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Encyclopedia > Atatürk
This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. This applies worldwide. File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mustafa Kemal Pasha, named Atatürk ( Events January - April January 16-24 ? Siege of Geok Tepe ? Russian troops under general Skobeleff defeat Turkomans January 25 - Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company February 5 - Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated. February 13 - First issue of the feminist newspaper La Citoyenne is published... 1881 November 10 is the 314th day of the year (315th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 51 days remaining. Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Ladislaus III of Poland (or Ulaszlo I of Hungary) are crushed by the Turks under Sultan Murad II and... November 10, 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 3 - The March of Dimes is established by Franklin Delano Roosevelt. January 11 - Frances Moulton is the first woman to become president of a US national bank. January 20 - Wedding of King... 1938), The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. Until 1922, the country was the center of the Ottoman Empire. The Anatolian peninsula, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, forms the core of the country... Turkish reformist, soldier, and statesman, was the founder and first President of the The Republic of Turkey is a country located in Southwest Asia with a small part of its territory (3%) in southeastern Europe. Until 1922, the country was the center of the Ottoman Empire. The Anatolian peninsula, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, forms the core of the country... Republic of Turkey.

Contents

Early career

Atatürk was born in the The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October... Ottoman city of Selânik (Salonika), now Thessaloníki, in modern Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic ( Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. It has land boundaries with Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav... Greece, where his birthplace is commemorated by a museum at the present day Turkish Consulate. In accordance with the then prevalent Turkish custom, he was given the single name Mustafa. His father, Ali Rıza (Efendi) was a customs officer who died when Mustafa was a child, his mother was Zübeyde Hanim (1857 – January 14, 1923; Turkish spelling: Zübeyde Hanım) was the mother of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the founder of the Republic of Turkey. Her name is Zübeyde but Hanim which is a respectful way of saying Mrs. is almost always added after... Zübeyde (Hanım).


Mustafa studied at the military secondary school in Selânik, where the additional name Kemal ("perfection") was bestowed on him by his Mathematics is commonly defined as the study of patterns of structure, change, and space; more informally, one might say it is the study of figures and numbers. Mathematical knowledge is constantly growing, through research and application, but mathematics itself is not usually considered a natural science. One reason is that... mathematics teacher in recognition of his academic brilliance. As 'Mustafa Kemal' he entered the military academy at Monastir could be a city in the Republic of Macedonia now called Bitola Monastir, Italy - a village near Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy, famous for fruit production. Monastir, Tunisia - a city 165 km south-east of Tunis, Tunisia. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that... Monastir (now Bitola (Cyrillic Битола, Greek Monastir, Serbian Bitolj/Битољ) is a city in the present day Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. As Heraclea Lyncestis, founded by Philip II of Macedon, it was a major city during the Roman Empire, lying on the... Bitola) in 1895. He graduated as a lieutenant in 1905 and was posted to This is about Damascus, the capital of Syria. There is also a Damascus, Maryland, a Damascus, Oregon, a Damascus, Pennsylvania, and a Damascus, Virginia. Damascus (Arabic: دمشق Dimašq, Dimašq al-Šam, al-Šam; Tiberian Hebrew דַּמֶּ... Damascus. He soon joined a secret society of reform-minded officers called Vatan (Fatherland), and became an active opponent of the Ottoman regime. In 1907 he was posted to Selânik and joined the Committee of Union and Progress commonly known as the This article refers to the Turkish nationalist reform party. For the radio talk show of the same name, see Young Turks (talk show). The Young Turks were a Turkish nationalist reform party, officially known as the Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) — in Turkish the Ittihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti... Young Turks.


