531 km² (2. ... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (From many peoples, strength) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant Governor Lynda M. Haverstock Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Area 651,036 km² (7th) Land 591,670 km² Water 59,366 km² (9. ... State nickname: The Evergreen State Other U.S. States Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Governor Christine Gregoire (D) Official languages None Area 184,824 km² (18th)  - Land 172,587 km²  - Water 12,237 km² (6. ... State nickname: Beaver State Other U.S. States Capital Salem Largest city Portland Governor Ted Kulongoski (D) Official languages None Area 255,026 km² (9th)  - Land 248,849 km²  - Water 6,177 km² (2. ... Northern California (sometimes NorCal) refers to the northern portion of the U.S. state of California, roughly covering all of those counties except for the ten counties which make up Southern California. ... // History Early history Native Americans have lived in Utah for several thousand years; most archeological evidence dates such habitation about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago. ... This is the article on the state. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Official languages English Only State Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... State nickname: Land of Enchantment Other U.S. States Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Governor Bill Richardson Official languages English and Spanish Area 315,194 km² (5th)  - Land 314,590 km²  - Water 607 km² (0. ... Prior to 1821, Texas was part of the Spanish colony of New Spain. ... Oklahoma is a South Central state of the United States (with strong Southern, Western, and Midwestern influences) and its U.S. postal abbreviation is OK; others abbreviate the states name Okla. ...

Proto-Athabaskan

Phonology

A recent reconstruction of proto-Athabaskan consists of 40 consonants (Cook 1981; Krauss & Golla 1981; Krauss & Leer 1981; Cook & Rice 1989), as detailed below:

Obstruents
  Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
central lateral plain labial plain labial
Stop unaspirated   t       k q  
aspirated         qʷʰ  
glottalized   t’       k’ q’ q’ʷ ʔ
Affricate unaspirated   ʦ ʧ ʧʷ        
aspirated   ʦʰ tɬʰ ʧʰ ʧʷʰ        
glottalized   ʦ’ tɬ’ ʧ’ ʧ’ʷ        
Fricative voiceless   s ɬ ʃ ʃʷ x χ χʷ h
voiced   z ɮ ʒ ʒʷ ɣ ʁ ʁʷ  
Sonorants
Nasal m n   ɲ          
Approximant       j       w  
Vowel
i
a

In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... Alveolars are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, the internal side of the upper gums (known as the alveoles of the upper teeth). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A central or medial consonant is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... Labialisation is a secondary articulatory feature of phonemes in a language, most usually used to refer to consonants. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some stop consonants. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that doesnt have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-18, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

External links

Bibilography

  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian languages: The historical linguistics of Native America. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-509427-1.
  • Cook, Eung-Do. (1981). Athabaskan linguistics: Proto-Athapaskan phonology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 10, 253–273.
  • Cook, Eung-Do. (1992). Athabaskan languages. In W. Bright (Eds.), International encyclopedia of linguistics (pp. 122–128). Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-1950-5196-3.
  • Cook, Eung-Do; & Rice, Keren. (1989). Introduction. In E.-D. Cook & K. Rice (Eds.), Athapaskan linguistics: Current perspectives on a language family (pp. 1–61). rends in linguistics, State-of-the-art reports (No. 15). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 0-8992-5282-6.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1938). The southern Athapaskan languages. American Anthropologist, 40 (1), 75–87.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1956). The Chronology of the Athapaskan languages. International Journal of American Linguistics, 22 (4), 219–232.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1963). The Athapaskan languages. In H. Hoijer (Ed.), Studies in the Athapaskan languages (pp. 1–29). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry (Ed.). (1963). Studies in the Athapaskan languages. University of California publications in linguistics (No. 29). Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Hoijer, Harry. (1971). The position of the Apachean languages in the Athpaskan stock. In K. H. Basso & M. E. Opler (Eds.), Apachean culture history and ethnology (pp. 3–6). Anthropological papers of the University of Arizona (No. 21). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.
  • Hymes, Dell H. (1957). A note on Athapaskan glottochronology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 23 (4), 291–297.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1964). The proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the problem of Na-Dene, I: The phonology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 30 (2), 118–131.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1965). The proto-Athapaskan-Eyak and the problem of Na-Dene, II: The morphology. International Journal of American Linguistics, 31 (1), 18–28.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1968). Noun-classification systems in the Athapaskan, Eyak, Tlingit and Haida verbs. International Journal of American Linguistics, 34 (3), 194–203.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1969). On the classification in the Athapascan, Eyak, and the Tlingit verb. Baltimore: Waverly Press, Indiana University.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1973). Na-Dene. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Linguistics in North America (pp. 903–978). Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 10). The Hague: Mouton. (Reprinted as Krauss 1976).
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1976). Na-Dene. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Native languages of the Americas (pp. 283–358). New York: Plenum. (Reprint of Krauss 1973).
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1979). Na-Dene and Eskimo. In L. Campbell & M. Mithun (Eds.), The languages of native America: Historical and comparative assessment. Austin: University of Texas Press.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1980). On the history and use comparative Athapaskan linguistics. Fairbanks, AL: University of Alaska, Native Language Center.
  • Krauss, Michael E. (1986). Edward Sapir and Athabaskan linguistics. In W. Cowan, M. Foster, & K. Koerner (Eds.), New perspectives in language, culture, and personality (pp. 147–190). Amsterdam: Benjamins.
  • Krauss, Michael E.; & Golla, Victor. (1981). Northern Athapaskan languages. In J. Helm (Ed.), Subarctic (pp. 67–85). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 6). Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution.
  • Krauss, Michael E.; & Leer, Jeff. (1981). Athabaskan, Eyak, and Tlingit sonorants. Alaska Native Language Center research papers (No. 5). Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Leer, Jeff. (1979). Proto-Athabaskan verb stem variation I: Phonology. Alaska Native Language Center research papers (No. 1). Fairbanks, AK: Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Leer, Jeff. (1982). Navajo and comparative Athabaskan stem list. Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska, Alaska Native Language Center.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23228-7 (hbk); ISBN 0-521-29875-X.
  • Rice, Keren. (200). Morpheme order and semantic scope: Word formation in the Athapaskan verb. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1915). The Na-Dene languages, a preliminary report. American Anthropologist, 17 (3), 534–558.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1916). Time perspective in aboriginal American culture: A study in method. Anthropology series (No. 13), memoirs of the Canadian Geological Survey 90. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1931). The concept of phonetic law as tested in primitive languages by Leonard Bloomfield. In S. A. Rice (Ed.), Methods in social science: A case book (pp. 297–306). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Sapir, Edward. (1936). Linguistic evidence suggestive of the northern origin of the Navaho. American Anthropologist, 38 (2), 224–235.
  • Saville-Troike, Muriel. (1985). On variable data and phonetic law: A case from Sapir's Athabaskan correspondences. International Journal of American Linguistics, 51 (4), 572–574.
  • Sturtevant, William C. (Ed.). (1978–present). Handbook of North American Indians (Vol. 1-20). Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution. (Vols. 1–3, 16, 18–20 not yet published).

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