The Young Turks seized power from the Sultan Sultan Abdul Hamid II Abd_ul_Hamid II also Abdulhamid, Abdul Hamid, Abd al_Hamid II, or Abdul_Hamid (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, from August 31, 1876 – April 27, 1909. He was the son of Sultan Abd-ul-Mejid, and succeeded to the... Abdul Hamid II in 1908, and Mustafa Kemal became a senior military figure. In 1911, he went to the province of This article is about Libya, the country in North Africa. For the mythical character of the same name see: Libya (mythology). The Great Socialist Peoples Libyan Arab Jamahiriya or Libya (Arabic: ليبيا) is a country in North Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, located between Egypt... Libya to take part in the defence against the The Italian Republic or Italy ( Italian: Repubblica Italiana or Italia) is a country in southern Europe. It comprises a boot-shaped peninsula and two large islands in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily and Sardinia, and shares its northern alpine boundary with France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia. The independent countries of San... Italian invasion. During the first part of the The outcome as of April 1914 The Balkan Wars were two wars in South-eastern Europe in 1912- 1913 in the course of which the Balkan League ( Serbia, Montenegro, Greece, and Bulgaria) first conquered Ottoman-held Macedonia and most of Thrace and then fell out over the division of the... Balkan Wars Mustafa was stranded in Libya and unable to take part, but in July 1913 he returned to This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Suleymaniye Mosque seen from Tepebaşı (January 2005) Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is the largest city in Turkey, located in the northwest of the country where the Bosporus joins the Sea of... Istanbul and was appointed commander of the Ottoman defences of the Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, is a town in north-western Turkey. The name derives from the Greek Kallipolis, meaning Beautiful City. It is located on the Gallipoli Peninsula (Gelibolu Yarimadasi), with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. In Australia and New... Gallipoli area on the coast of Thrace is a historical and geographic area in south-east Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, north-eastern Greece, and European Turkey. Thrace borders on three seas: the Black Sea, the Aegean Sea and the Sea of Marmara. Classical Thrace and environs, from Alexander G. Findlays Classical Atlas to Illustrate... Thrace. In 1914 he was appointed military attache in National Theatre, Sofia Alexander Nevski Cathedral The city of Sofia (Bulgarian: София), at the foot of the Vitosha mountain, has a population of 1,208,930 (2003), and is the capital of the Republic of Bulgaria. History Founded 8th B.C., Sofia is the second oldest... Sofia, partly to remove him from the capital and its political intrigues.


War commander

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Statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk above the battlefield of Gallipoli, where he made his name as a military commander in 1915

When the Ottoman Empire entered Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. Battle aftermath. Remains of the Chateau Wood World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, the War of the Nations, and the War to End All Wars, was a world conflict occurring from 1914 to... World War I on the side of The Federal Republic of Germany ( German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. Due to its central location, Germany has more neighbours than any other European country: these are Denmark in the north, Poland and the Czech Republic in the... Germany, Mustafa Kemal was posted to Rodosto (now Tekirdag or Tekir Dagh, referred to historically as Rodosto (Greek name: Redestos or Rhaedestos), is a city of European Turkey (Eastern Thrace), which during the period of the Ottoman Empire (before the treaty of Sevres in 1920) belonged in the vilayet of Adrianople. The citys population was in (1905... Tekirdag) on the The Sea of Marmara (Turkish: Marmara denizi, Modern Greek: Μαρμαρα̃ Θάλασσα or Προποντίδα) (also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea) is an inland sea... Sea of Marmara. He commanded a division in the Gallipoli, called Gelibolu in modern Turkish, is a town in north-western Turkey. The name derives from the Greek Kallipolis, meaning Beautiful City. It is located on the Gallipoli Peninsula (Gelibolu Yarimadasi), with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles straits to the east. In Australia and New... Gallipoli area, and he played a critical role in the battle against the invading allied forces during the Battle of Gallipoli Conflict First World War Date 19 February 1915 - 9 January 1916 Place Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey Result Ottoman victory The Battle of Gallipoli took place on the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli in 1915 during the First World War. A combined British Empire and French operation was mounted in... Gallipoli landings by British, French and The Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (popularly abbreviated as ANZAC) was originally an army corps of Australian and New Zealand troops who fought in World War I at Gallipoli, in the Middle East and on the Western Front. Within Australasia the Anzacs came to stand not just for the... ANZAC forces in April 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). Events January 12 - The Rocky Mountain National Park is established by an act of the U.S. Congress. January 12 - United States House of Representatives rejects proposal to give women the right to vote. January 13 – An... 1915. Here he made his name as a brilliant military commander by defending Çanakkale, and became a national hero, awarded the title Pasha is the diminutive form of the Russian given name Pavel. Pasha is also a Finnish Easter dessert. Pasha is made of a mixture of dairy products, often spiced with almonds and raisins. Recipe: [1] Pasha (Turkish spelling: paşa; also pascha, bashaw) was a high rank in the... Pasha (commander) and came to be known as Mustafa 'Kemal Pasha' (until 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934, when he officially assumed the surname 'Atatürk').


During 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917 and 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918 Kemal Pasha was posted to the The Caucasus is a region in West Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea which includes the Caucasus mountains and surrounding lowlands. The highest peak is Elbrus (5642m). Ancient countries of Caucasus: Armenia, Iberia, Colchis and Albania Modern Caucasus: Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan The independent nations that comprise... Caucasus front fighting the Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Russian forces with some success, and then to the Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. As a region, The Hijaz, as it is often referred to, because of being the site of Islam... Hejaz, where the The Arab Revolt (1916–1918) was initiated by Sherif Hussein ibn Ali with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state spanning from Aleppo in Syria to Yemen. After the Turkish nationalist reform party Young Turks coup in 1908, Ottoman... Arab Revolt against Ottoman rule was in progress. He became increasingly critical of the incompetent conduct of the war by the Sultan's government, and also of increasing The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser ( Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. Germans, when referring to the Reich in this period under the Kaisers, typically use the term... German domination of the Empire. He resigned his command, but eventually agreed to return to serve in the unsuccessful defense of The term Palestine may refer to: Palestine: A geographical region in the Middle East, centered on Jerusalem. It is claimed by Palestinians and (under the name Eretz Israel) Jews as their ancestral home. The West Bank and the Gaza Strip, sometimes collectively referred to as the Palestinian territories The Palestinian... Palestine.


In October 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918 the Ottomans capitulated to the Allies, and Kemal Pasha became one of the leaders of the party which favoured a policy of defending the Turkish-speaking heartlands of the Empire, while agreeing to withdraw from all the non-Turkish territories. Turkish nationalist sentiment was aroused by the Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic ( Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. It has land boundaries with Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav... Greek occupation of Izmir (Turkish spelling İzmir, contraction of its former name Smyrna, Σμυρνη in Greek), the second-largest port (after İstanbul) and the third most populous city (2,409,000 in 2000) of Turkey is located on the Aegean Sea near the Gulf of Izmir... Izmir (Smyrna) in May 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). Events January January 1 - Iolaire sinking disaster January 1 - Edsel Ford succeeds his father as head of the Ford Motor Company January 5 - Spartacist uprising - Socialist demonstrations in Berlin turn into attempted communist revolution January 9 - Spartacus revolutionary... 1919, in accordance with the The Treaty of Sèvres of August 10, 1920, made peace between the Allied and Associated Powers1 and the Ottoman Empire after World War I. The treaty was signed by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed VI who was trying to save his throne but was rejected by the independence movement in... Treaty of Sevres (this Treaty was signed by the Sultan under Allied duress but never ratified by the Ottoman parliament).


Political consolidation

The government sent Kemal Pasha to eastern Anatolia ( Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia... Anatolia to suppress a so-called riot which turned out to be a false alarm, but he seized this opportunity to leave the capital and found a Turkish nationalist movement based at Ankara from the Atakule Tower, looking N-NE Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Istanbul. It is also the capital of Ankara Province. The city has a population of 3,582,000 (2003), and a mean elevation of 850 m. ( 2800 ft... Ankara. In April 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. January 9 - Britain announces it will build 1,000,000 homes for war veterans. January 10 - League of Nations holds its first meeting... 1920 a provisional Parliament at Ankara offered Kemal Pasha the title 'President of the National Assembly'. This body repudiated the government and the Treaty of Sevres.


The Greeks understood the threat posed to their position in western Anatolia by Kemal Pasha's forces and advanced inland to meet them. Military action between Turks and Greeks was inconclusive, but the nationalist cause was strengthened the next year by a series of brilliant victories. Twice (in January and again in April) Ismet Pasha defeated the Greek army at Inönü, blocking its advance into the interior of Anatolia. In July, in the face of a third offensive, the Turkish forces fell back in good order to the Sakarya Nehri, eighty kilometers from Ankara, where Atatürk took personal command and decisively defeated the Greeks in a twenty day battle.


Kemal Pasha's victory in the War of Independence saved Turkey's sovereignty. The The Treaty of Lausanne was a treaty that set the boundaries of modern Turkey. It was signed in Lausanne, Switzerland on July 24, 1923 by Greece, Turkey and other countries (including the Allied Powers) that fought in the First World War and in the Turkish Independence War / War in Asia... Treaty of Lausanne superceded the Treaty of Sevres and Turkey recovered all of Anatolia and eastern Thrace from the Greeks.


Kemal Pasha spent the next several years consolidating his control over Turkey and pushing strong political, economic and social reforms. Although he claimed to be fostering a democracy, many Turks who opposed his policies were banished from the country. He also ensured that the Turkish political process remained firmly under his personal control, with little or no dissent from his own goals and policies.


In March of 1925, Kemal Pasha pushed through the Maintence of Order Law, which allowed the government to shut down organizations it deemed to be subversive. This law was immediately applied to Progressive Republican Party, the main political party opposing Kemal Pasha's reforms. Unsurprisingly, he won the next election.


Cultural reform

Kemal Pasha regarded the The fez, also spelled fes, is a particular style of hat that originated from the city of Fez in Morocco. The fez is also known as the tarboosh (Persian sar-boosh for head cover) and checheya. The modern fez is made of felt, shaped roughtly like a canister or truncated... fez (the Ottoman hat) as a symbol of Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. Even though the word origin is from the Middle Ages, the concept of feudalism was not... feudalism and banned it, encouraging Turkish men to wear European attire. The hijab (veil) for women, while never formally banned, was strongly discouraged, and women were encouraged to wear western apparel and to enter the country's workforce. From 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Irelands first regular radio service, 2RN (later Radio Éireann), begins broadcasting. January 8 - Abdul-Aziz ibn Saud becomes the King of Hejaz January 12 - Freeman Gosden and Charles Correll... 1926, the The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar is the calendar used to date events in predominately Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate Muslim holy days. It is a purely lunar calendar having 12 lunar months in a year of about 354... Islamic calendar was replaced by the The Gregorian calendar is the calendar currently used in the Western world. A modification of the Julian calendar, it was first proposed by the Neapolitan doctor Aloysius Lilius, and was decreed by Pope Gregory XIII, for whom it was named, on February 24, 1582 (Note: The papal bull Inter gravissimas... Gregorian calendar. In 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-May January 6- 7 - River Thames floods in London - 14 drowned January 17 - OGPU arrests Lev Trotsky in Moscow; he assumes a status of passive resistance and is exiled to Turkestan February - Kurume University... 1928 the government decreed that the The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing the Arabic language, which is the language of the Quran, the holy book of Islam. The alphabets influence spread with that of Islam and it has been, and still is, used to write many other languages from families unrelated to... Arabic script be replaced by a modified The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. In the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the... Latin alphabet, which facilitated publishing and made Turkish easier to learn. The Arabic alphabet was actually not a good fit for the Turkish language anyway, as the languages have very different roots (Turkish is Altaic-Turkic and Arabic is AfroAsiatic-Semitic.) Citizens between the ages of six and forty were required to attend school and learn the new alphabet. The conservative clergy fiercely opposed these reforms, trying in vain to maintain its traditionally strong influence. As a result of these reforms, literacy increased dramatically. The reforms also included extensive removal of Arabic and Persian words from the Turkish language.


Visual representation of the human form was banned during The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Imperial motto El Muzaffer Daima The Ever Victorious (as written in tugra) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital İstanbul ( Constantinople/Asitane/Konstantiniyye ) Sovereigns Sultans of the Osmanli Dynasty Population ca 40 million Area 12+ million km² Establishment 1299 Dissolution October... Ottoman times following the Islamic faith. Kemal Pasha opened new schools, where, as part of the curriculum, fine arts were taught to boys as well as girls, had been traditionally excluded from education. He also lifted the Islamic ban on Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. Alcoholic beverages have been widely used since the remote antiquity by many civilizations around the world, as a component of the standard diet, for hygienic or medical reasons, for their relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs... alcoholic beverages: Kemal Pasha had an appreciation for the national liquor, Rakı, pronounced rah-kuh, is the name given to several kinds of alcoholic beverages. Raki is an anise-flavored liqueur popular throughout the Eastern Mediterranean and parts of the Balkans. It can also refer to a hard liquor as strong as vodka but made from fruit that is popular... raki, of which he often consumed vast quantities. In 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). Events January-April January 1 - Alcatraz becomes a federal prison. January 7 - First Flash Gordon comic strip is published. January 10 - Execution of Marinus van der Lubbe January 24 - Einstein visits White House January 26 - The... 1934 he promulgated a law requiring all Turks to adopt surnames. The parliament gave him the name Atatürk, meaning "father of Turks," and use of that name by other persons is still forbidden by law.


Seeking to limit the influence of Islam ( Arabic al-islām الإسلام,  listen?) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith and the worlds second-largest religion. Etymology In Arabic, Islām means submission and is described as a Dīn, meaning way of life... Islam on Turkish political and cultural institutions, which he regarded as one of the principal causes impeding Turkish development, Atatürk abolished the 1300-year-old Islamic An Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalīfah, Caliph (  listen?) is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. It means successor, that is, successor to the prophet Muhammad. Some Orientalists wrote the... caliphate on 3 March 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). Events January January 7 - Great fire in London harbour January 8 - Heavy blizzards in England January 10 - British submarine L-34 sinks in the English Channel - 43 dead. January 21 - Vladimir Lenin dies and Joseph Stalin... 1924 and established a western-style The separation of church and state is a concept in law whereby the structures of state or national government are kept separate from those of religious institutions. The concept has long been a topic of political debate. There are a variety of views regarding the degree of separation that should... separation of church and state ("mosque" and state) in Turkey. While promoting a secular Turkish state, Atatürk maintained the traditional Ottoman tolerance of religious diversity and freedoms, but viewed these freedoms in the western Enlightenment sense of freedom of conscience. Atatürk prized science and rationalism as the basis of morality and philosophy.


Legacy

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Statue of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in Istanbul, overlooking the Bosphorus

Atatürk died in 1938 of Cirrhosis is a chronic disease of the liver in which liver tissue is replaced by connective tissue, resulting in the loss of liver function. Cirrhosis is caused by damage from toxins (including alcohol), metabolic problems, chronic viral hepatitis or other causes. Cirrhosis is sometimes referred to by its obsolete eponym... cirrhosis, a probable consequence of his strenuous lifestyle and heavy drinking for many years.


His successor, Ismet Inönü, fostered a posthumous Atatürk cult which has survived to this day, even though the introduction of a genuine democratic system after Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km (60,000 ft) into the air. August 9, 1945 World War II was a global conflict that started in 7 July 1937 in Asia and 1 September 1939 in Europe and lasted until 1945, involving the majority of the... World War II saw the Republican People's Party lose power in 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. (see link for calendar) Events January January 4 - Theodore Schurch becomes the last person to be executed for offences committed under the Treachery Act of 1940 January 7 - Allied recognize Austrian republic with 1937 borders - the country is divided into four occupation... 1946. Atatürk's face and name are seen and heard everywhere in Turkey: his portrait can be seen in all public buildings, on all Turkish banknotes, and even in the homes of many Turkish families. Giant Atatürk statues loom over This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Suleymaniye Mosque seen from Tepebaşı (January 2005) Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is the largest city in Turkey, located in the northwest of the country where the Bosporus joins the Sea of... Istanbul and other Turkish cities. He is comemmorated by many memorials all over Turkey, like the Atatürk International Airport in This article needs cleanup. Please edit this article to conform to a higher standard of article quality. Suleymaniye Mosque seen from Tepebaşı (January 2005) Istanbul (Turkish: İstanbul) is the largest city in Turkey, located in the northwest of the country where the Bosporus joins the Sea of... Istanbul and the Atatürk Bridge over the The Golden Horn from the southern or Constantinople shore, with the skyline of modern Istanbul on the far shore The Golden Horn (in Turkish Haliç, in Greek Khrysokeras or Chrysoceras or Χρυσοκερας) is an estuary dividing the city of Istanbul. With... Golden Horn.


Few countries have been as genuinely and permanently changed by a single ruler as Turkey was by Atatürk. His reforms proved more lasting than the revolutionary changes of many other regimes. Tentative reforms had started at the first half of the 19th century and they were expanded and finalised by him. Although he was by nature an authoritarian, he was farsighted enough to create a political system which could adapt to the introduction of democracy fairly easily. His secularist and modernising reforms proved permanent to this day, and gave Turkey domestic and international peace and a measure of prosperity even in his lifetime. But Kemalism has also left Turkey with a divided identity — Europeanised but not quite European, alienated from the Islamic world but still a Muslim country.

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Anitkabir, Kemal Ataturk's A mausoleum is a large and impressive tomb, usually constructed for a deceased leader. The word came from the Mausoleum of Maussollos, the tomb of King Mausolus, the Persian satrap of Caria, whose large tomb was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. In New York City, Grant... mausoleum at Ankara

Atatürk's legacy also survives in the Turkish military, which sees itself as the guardian of Turkish independence, nationalism and secularism.


External links

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Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. It is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation. Based on an idea by Daniel Alston and implemented by Brion Vibber, the goal of the project is to produce collaboratively a vast... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:


Preceded by:
-
There have been ten Presidents of the Republic of Turkey since its inception. For a list of rulers of the predecessor Ottoman Empire, see Osmanli. Presidents Mustafa Kemal Atatürk: (October 29, 1923 - November 10, 1938) İsmet İnönü: (November 11, 1938 - May 22, 1950) Celal Bayar: (May... President of Turkey
1923–1938
Succeeded by:
İsmet İnönü
Preceded by:
-
This is a chronological list of every government formed by the Prime Ministers of the Republic of Turkey. A new number is allocated to each new Prime Minister. Note: Turkish governments have frequently been formed out of coalitions - in such cases, the Prime Ministers party has been listed. During... Prime Minister of Turkey
1920–1921
Succeeded by:
Fevzi Çakmak



 
 

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